The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people which occurred in the half of the 19th century. The earliest conflict came in 1854 when a fight broke out at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, when Sioux warriors killed several American soldiers in the Grattan Massacre, the final came in 1890 during the Ghost Dance War; the First Sioux War was fought between 1856 following the Grattan Massacre. The punitive Battle of Ash Hollow was fought in September 1855; the Santee Sioux or Dakotas of Western Minnesota rebelled on August 17, 1862 after the Federal Government failed to deliver the annuity payments, promised to them in the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux of 1851. The Indians attacked on Fort Ridgely, they killed over 800 German farmers, including men and children. After the Battle of Birch Coulee on September 2, the Indians were defeated on September 23 in the Battle of Wood Lake. Most of the warriors who took part in the fighting escaped to the west and north into Dakota Territory to continue the conflict, while the remaining Santees surrendered on September 26 at Camp Release to the US Army.
In the following murder trials 303 Indians were sentenced to death. After closer investigation from Washington 38 were hanged on December 26 in the Town of Mankato in America's largest mass-execution. In the aftermath, battles continued between Minnesota regiments and combined Lakota and Dakota forces through 1864 as Col. Henry Sibley's troops pursued the Sioux. Sibley's army defeated the Lakota and Dakota in four major battles in 1863: the Battle of Big Mound on July 24, 1863, the Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake on July 26, 1863; the Sioux retreated further, but faced a United States army again in 1864. General Alfred Sully led a force from near Fort Pierre, South Dakota, decisively defeated the Sioux at the Battle of Killdeer Mountain on July 28, 1864 and at the Battle of the Badlands on August 9, 1864; the survivors were forced to move to a small reservation on the Missouri river in central South Dakota. There, on the Crow Creek Reservation their descendants still live today; the Colorado War began in 1863 and was fought by American militia while the United States Army played a minor role.
Several Native American tribes attacked American settlements in the Eastern Plains, including the Lakota Sioux who raided in northeast Colorado. On November 29, 1864 Colorado Volunteers under the command of Colonel John Chivington attacked a peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho village camped on Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado. Under orders to take no prisoners the militia killed an estimated 150 men and children, mutilating the dead and taking scalps and other grisly trophies of battle; the Indians at Sand Creek had been assured by the U. S. Government that they would be safe in the territory they were occupying, but anti-Indian sentiments by white settlers were running high. Congressional investigations resulted in short-lived U. S. public outcry against the slaughter of the Native Americans. Following the massacre the survivors joined the camps of the Northern Cheyenne on the Smokey Hill and Republican rivers. There the war pipe was smoked and passed from camp to camp among the Sioux and Arapaho camped in the area and an attack on the stage station and fort, Camp Rankin at that time, at Julesburg on the South Platte River was planned and carried out in January, 1865.
This successful attack, the Battle of Julesburg, led by the Sioux, who were most familiar with the territory, was carried out by about a thousand warriors and was followed up by numerous raids along the South Platte both east and west of Julesburg and a second raid on Julesburg in early February. Following the first raid on January 7, 500 troops under the command of General Robert B. Mitchell consisting of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, the First Nebraska Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, Companies "B" and "C," First Nebraska Militia had been removed from the Platte and were engaged in a fruitless search for hostile Indians on the plains south of the Platte, they found. A great deal of loot was captured and many whites killed; the bulk of the natives moved north into Nebraska on their way to the Black Hills and the Powder River but paused to burn the telegraph station on Lodgepole Creek attacked the station at Mud Springs on the Jules cutoff. There were 9 soldiers stationed the telegraph operator and a few other civilians.
The Indians began the attack by running the stock off from the station's corral along with a herd of cattle. Alerted by telegraph, the Army dispatched men from Fort Mitchell and Fort Laramie on February 4, about 150 men in all. Arriving on February 5 the first party of reinforcements of 36 men found themselves facing superior forces, estimated to number 500 warriors and with two men wounded were forced to retreat into the station; the second party of 120 troops under the command of Colonel William Collins, commandant of Fort Laramie, arrived on the 6th and found themselves facing 500 to 1,000 warriors. Armed with Spencer repeating rifles the soldiers were able to hold their own and a standoff resulted. After about 4 hours of fighting the war party left and moved their village to the head of Brown's Creek on the north side of the North Platte. Collins' forces were soon reinforced by 50 more men from Fort Laramie who had towed a mountain howitzer with them. With a force of about 185 men Collins followed the trail of the Indians to their abandoned camp at Rock Creek Spring followed their plain trail to the south bank of the North Platte at Rush Cre
John Lawrence Grattan
John Lawrence Grattan was a mid-19th century US Cavalry officer, whose poor judgement and inexperience led to the Grattan massacre, a major instigator for the First Sioux War. Grattan was born in Corinth, Vermont on 1 June 1830, his mother, Sarah Rogers, died when he was only five and his father, Peter Grattan, relocated with his young son and daughter, Mary, to Lisbon, New Hampshire where he worked as a wheelwright. John L. Grattan entered West Point in 1849, but did poorly in his courses. Out of a class of 63, he finished 51st in French, 43rd in Engineering, failing mathematics altogether. Due to this, he was held back for a year, he applied himself the following year, finishing in the top third of his class for that year, only to again fall to the bottom third by his final year. In 1853, he graduated 36th out of a class of 55. Fellow graduates that year were James B. McPherson, Philip Sheridan, John Bell Hood, John Schofield, all of whom would go on to fame during the American Civil War. Grattan, would achieve what fame he did receive due to a mistake during his first command.
Grattan's poor performance at West Point left him without a definite assignment as an officer. For a time he was attached as a Brevet Second Lieutenant to the 6th Infantry. Given the customary three months leave following his graduation, Grattan was to have reported to Company G, 6th Infantry, at Fort Laramie, by October 1, 1853; however he failed to arrive until November 16, 1853. Within his first month, according to recorded reports from Post Surgeon Charles Page, Grattan received a reputation as being brash and boastful, while giving off the impression that he was proud to serve in the army; the most disturbing trait, according to accounts given by Page, was that Grattan displayed a disdain and dislike of the American Indians, despite having had no contact with them whatsoever up to that point, save seeing or meeting any who were in or around the post. In July and August, 1854, new settlers moving west were plagued by raids from the Cheyenne, calling on the army to do something about it. After one mid-August raid and traders encountered the Cheyenne warriors and pursued them, only to give up the chase before engaging.
When Grattan was told this, he ridiculed the pursuers for fearing a confrontation with the Cheyenne. However, fear had little to nothing to do with the pursuers backing away. In reality, the settlers and traders who were pursuing the band of warriors had enough experience to recognize that the Cheyenne seemed to be baiting them into a possible ambush, thus they stopped their pursuit and reported the incident to Fort Laramie. During his ridicule of the men, Grattan stated that with 10 men he could defeat the entire Cheyenne nation. Around this same time, in expectation that treaty annuities were soon to come, elements of the Lakota and Oglala had camped near the fort. Collectively the Sioux villages spread across a three-mile area along the North Platte River. In the Native American camps, seasoned chiefs were struggling to control the more impatient young warriors, who were angered by the sight of their people starving, over former broken promises by the whites; this would be compounded by the fact that Fort Laramie was at the time under the command of two young inexperienced officers, with one being a brash and untested young Second Lieutenant.
The Indians were starving, had been hungry for weeks awaiting the arrival of the annuities. By most reports, a Morman wagon train passing through had lost lame cow. With any game being scarce in the area, the Sioux butchered the cow, feasted on it. On August 18, 1854, the wagon train reached Fort Laramie, where the owner of the cow complained to Lt. Hugh Fleming that his cow had been stolen by the Indians. Reports vary, with the most reliable accounts stating that the owner noticed that the cow was missing, returned to find that the Indians had butchered it. Lt. Fleming sent for the leader of the band where the cow had been butchered. Although Conquering Bear did not agree with all of the details in the Treaty of 1851, he did understand quite that restitution was required for any property stolen from white settlers. However, Conquering Bear knew full well that, by the terms of the treaty, this was not a military matter, a fact that Lt. Fleming was not aware of. In reality, a matter of this sort should have been handled by John Whitfield, the Indian Agent assigned to the area, due to arrive within the week.
Lt. Fleming wanted the brave who had killed the cow, High Forehead and delivered to the fort. By Indian accounts, Conquering Bear entered the fort feeling confident that it was a minor affair and would be settled enough. However, as negotiations went on, it was evident that Lt. Fleming's inexperience led to him being swayed and influenced, in this case by the civilians involved. Conquering Bear offered the owner the choice of any of his 60 horses; the owner of the cow instead wanted $25 in cash. By this time, Lt. Grattan had joined the negotiations, taken the side of the cow owner. Finding himself encouraged by Lt. Grattan's support, the uncertain Lt. Fleming now demanded that High Forehead be arrested and brought to the fort. Alarmed, Conquering Bear attempted to explain that he had no authority over High Forehead, of another tribe and, a guest in his village, therefore making it impossible by his tribe's traditions to arrest him. Conquering Bear left the fort, he had offered to show the soldiers the lodge of High Forehead, but insisted that he nor any of his people would assist in his arrest
North Platte River
The North Platte River is a major tributary of the Platte River and is 716 miles long, counting its many curves. In a straight line, it travels about 550 miles, along its course through the U. S. states of Colorado and Nebraska. The head of the river is all of Jackson County, whose boundaries are the continental divide on the east and south and the mountain drainage peaks on the east—the north boundary is the state of Wyoming border; the rugged Rocky Mountains surrounding Jackson County have at least twelve peaks over 11,000 feet in height. From Jackson County the river flows north about 200 miles out of the Routt National Forest and North Park near what is now Walden, Colorado, to Casper, Wyoming. Shortly after passing Casper, the river turns to the east-southeast and flows about 350 miles to the city of North Platte, Nebraska; the North Platte and South Platte River join to form the Platte River in western Nebraska near the city of North Platte, Nebraska. The Platte River flows to the Missouri River, which joins the Mississippi River to flow to the Gulf of Mexico.
The river provides the major avenue of drainage for northern Colorado, eastern Wyoming and western Nebraska. It is only navigable over most of its length at high water by canoes and rubber rafts; the North Platte River drainage has been an important westward route in the westward expansion of the United States. To get the two essentials and grass for the traveler's animals the emigration trails nearly always followed river valleys across the North American continent; these trails extended from the Missouri River, Platte River and North Platte River across Nebraska and parts of Wyoming and on to its confluence with the Sweetwater River. About 50 miles beyond what is now Casper, Wyoming the main emigration trails left the North Platte valley and followed the Sweetwater River valley and other river valleys going further west; the trail route along the North Platte River was first written about by Wilson Price Hunt of the Astor Expedition, traveling back to the Missouri River from the newly established Fort Astoria on the Columbia River in 1811.
The lack of American trappers and settlers in the contested Oregon Territory resulted in this early discovery being unused and nearly forgotten. Jedediah Smith and several trappers in 1823 rediscovered the route and the trail along the Platte, North Platte and Sweetwater Rivers became a major trail to the fur trader’s summer time Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. Mule trains carrying in trading supplies for the mountain men and fur trappers were some of the first to use the trail in 1824; the fur traders on their return trip carried the traded furs back east at the end of the summer trading season. This fur trade route continued to be used to about 1840. By about 1832 the trail along the Platte, North Platte, Sweetwater Rivers had been improved by the fur traders to a rough wagon trail from the Missouri River to the Green River in Wyoming where most of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous occurred. Following the fur traders, the major emigration trails established along the north and south banks of the North Platte River were the Oregon, California and the Bozeman Trails.
The trails north of the North Platte River crossed the North Platte near Fort Laramie to join the original Oregon and California Trail Route on the south side. In 1850 Child's Route extended the north side trail to, Wyoming; the rugged territory from Fort Laramie, Wyoming to Casper meant that the trails deviated from the river to find an easier path and relied on streams draining into the North Platte for water. Up in central north Colorado rests North Park, a valley ringed by 12,000 feet mountains; the headwaters of the river is all of Jackson County, Colorado whose boundaries are the continental divide on the west and south and the mountain drainage peaks on the east—the north boundary is the state of Wyoming boundary. The rugged Rocky Mountains Continental Divide surrounding Jackson County have at least twelve peaks over 11,000 feet in height; these peaks include on the west: Mount Zirkel 12,180 feet, Lost ranger Peak 11,932 feet and Mount Ethel 11,924 feet. On the east are: Mount Nimbus 12,706 feet, Mount Cumulus 12,725 feet, Howard Mountain 12,810 feet, Mount Cirrus 12,797 feet, Mount Richthofen 12,940 feet, Lead Mountain 12,537 feet,North Diamond Peak 11,852 feet and Clark Peak 12,951 feet whose eastern slope waters drain into the North Platte River.
In Jackson county the North Platte is joined by several other small streams draining the mountains around the county. Some of these creeks are: Arapaho Creek, Colorado Creek, East Branch Illinois River, Jack Creek, Jewell Lake Trib. Grizzly Creek, Little Grizzly Creek, Norris Creek, North Fork of North Platte River, Rock Creek, South Fork Canadian River, South Fork Michigan River, Willow Creek and in Wyoming the Encampment River. All these streams are draining the snow melt form the mountains surrounding Jackson County; the North Platte River flows northward from Colorado into Wyoming through the popular rafting site – Northgate Canyon, along the western side of the Medicine Bow Mountains. In Colorado and Wyoming, the river is narrower and much swifter flowing than it is in Nebraska, where it becomes a slow flowing, shallow braided stream; the upper reaches of the ri
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith's death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; some Mormons are either independent or non-practicing. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States. Mormons have developed a strong sense of commonality that stems from their history. During the 19th century, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location, between 1852 and 1890 a minority of Mormons practiced plural marriage, a form of religious polygamy. Mormons dedicate large amounts of time and resources to serving in their church, many young Mormons choose to serve a full-time proselytizing mission.
Mormons have a health code which eschews alcoholic beverages, tobacco, “hot drinks”, addictive substances. They tend to be family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended family, reflective of their belief that families can be sealed together beyond death. Mormons have a strict law of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside heterosexual marriage and fidelity within marriage. Mormons self-identify as Christian, although some non-Mormons consider Mormons non-Christian and some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books such as the Book of Mormon, they believe that all people are spirit-children of God. Mormons believe that returning to God requires following the example of Jesus Christ, accepting his atonement through ordinances such as baptism, they believe that Christ's church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. Central to Mormon faith is the belief that God answers their prayers.
The number of members in 1971 was 3,090,953 and as of 2018, there are 16,118,169 members worldwide. The word "Mormons" most refers to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints because of their belief in the Book of Mormon, though members refer to themselves as Latter-day Saints or sometimes just Saints; the term "Mormons" has been embraced by others, most notably Mormon fundamentalists, while other Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, have rejected it. Both LDS Church members and members of fundamentalist groups use the word "Mormon" in reference to themselves. LDS Church leaders have encouraged members to use the church's full name to emphasize its focus on Jesus Christ, have discouraged the use of the shortened form "Church of the Latter Day Saints", as well as the acronym "LDS", the nickname "Mormons"; the word "Mormon" is associated with polygamy, a distinguishing practice of many early Mormons. Today, polygamy is practiced within Mormonism only by people.
The history of the Mormons has shaped them into a people with a strong sense of unity and commonality. From the start, Mormons have tried to establish what they call "Zion", a utopian society of the righteous. Mormon history can be divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, a "pioneer era" under the leadership of Brigham Young and his successors, a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century. In the first period, Smith had tried to build a city called Zion, in which converts could gather. During the pioneer era, Zion became a "landscape of villages" in Utah. In modern times, Zion is still an ideal, though Mormons gather together in their individual congregations rather than a central geographic location. Mormons trace their origins to the visions that Joseph Smith reported he had in the early 1820s while living in upstate New York. In 1823, Smith said an angel directed him to a buried book written on golden plates containing the religious history of an ancient people.
Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates in March 1830 as the Book of Mormon, named after Mormon, the ancient prophet–historian who compiled the book. On April 6, 1830, Smith founded the Church of Christ; the early church grew westward. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland, Ohio where missionaries had made a large number of converts and Smith began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to build the city of Zion. In 1833, Missouri settlers, alarmed by the rapid influx of Mormons, expelled them from Jackson County into the nearby Clay County, where local residents were more welcoming. After Smith led a mission, known as Zion's Camp, to recover the land, he began building Kirtland Temple in Lake County, where the church flourished; when the Missouri Mormons were asked to leave Clay County in 1836, they secured land in what would become Caldwell County. The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after the failure of a church-sponsored anti-bank caused widespread defections, Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, Missouri.
During the fall of 1838, tensions escalated into the Mormon War with the old Missouri settlers. On October 27, the governor of Missouri ordered that the Mormons "must be treated as enemies" and be exterminated or driven from the state
The Brulé are one of the seven branches or bands of the Teton Lakota American Indian people. They are known as Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, or "Burnt Thighs Nation", so, were called Brulé by the French; the name may have derived from an incident where they were fleeing through a grass fire on the plains. Many Sicangu people live on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota and are enrolled in the federally recognized Rosebud Sioux Tribe, known as Sicangu Oyate. A smaller population lives on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation, on the west bank of the Missouri River in central South Dakota. Others live on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation; the different federally recognized tribes are politically independent of each other. The term "Sičhą́ǧu" appears on pages 3 to 14 of Beginning Lakhota. "Ká Lakȟóta kį líla hą́ske.'That Indian is tall.'" "Hą, hé Sičhą́ǧú.'Yes, that's a Rosebud Sioux.'" It appears to be a compound word of the Thítȟųwą Lakȟóta dialect meaning "burned thigh". Together with the Oglala Lakota, who are based at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
They are called Southern Lakota. They were divided in three great regional tribal divisions: Lower Brulé Upper Brulé Brulé of the Platte River According to the Brulé Medicine Bull, the people were decentralized and identified with the following tiyošpaye or extended family groups who collected in various local tiwahe: Apewantanka Chokatowela Ihanktonwan Iyakoza Kanghi yuha Nakhpakhpa Pispiza wichasha Shawala Shiyolanka Wacheunpa Waleghaunwohan The Brulé give pulverized roots Asclepias viridiflora to children with diarrhea. Nursing mothers take an infusion of the whole plant to increase their milk, they brew the leaves of Ceanothus herbaceus into a tea. Mary Brave Bird, author Leonard Crow Dog, spiritual leader, American Indian Movement activist Paul Eagle Star, performer with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show Hollow Horn Bear, chief Iron Nation, chief Iron Shell, chief Little Thunder, chief Arnold Short Bull, a well-known Sicangu holy man, who brought the Ghost Dance to the Lakota in South Dakota in 1890 Michael Spears, actor Eddie Spears, actor Spotted Tail or "Sinte Gleska", 19th-century chief Moses Stranger Horse, artist Two Strike, chief Albert White Hat, Lakota language teacher Dyani White Hawk, contemporary painter and former curator of All My Relations Arts gallery Chauncey Yellow Robe, educator and activist Rosebud Yellow Robe, folklorist and author Rosalie Little Thunder, spiritual activist, language teacher, bead worker Frank Waln, rapper Sonny Skyhawk, actor and activist Bois-Brûlés Official website of the Sicangu Oyate, Rosebud Sioux Tribe Indian genealogy Official website of the Kul Wicasa Oyate
The Grattan Massacre known as the Grattan Fight, was the opening engagement of the First Sioux War, fought between United States Army and Lakota Sioux warriors on August 19, 1854. It occurred east of Nebraska Territory, in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming. A small detachment of soldiers entered a large Sioux encampment to arrest a man accused of taking a migrant's cow, although such matters by treaty were to be handled by the US Indian Agent. After one of the soldiers fatally shot Chief Matȟó Wayúhi, the Brulé Lakotas returned fire and killed a total of 29 soldiers, Lieutenant John Grattan, a civilian interpreter; the massacre, as it was called by the American press, is considered an early and significant event in the Plains Indian Wars. In the late summer of 1854, about 4,000 Brulé and Oglala were camped near Fort Laramie, in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of 1851. On August 17, a cow belonging to a Mormon traveling on the nearby Oregon Trail strayed and was killed by a visiting Miniconjou named High Forehead.
Lt. Hugh Fleming, the senior officer of the small garrison, consulted with the chief, Matȟó Wayúhi or Conquering Bear, to discuss the loss of livestock. Lt. Fleming was evidently unaware, or chose to ignore, that such matters were, by the terms of the Treaty of 1851, to be handled by the local Indian Agent, in this case John Whitfield, he was due to arrive within days with annuities. Aware that the matter was not under the purview of the military, Conquering Bear still attempted to negotiate, offering a horse from his personal herd or a cow from the tribe's herd; the cow's owner persisted in demanding $25 instead. Lt. Fleming asked the Sioux to arrest High Forehead and deliver him to the fort, which Conquering Bear refused; the day's talk ended in stalemate. On August 19, 1854, Second Lieutenant John Lawrence Grattan, of the U. S. 6th Infantry Regiment, a recent graduate of West Point and supernumerary waiting for a vacancy in the regiment, led an armed detachment into the Indian encampment to take custody of High Forehead and bring him back to the fort.
Grattan described as contemptuous of the Lakotas' ability as warriors. This was his first encounter with the Sioux. A commander at Laramie recalled, "There is no doubt that Lt. Grattan left this post with a desire to have a fight with the Indians, that he had determined to take the man at all hazards." In Grattan's party were a sergeant, a corporal, 27 privates and a French-Native American interpreter named Lucienne Auguste. By the time the detachment reached the encampment, Auguste was intoxicated from drinking along the way, as he feared the encounter. Grattan scolded him. Auguste was not well liked by the Sioux; as they entered the encampment, he began to taunt the Sioux, calling their warriors women, saying the soldiers were not there to talk, but to kill them all. James Bordeau, who owned the nearby trading post and observed the encounter recounted Auguste's comments. Historians estimate. According to Bordeau, Lt. Grattan began to realize the risk, he stopped to discuss the situation with the trader.
Bordeau advised him to let him handle the situation. Grattan continued on into the encampment. Going first to the lodge of High Forehead, he ordered him to surrender to the US forces. High Forehead said. Grattan went to Conquering Bear, saying the Sioux should turn him over. Conquering Bear tried to negotiate, offering a horse as compensation for the cow. Bordeau said the interpreter Auguste taunted the Sioux, failed to or translate Conquering Bear and Grattan's comments, as there seemed to be confusion between them. Conquering Bear asked for the trader Bordeau to act as interpreter, as the Sioux trusted him and his language ability. Called by the Sioux, Bordeau rode to the meeting place; as Grattan pressed Conquering Bear, numerous Sioux warriors moved into flanking positions around the soldiers. Bordeau returned to the trading post. Ending the discussion, Grattan began walking back to his column. A nervous soldier fired his gun; the warriors started shooting arrows. Conquering Bear was mortally wounded and died nine days near the Niobrara River.
The Sioux warriors killed Grattan, 11 of his men, the interpreter. A group of some 18 soldiers retreated on foot trying to reach some rocks for defense, but they were cut off and killed by warriors led by Red Cloud, a rising war chief within the Sioux. One soldier survived the massacre but died of his wounds. Conquering Bear was the only Lakota, killed; the Sioux spared Bordeau, both because he was married to a Brulé Sioux woman, he had a friendly relationship with the tribes. The enraged warriors "rampaged throughout the night, swearing to attack other whites." They withdrew. On the third day after the US attack, the Brûlé and Oglala abandoned the camp on the North Platte River and returned to their respective hunting grounds. On the fourth day, the military asked Bourdeau to arrange a burial party, his team went to the scene and found that the slain soldiers had b
Fort Laramie National Historic Site
Fort Laramie was a significant 19th-century trading post and diplomatic site located at the confluence of the Laramie and the North Platte rivers. They joined in the upper Platte River Valley in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Wyoming. The fort was founded as a private trading post in the 1830s to service the overland fur trade, it was located east of the long climb leading to the best and lowest crossing point of the Rocky Mountains at South Pass and became a popular stopping point for migrants on the Oregon Trail. Along with Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River, the trading post and its supporting industries and businesses were the most significant economic hub of commerce in the region. Fort William was founded by William Sublette and his partner Robert Campbell in 1834. In the spring of 1835, Sublette sold the fort to a local fur trader. After the Rendezvous of 1836, it was sold to the American Fur Company, which still had a virtual monopoly on the western fur trade. Starting as early as the fall of 1840, the American Fur Company began competing with the newly established Fort Platte, built by L.
P. Lupton; the American Fur Company hired workers from Santa Fe to construct an adobe fort to replace Fort William. This fort was named Fort John, after a partner in the company. In 1849, United States Army purchased the fort as a post to protect the many wagon trains of migrant travelers on the Oregon Trail, the subsidiary northern emigrant trails which split off further west; these included the Mormon trails. The middle reaches of the Mormon trail stayed on the north banks of the Platte and North Platte rivers, merged with the other emigrant trails heading west over the continental divide from Fort John-Laramie; the name Fort Laramie came into gradual use as a convenient shortening of "Fort John at the Laramie River". The remaining structures are preserved as the Fort Laramie National Historic Site by the National Park Service. In 1815 or 1816, Jacques La Ramee and a small group of fellow trappers settled in the area where Fort Laramie would be located, he was never seen again. Arapahoe Indians were accused of burying his body in a beaver dam.
The river was named "Laramie" in his honor, settlers used this name for the Laramie Mountains, the fort, the towns of Laramie and Fort Laramie, Wyoming. The original fort was constructed in the 1830s in 1833–1834 by William Sublette; the overland fur trade was still prosperous. The fort was located near the confluence of two rivers, so it commanded a broad plain with water on two sides. In addition, the nearby confluence of the North Platte's waters had a ford used by travelers on what became the northern overland emigrant trails following the North Platte River west from Nebraska. With the opening of the Mormon Trail on the north bank of the Platte and North Platte, the fort was a junction for westbound travelers, it was an anchor a quarter of the way to either California or Oregon on the famous Oregon Trail. To the west, the common trail leaving Fort John-Laramie spins off to the Mormon and California trails further west along the road to the Rogue River Valley; the main trail passed northwest to Oregon's Willamette Oregon City.
One of the early principal owner-trappers was William Sublette, the fort was called Fort William before being sold to the American Fur Company in 1841. The name was changed to Fort John after John B. Sarpy, a partner in the company; the 1846 treaties established stable western territories after viable routes west had become well published. By the time the westward migration along the Oregon Trail had markedly increased, the U. S. Army had become tenants in the fort as well; the fort was located along the Laramie River just south of its mouth onto the North Platte River. On the opposite bank, the town of Fort Laramie, developed. Geographically the site is situated just east of the steeper foothills terrain to the west that ascends to the east side of the Rocky Mountains proper; this ascent was among the few roadways accessible by the wagons pioneers used to the west. It passed through the Continental divide and reached the west slopes of the Rockies along a network of river valleys connecting to the far west via South Pass near the head waters of the North Platte.
The strategic site on the eastern plains had large grazing areas, where migrants could rest their draft animals before tackling the mountains. People could set up camps, do laundry, heal before beginning anew the rigors of the westward trail. In 1845 the nearby Fort Bernard was established about 8 miles east, farther down the North Platte River, in hopes of getting some of the growing Emigrant Trail trade with western bound wagon trains; this much smaller fort undersold the Laramie operation. It offered a connection south via a crude mule-train road to the Santa Fe Trail via Colorado. Fort Bernard burnt down in 1866, was never rebuilt. Only a few years the transcontinental railway joined the two American sea coasts and train travel replaced the overland travel along the Emigrant Trails; the fort was purchased from Bruce Husband, a member of the American Fur Company, for $4,000 in June 1849 by U. S. Army Lt. Daniel P. Woodbury on behalf of the United States Government. Three companies of cavalry arrived at the fort that same month, Company'G', 6th Infantry, the post's permanent garrison for many years, arrived on August 12, 1849.
By 1849 gol