Conewago Creek (west)
The source is at an elevation of 1,440 feet, east of Caledonia State Park, in Franklin Township in Adams County. The mouth is the confluence with the Susquehanna River at York Haven in York County at an elevation of 259 feet. The name of the creek comes from the Lenape, meaning at the rapids, Conewago Creek flows east 39 miles, northeast 41 miles to its mouth. The source is in Franklin Township in Adams County, and the mouth is at the Susquehanna River at York Haven in York County, the Conewago Creek watershed has a total area of 515 square miles and is part of the larger Chesapeake Bay drainage basin via the Susquehanna River. 5.22 square miles of the watershed are in Maryland,50. 22% of Adams County is drained by Conewago Creek and its tributaries, while 26. 96% of York County is in the creeks watershed. Opossum Creek South Branch Conewago Creek Bermudian Creek Little Conewago Creek Canoeing, if you have seen one mile of Conewago, you have seen it all. Canoeing and kayaking on Conewago Creek are possible when the water is high enough, fishing, A small section of Conewago Creek in western Adams County has been designated as approved trout waters by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission.
This means the waters will be stocked with trout and may be fished during trout season, further downstream in Adams County there is a small catch and release section of the creek
Cocalico Creek is a 27. 2-mile-long tributary of the Conestoga River in Lebanon and Lancaster counties in Pennsylvania in the United States. The source is at an elevation of 1,320 feet near Stricklerstown in Millcreek Township, the mouth is the confluence with the Conestoga River at an elevation of 278 feet at Talmage in West Earl Township, Lancaster County. The name of the creek comes from the Lenape, meaning snake dens and it comes from the Lenape word Gookcalicunk which means “Snake Sleep Place” in English. Cocalico Creek flows south for 10 miles, southwest 16 miles, the Cocalico Creek watershed has a total area of 140 square miles and is part of the larger Chesapeake Bay drainage basin via the Susquehanna River. Hammer Creek Middle Creek Meadow Run Indian Run Cooper Run Stony Run Little Cocalico Creek List of rivers of Pennsylvania
Robert Fulton was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat called The North River Steamboat of Claremont. That steamboat went with passengers from New York City to Albany and back again, in 1800, he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design the Nautilus, which was the first practical submarine in history. He is credited with inventing some of the worlds earliest naval torpedoes for use by the British Royal Navy, Robert Fulton was born on a farm in Little Britain, Pennsylvania, on November 14,1765. He had three sisters – Isabella and Mary, and a brother, Abraham. He married Harriet Livingston and had four children, Mary and his father, had been a close friend to the father of painter Benjamin West. Fulton met West in England and they became friends, Fulton stayed in Philadelphia for six years, where he painted portraits and landscapes, drew houses and machinery, and was able to send money home to help support his mother.
In 1785 he bought a farm at Hopewell Township in Washington County for £80 Sterling and moved his mother, while in Philadelphia, he met Benjamin Franklin, known not only for his political and writing abilities but his scientific and inventing knowledge, and other prominent figures. At age 23 he decided to visit Europe, Fulton came to England in 1786, carrying several letters of introduction to Americans abroad from the individuals he had met in Philadelphia. He had already corresponded with Benjamin West, and West took Fulton into his home, Fulton gained many commissions painting portraits and landscapes, which allowed him to support himself, but he continually experimented with mechanical inventions. He became caught up in the enthusiasm of the Canal Mania and he obtained a patent for this idea in 1794 and began working on ideas for the steam power of boats. He published a pamphlet about canals and patented a dredging machine, in 1794 he moved to Manchester to gain practical knowledge of English canal engineering.
Whilst there he became friendly with Robert Owen, the cotton manufacturer, this practical experience was not a success and he gave up the contract after a short time. In 1797 he went to Paris where his fame as an inventor was well known, in Paris, along with London, the scientific centers of the 18th Century world, Fulton studied languages French, and German, along with mathematics and chemistry. He began to design torpedoes and submarines, in Paris, Fulton met James Rumsey, who sat for a portrait in Wests studio, where Fulton was an apprentice. Rumsey was an inventor from Virginia who ran his own first steamboat up the Potomac River near Shepherdstown, Fulton became very enthusiastic about the canals and in 1796 wrote a treatise on canal construction, suggesting improvements to locks and other features. Working for the Duke of Bridgewater between 1796 and 1799, he had a constructed in the Dukes timber yard, under the supervision of Benjamin Powell. After installation of the machinery supplied by the engineers Bateman and Sherratt of Salford, after expensive trials, because of the configuration of the design, it was feared the paddles may damage the clay lining of the canal and the experiment was eventually abandoned.
In 1801 the Duke, impressed by the Charlotte Dundas constructed by William Symington, decided to order eight of such vessels for his canal, but when he died in 1803, the order was cancelled
Fulton Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Fulton Township is a township in southern Lancaster County, United States, and it is the only municipality in the county to touch the Maryland border. At the 2010 census the population was 3,874 and it is part of the Solanco School District. Robert Fulton Birthplace was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the township has an area of 29.3 square miles. Peach Bottom, Pennsylvania Wakefield, Pennsylvania As of the census of 2000, there were 2,826 people,932 households, the population density was 109.1 people per square mile. There were 1,043 housing units at a density of 40. 3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97. 45% White,1. 27% Black or African American,0. 04% Native American,0. 21% Asian,0. 32% from other races,1. 20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16. 2% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.41. In the township the population was out, with 33. 6% under the age of 18,7. 2% from 18 to 24,28. 9% from 25 to 44,21. 7% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 32 years, for every 100 females there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.5 males, the median income for a household in the township was $41,356, and the median income for a family was $44,394. Males had an income of $35,027 versus $24,205 for females. The per capita income for the township was $15,735, about 10. 4% of families and 13. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17. 4% of those under age 18 and 20. 1% of those age 65 or over. Christopher McDougall – Writer and journalist, author of Born to Run, A Hidden Tribe and the Greatest Race the World Has Never Seen
The Conowingo Dam is a large hydroelectric dam in the lower Susquehanna River near the town of Conowingo, Maryland. The medium-height, masonry gravity dam is one of the largest non-federal hydroelectric dams in the U. S. The dam sits about 9.9 miles from the mouth at the Chesapeake Bay,5 miles south of the Pennsylvania border and 45 miles northeast of Baltimore. The dam supports a 9, 000-acre reservoir, which covers the original town of Conowingo. During dam construction, the town was moved to its present location about 1-mile northeast of the eastern end. The rising water would have covered Conowingo Bridge, the original U. S. Route 1 crossing, the Conowingo Reservoir, and the nearby Susquehanna State Park, provide many recreational opportunities. The area, which appears on a 1612 map by John Smith, was known as Smyths Falls. On January 23,1925, Philadelphia Electric Company awarded the contract for the dam to Stone & Webster of Boston. Construction, which started in 1926, was carried out by Arundel Corporation of Maryland, when completed in 1928, it was the second-largest hydroelectric project by power output in the United States after Niagara Falls.
The dam was built with 11 turbine sites, although only seven turbines were initially installed, a turbine house, on the southwestern end of the dam, encloses these seven units. One additional house unit provides 25 Hz power for the electric railroad system. In 1978, four higher-capacity turbines were added, each drives a 65-megawatt generator, increasing the dams electrical output capacity from 252 to 548 megawatts. The four newer turbines are in the air section at the northeast end of the power house. The generators produce power at 13,800 volts and this is stepped up to 220,000 volts for transmission, primarily to the Philadelphia area. The dam currently contributes an average of 1.6 billion kilowatt hours annually to the electric grid, through subsidiaries and mergers, the dam is now operated by the Susquehanna Electric Company, part of Exelon Power Corporation. The current Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license for the dam, which may be renewed, was issued in 1980, the flood gates are operated by three overhead cranes rated for 60 short tons each and built by the Morgan Engineering Company of Ohio.
The cranes run on rails the length of the dam and are powered from lines that run above the face of the dam. An additional crane was installed at the power house end of the rails
Penns Creek is a 67. 1-mile-long tributary of the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania in the United States. Originally named John Penns Creek after William Penns younger brother, it was renamed Penns Creek in 1802 by an Act of Assembly, the creek drains a watershed of approximately 163 square miles in Snyder and Centre counties. Penns Creek flows from its headwaters north of Spring Mills to the Susquehanna River, a large spring within Penns Cave, a commercial cave that offers guided tours by boat, forms one source for this limestone creek. The upper reaches of Penns Creek offer some of the best trout flyfishing in the Northeast, additional Hendricksons and Tricos attract anglers. As the water travels towards the Susquehanna, the temperatures warm to levels best suited for panfish. Sinking Creek Elk Creek Pine Creek Middle Creek Ongoing pollution and soil erosion in the continue to degrade the water quality. Farming, surface mining, wastewater treatment facilities and industrial spills are cited as contributing factors to loss of water quality and it contributes to the pollution of the Chesapeake Bay.
Controlling the wastewater discharges alone is expected to cost local taxpayers billions of dollars, the Lower Penns Creek Watershed Association’s central purpose is to protect and improve the Lower Penns Creek watershed by promoting the wise stewardship of the land and aquatic resources. The organization is open to all citizens, lPCWA’s efforts contribute to the success of the missions of the Susquehanna Greenway Partnership and the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The Snyder County Conservation District and the Union County Conservation District both have watershed specialists that participate in LPCWA. Mahanoy Creek, next tributary of the Susquehanna River going downriver Boile Run, next tributary of the Susquehanna River going upriver List of rivers of Pennsylvania Penns Creek Massacre Inch, Bill. A Bi-Centennial Look at Penns Creek Through the Years 1806–2006, The Country Print Shop, Chesapeake Bay Foundation Penns Cave U. S. Geological Survey, PA stream gaging stations Penns Creek Fishing Penns Creek Info
Yellow Breeches Creek
Yellow Breeches Creek, known as Minnimingo Creek, is a 56. 1-mile-long tributary of the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania, USA. In 1718 Peter Chartier and his father Martin established a trading post about a mile north of the Yellow Breeches along the Susquehanna River, chartiers Landing was located just off the river between what are now 15th and 16th Streets in New Cumberland, Pennsylvania. Yellow Breeches Creek rises on the side of South Mountain, in the Michaux State Forest. It flows north through Walnut Bottom and turns east to run down the Cumberland Valley and it passes through Huntsdale, site of the Huntsdale State Fish Hatchery. The creek begins to meander, and swings around the side of Mount Holly Springs. Just below the town, it is joined by Mountain Creek, old Town Run enters just before the creek passes along the south side of Boiling Springs and the spring-fed lake that gives the town its name. The Boiling Springs Lake tributary enters Yellow Breeches Creek east of the town, the tributarys crystal clear water is a popular trout fishing spot.
The creek passes through Williams Grove and meets Dogwood Run just downstream, below Williams Grove, it forms the boundary between Cumberland and York counties. It flows through the campus of Messiah College, is joined by Stony Run, pippins Run joins it, and it flows east to Lisburn, where it makes a sharp turn to flow northwest. It turns north, and makes a number of meanders to turn east, cedar Run enters near the top of the northernmost meander. It cuts east, emptying into the Susquehanna. Known for its fishing, the Yellow Breeches is a popular spot for fly fishers who flock to the mile-long catch. The Yellow Breeches is stocked by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission as well as local fly shops, including Yellow Breeches Outfitters and it is one of the designated Pennsylvania Scenic Rivers. The Etters Bridge crosses Yellow Breeches Creek in Fairview Township and Lower Allen Township, the Gilbert Bridge crosses Yellow Breeches Creek in Monaghan Township, York County and Upper Allen Township, Pennsylvania
Lower Little Swatara Creek
Lower Little Swatara Creek is a tributary of Swatara Creek in southern Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, US. The creek is 11 miles long, the creek starts on Blue Mountain and flows west-south west into Swatara Creek near the community of Pine Grove. Fishing and canoeing are the recreational activities on the creek. Significant amounts of phosphorus and sediment flow through the creek, Lower Little Swatara Creek starts on the northern slopes of Blue Mountain in Wayne Township, near the Schuylkill/Berks county line. The creek flows northwest to the community of Moyers, at which point it turns west-southwest into Washington Township, as the creek enters Washington Township, parallels Blue Mountain, as well as briefly paralleling Summer Hill. It picks up two tributaries from the south, one from the northeast, one each from the south and north, the creeks valley gets wider as it flows out of Washington Township and into Pine Grove Township. As it enters the township, it flows between Swope Mountain to the south and Swatara Hill to the north, the creek passes by the communities of Marstown and Crowtown, as well as a sewage disposal station.
At this point, the creek empties into Swatara Creek, Lower Little Swatara Creek has several tributaries. Lower Little Swatara Creek is in the ridge and valley provinces Appalachian Mountain Section, the headwaters of Lower Little Swatara Creek are 1,040 feet higher in elevation than its mouth. The Shawanganuk Formation is one of the types of rock formations in the Lower Little Swatara Creek watershed. This formation occurs in the part of the watershed, on Blue Mountain. Slightly further north is the Bloomsburg Formation, which occupies the edge of Blue Mountain. The Hamilton Group is north of the Bloomsburg Formation, the Hamilton Group occupies the central region of the watershed, including the Lower Little Swatara Creek valley. The Trimmers Rock Formation is another formation in the creeks watershed and it occupies the area north of Lower Little Swatara Creek itself. A rock formation known as the Walcksville and Towanmensing Member occurs in a band north of the Trimmers Rock Formation. The Beaverdam Run Member formation occurs on the edges of the watershed of the largest tributary of the creek, the Long Run Member formation occurs around this creek itself.
There are several types of soil in the Lower Little Swatara Creek watershed. They are the Berks-Weikert-Beddington, the Leck Kill-Minersville-Calvin, and the Hazleton-Dechaub-Buchanon, the Hazleton-Dechaub-Buchanon soil occurs in most of the southern part of the watershed
The Susquehanna River is a major river located in the northeastern United States. At 464 miles long, it is the longest river on the American east coast that drains into the Atlantic Ocean, with its watershed, it is the 16th-largest river in the United States, and the longest river in the continental United States without commercial boat traffic today. The Susquehanna rises and flows through New York, and it forms from two main branches, the North Branch, which rises in upstate New York and is regarded by federal mapmakers as the main branch, and the West Branch Susquehanna. Both of these waterways were improved by navigations throughout the 1820s and 1830s as the Pennsylvania Canal, together with facilities of the Allegheny Portage Railroad, loaded barges were transferred from the canal and hoisted across the mountain ridge into the Pittsburgh area. The 82-mile Union Canal was completed in 1828 to connect Schuylkill River in Reading to the Susquehanna above Harrisburg, an 82-mile leg connecting the Susquehanna with the Delaware River was instead developed as the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, built by the Pennsylvania Canal Commission.
The shorter West Branch, which rises in western Pennsylvania, joins the stem of the Susquehanna near Northumberland in central Pennsylvania. The river drains 27,500 square miles, including half of the land area of Pennsylvania. The river empties into the end of the Chesapeake Bay at Havre de Grace, Maryland. The Chesapeake Bay is the ria of the Susquehanna, while less prevalent since their contraction in the 1950–1960s, the rivers shores still support a wide ranging rail transportation infrastructure. Also called the Main Branch Susquehanna, the branch of the river rises at the outlet of Otsego Lake in Cooperstown. From there, the branch of the river runs west-southwest through rural farmland and dairy country, receiving the Unadilla River at Sidney. It dips south into Pennsylvania briefly to turn north at Susquehanna Depot hooking back into New York. A couple miles south, just across the New York state line and it makes a right-angle curve between Sayre and Towanda to cut through the Endless Mountains in the Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania.
The origin of the official West Branch is near Northern Cambria County, Pennsylvania near the junction of Mitchel Road and it travels northeasterly through Curwensville and through Clearfield, where its joined by the Clearfield Creek right bank tributary. The West Branch turns to the southeast and passes through Lock Haven, the North Branch joins the West Branch from the northwest at Northumberland, just above Sunbury. It receives the Juniata River from the northwest at Duncannon, passes through its last water gap, downtown Harrisburg developed on the east side of the river, which is nearly a mile wide here. It crosses into northern Maryland approximately 30 miles northeast of Baltimore and is joined by Octoraro Creek, the river enters the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay at Havre de Grace. Concord Point Light was built here in 1827 to accommodate the increasing navigational traffic, Susquehanna comes from the Lenapi term Sisawehakhanna, which means Oyster River
It is the largest estuary in North America. With its northern portion in Maryland and the part in Virginia. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the bays 64, 299-square-mile drainage basin, the bay is approximately 200 miles long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles wide at its narrowest and 30 miles at its widest, total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles, circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles. Average depth is 21 feet, reaching a maximum of 174 feet, the bay is spanned twice, in Maryland by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge from Sandy Point to Kent Island and in Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel connecting Virginia Beach to Cape Charles. Known for both its beauty and bounty, the bay became emptier, with crabs, oysters. Recent restoration efforts begun in the 1990s have been ongoing and show potential for growth of the oyster population. The health of the Chesapeake Bay improved in 2015, marking three years of gains over the past four years, according to a new report by the University of Maryland, the word Chesepiooc is an Algonquian word referring to a village at a big river.
It is the seventh oldest surviving English place-name in the U. S. first applied as Chesepiook by explorers heading north from the Roanoke Colony into a Chesapeake tributary in 1585 or 1586. The name may refer to the Chesepian or Chesapeake people. They occupied an area which is now the Norfolk, Chesapeake, in 2005, Algonquian linguist Blair Rudes helped to dispel one of the areas most widely held beliefs, that Chesapeake means something like great shellfish bay. The name might actually have meant something like great water, or it might have just referred to a location at the bays mouth. In addition, the name is almost always prefixed by the in usage by local residents, The Chesapeake, The Chesapeake Bay, the Chesapeake Bay is an estuary to the North Atlantic, lying between the Delmarva Peninsula to the east and the North American mainland to the west. It is the ria, or drowned valley, of the Susquehanna River and it is not a fjord, because the Laurentide Ice Sheet never reached as far south as the northernmost point on the bay.
The large rivers entering the bay from the west have broad mouths and are extensions of the ria for miles up the course of each river. The bay was formed starting about 10,000 years ago when rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age flooded the Susquehanna River valley. Parts of the bay, especially the Calvert County and these cliffs, generally known as Calvert Cliffs, are famous for their fossils, especially fossilized shark teeth which are commonly found washed up on the beaches next to the cliffs. Scientists Cliffs is a community in Calvert County named for the desire to create a retreat for scientists when the community was founded in 1935