Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups, in 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities,1,644 identified themselves with social history and 1,425 identified themselves with political history. In the early period, the term historiography meant the writing of history. In that sense certain official historians were given the title Historiographer Royal in Sweden, the Scottish post is still in existence. Understanding the past appears to be a human need. What constitutes history is a philosophical question, the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name.
For the purposes of article, history is taken to mean written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. Before writing, there was only oral history or oral tradition, in China, the earliest history was recorded in oracle bone script which was deciphered and may date back to around late 2nd millennium BCE. The Zuo Zhuan, attributed to Zuo Qiuming in the 5th century BCE, is the earliest written of narrative history in the world, the Classic of History is one of the Five Classics of Chinese classic texts and one of the earliest narratives of China. It is traditionally attributed to Confucius, zhan Guo Ce was a renowned ancient Chinese historical compilation of sporadic materials on the Warring States period compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing and his written work was the Shiji, a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. His work influenced every subsequent author of history in China, including the prestigious Ban family of the Eastern Han Dynasty era, traditional Chinese historiography describes history in terms of dynastic cycles.
In this view, each new dynasty is founded by a morally righteous founder, over time, the dynasty becomes morally corrupt and dissolute. Eventually, the dynasty becomes so weak as to allow its replacement by a new dynasty, the tradition of Korean historiography was established with the Samguk Sagi, a history of Korea from its allegedly earliest times. It was compiled by Goryeo court historian Kim Busik after its commission by King Injong of Goryeo. It was completed in 1145 and relied not only on earlier Chinese histories for source material, the latter work is now lost. The earliest works of history produced in Japan were the Rikkokushi, the first of these works were the Nihon Shoki, compiled by Prince Toneri in 720
Santiago de Chile, or simply Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chiles largest and the most densely populated conurbation, the city is entirely located in the countrys central valley, at an elevation of 520 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541, Santiago has been the city of Chile since colonial times. The city has a core of 19th century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic. Santiagos cityscape is shaped by several hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River. The Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city and these mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem, particularly during winter. The city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within a few hours of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean, Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations.
The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets mostly in nearby Valparaíso, Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. In Chile, there are entities which bear the name of Santiago that are often confused. The Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as downtown or Central Santiago, is a division that comprises roughly the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The city and regions demonym is santiaguinos and santiaguinas, according to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups of the X millennium settled in the Santiago basin. The groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. The villages established in the belonging to picunches groups or promaucaes, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strengths as Huaca de Chena, the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the journey from Cuzco. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill, the natives accepted and even recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as St. Lucia. Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, in the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governors house were selected
Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to as early as 18,500 BP. Until recently, the published date has been 14,800 years BP. This dating added to the evidence showing that the settlement of the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1000 years. This contradicts the previously accepted Clovis first model which holds that settlement of the Americas began after 13,500 BP, paleoecological evidence of the coastal landscapes ability to sustain human life further supports a Coastal migration model. However, as of 2009 no archaeological evidence has found of pre-Clovis humans using a coastal migration route. The site was discovered in late 1975 when a veterinary student visited the area of Monte Verde, the student was shown a strange cow bone collected by nearby peasants who had found it exposed in the eroded Chinchihuapi Creek. The bone proved to be from a mastodon, tom Dillehay, an American anthropologist and professor at the Universidad Austral de Chile at the time, started excavating Monte Verde in 1977.
The site is situated on the banks of Chinchihuapi Creek, a tributary of the Maullín River located 36 miles from the Pacific Ocean. One of the rare open-air prehistoric sites found so far in the Americas, in the initial excavation, two large hearths were found and many small ones as well. The remains of animals were found, in addition to wooden posts from approximately twelve huts. Scraps of clothing made of hide were found and this led archaeologists to estimate the population was around 20-30 inhabitants. A human footprint was found in the clay, probably from a child. Inside the camp, archaeologists found a chunk of meat that still had preserved DNA, after a DNA analysis, it matched that of a mastodon, indicating the type of food the inhabitants ate. The early date for the site was not widely accepted until 1997 and it had hitherto been generally agreed that ancient people had entered the Americas using the Bering Strait Land Bridge, which was about 13,000 kilometers north of the Monte Verde site.
A group of 12 respected archaeologists revisited the site in 1997 and concluded that Monte Verde was an inhabited site and predated the Clovis culture. One of Dillehay’s colleagues, Dr. Mario Pino, claimed a lower layer of the site is 33,200 years old, radiocarbon dating established the wood as 33,000 years old. Dillehay was cautious of this date, and as of 2007 it has not been verified nor accepted by the scientific community. Material evidence gathered at Monte Verde has reshaped the way archaeologists think about the earliest inhabitants of the Americas, radiocarbon dating has provided a date of 14,800 BC and possibly 33,000 BC, establishing Monte Verde as the oldest-known site of human habitation in the Americas
Incas in Central Chile
Inca rule in Chile was brief, it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed. The main settlements of the Inca Empire in Chile lay along the Aconcagua, quillota in Aconcagua Valley was likely their foremost settlement. The bulk of the people conquered by the Incas in Central Chile were Diaguitas, the exact date of the conquest of Central Chile by the Inca Empire is not known. It is generally accepted that Central Chile was conquered during the reign of Topa Inca Yupanqui, beginning with 19th century historians Diego Barros Arana and José Toribio Medina various scholars have pointed out that the incorporation of Central Chile to the Inca Empire was a gradual process. Nevertheless, it is accepted that incorporation into the empire was through warfare which caused a severe depopulation in the Transverse Valleys of Norte Chico. One theory claims Central Chile was conquered by the Inca Empire from the east after Inca troops crossed the Andes at Valle Hermoso and this attack from the east would have been done in order to avoid the more direct but inhospitable routes crossing the Atacama Desert.
José Toribio Medina claimed in 1882 that the Incas entered Central Chile from both north and east, troops of the Inca Empire are reported to have reached Maule River and had a battle with Mapuches from Maule River and Itata River there. This defiance gave them their name of Purumaucas from the quechua puruma auca meaning those not under the rule of the Inca. The Spanish corrupted the name into Promaucaes, the Incas crossed the Maule River, and keeping their old custom, they sent messengers to require these Purumaucas to submit to the rule of the Inca or resort to arms. The Purumaucas had determined to die before losing their freedom, and responded that the victors would be masters of the defeated and that the Incas would quickly see how the Purumaucas obeyed. Three or four days after this answer, the Purumaucas and their allies arrived and camped in front of the Incas camp with 18,000 -20,000 warriors. The Incas tried diplomacy, offering peace and friendship, claiming they were not going to take their land and property, the Purumaucas responded saying that they came not to waste time in vain words and reasoning, but to fight until they won or died.
The Incas promised battle the next day, the following day both armies left their camps and fought all day without either gaining an advantage, and both suffering many wounded and dead. At night they both retired to their positions, on the second and third day they fought with the same results. At the end of the day of battle both factions saw that they had lost more than half their number in dead, and the living were almost all wounded. On the fourth day, neither side left their own camp, the fifth and sixth days were passed in the same manner but by the seventh the Purumaucas and their allies retired and returned home claiming victory. The southern border of the Inca Empire is believed by most modern scholars to be situated between Santiago and Maipo River or somewhere between Santiago and Maule River. Spanish chroniclers Miguel de Olavarría and Diego de Rosales claimed the Inca frontier lay much more to the south at the Bío Bío River, regardless of these differing claims on the frontier of the Inca Empire, Inca troops appear to have never crossed Bío Bío River
Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa and claimed the lands for Spain, Francisco Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Spain in modern-day Extremadura, Spain. He was the son of infantry colonel Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisca González. His date of birth is uncertain, but it is believed to be sometime in the 1470s, little attention was paid to his education and he grew up illiterate. His father was a colonel of infantry who served in Navarre and his mother married late in life and had a son Francisco Martín de Alcántara, who was at the conquest of Peru with his half-brother from its inception. Through his father, Francisco was a cousin, once removed. On 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Gulf of Urabá in Tierra Firme, Pizarro became a participant in Ojedas failed colony, commanding the remnants until he abandoned it with the survivors.
He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso in 1513, in 1513, Pizarro accompanied Vasco Núñez de Balboa in his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific coast. The following year, Pedrarias Dávila became the appointed governor of Castilla de Oro. During the next five years, Pizarro became an associate of Dávila. When Dávila decided to get rid of Balboa out of distrust, he instructed Pizarro to personally arrest him, Balboa was beheaded in January 1519. For his loyalty to Dávila, Pizarro was rewarded with the positions of mayor, on 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Urabá. He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso and, in 1513, reports of Perus riches and Cortéss success in Mexico tantalized Pizarro. He undertook two expeditions to conquer the Incan Empire in 1524 and in 1526, both failed as a result of native hostilities, bad weather and lack of provisions. Pedro de los Ríos, the Governor of Panama, made an effort to recall Pizarro, in April 1528, he reached northern Peru and found the natives rich with precious metals.
This discovery gave Pizarro the motivation to plan an expedition to conquer the area. He returned to Panama to make arrangements, but the Governor refused to grant permission for the project, Pizarro returned to Spain to appeal directly to King Charles I. His plea was successful and he received not only a license for the proposed expedition and he was joined by family and friends and the expedition left Panama in 1530
War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific, took place from 1879 to 1883, with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. The war ended with the victory of Chile, which gained a significant amount of land from Peru, battles were fought in the Pacific Ocean, the Atacama Desert, Perus deserts, and mountainous regions in the Andes. For the first five months the war played out in a naval campaign, Chile protested and solicited to submit it to mediation, but Bolivia refused and considered it a subject of Bolivias courts. Chile insisted and informed the Bolivian government that Chile would no longer consider itself bound to the 1874 Boundary Treaty if Bolivia did not suspend enforcing the law. On February 14,1879 when Bolivian authorities attempted to auction the property of CSFA. On April 5, after Peru refused this, Chile declared war on both nations, the following day, Peru responded by acknowledging the casus foederis. On the other, there was the competition for economic and political hegemony in the region.
Afterwards, Chiles land campaign bested the Bolivian and Peruvian armies, Bolivia withdrew after the Battle of Tacna on May 26,1880. Chilean forces occupied Lima in January 1881, Peruvian army remnants and irregulars waged a guerrilla war that did not change the wars outcome. Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20,1883, Bolivia signed a truce with Chile in 1884. Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral, as well as control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna. In 1904, Chile and Bolivia signed the Treaty of Peace, the 1929 Tacna–Arica compromise gave Arica to Chile and Tacna to Peru. It is known as the Saltpetre War, as the The Ten Cents War in reference to the controversial ten-centavo tax imposed by the Bolivian government, or as the The Second Pacific War. Not to be confused with the Saltpeter War, a pre-Columbian war nor the Guano War as the Chincha Islands War is sometimes named, wanu is a Quechua word for fertilizer.
Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate are nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as salpeter, salitre and they are used as fertilizer with other important uses. Hence the words oficina, or oficina salitrera for saltpeter works, the word Atacama had two meanings. It was and is a Chilean region, South of the Atacama desert, the Atacama desert mostly coincides with the disputed Antofagasta province, named Litoral in Bolivia. The dry climate of the Peruvian and Bolivian coasts had permitted the accumulation and preservation of vast amounts of high-quality guano deposits, in the 1840s, Europeans knew the guano and nitrates value as fertilizer and saltpeters role in explosives
La Serena, Chile
La Serena is a city and commune in northern Chile, capital of the Coquimbo Region. Founded in 1544, it is the second oldest city after the national capital, Santiago. It has a population of 198,164 area, the countrys fourth largest conurbation. It is one of the areas of Chile, witnessing a population increase of 32. 6% between 1992 and 2002. The city is an important tourist destination, especially during the summer and it is in the headquarters of the University of La Serena and is home to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of La Serena, one of five Catholic Archdioceses of the Catholic Church in Chile. The sector is located where the city was inhabited by the pre-Hispanic village called Viluma or Vilumanque. La Serena was first founded on the orders of Spanish Pedro de Valdivia in order to provide a sea link to maintain permanent contact between Santiago and Lima in the Viceroyalty of Peru, for this he would need a place for his troops to rest and eat. The village was first founded by captain Juan Bohón with the name Villanueva de La Serena, although the exact date is disputed, probable dates include 15 November or 30 December 1543 and 4 September 1544.
Many historians simply say that it was founded in 1544, five years later, from the night of 11 January 1549 until the following day, an uprising of local Indians totally destroyed and burned the village, killing nearly every Spaniard. A few years later, on 4 May 1552, King Carlos I of Spain by royal decree gave it the title of city, during the 17th century, the city suffered continuous attacks from pirates, including Francis Drake who opened the Pacific route to pirates in 1578. In addition to attacks from pirates, the city experienced an almost total destruction resulting from the earthquake of 8 July 1730, during the Revolution of 1859, a rebellion against the conservative government, the city was taken by forces led by Pedro Leon Gallo. Gallos forces were defeated at the Battle of Cerro Grande by an army from Santiago and it began to take hold in the role of services, to rescue and to develop its own architectural style known as Colonial Revival. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of La Serena, the Cathedral, built from the same stone, dates from the 19th century.
It must be said that although it lacks the historical value as the older churches, this is a stone building in a country prone to seismic activity. Indeed, during centuries of existence, there is almost no visible damage, all of these churches, along with others of minor importance, provide a unique urban landscape, an image for the city, giving it the nickname The City of Churches. This Oregon pine and the use of adobe create the image of the city. These churches are all roughly 350 years old and have undergone restoration to varying degrees, San Francisco, San Agustín, Santo Domingo are the names of a few of them. In 1920, he began to shape a new economic boom in the mining of iron, attracting capital and human contingent
Presidency of Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity government, he was the first Marxist ever to be elected to the national presidency of a democracy. Allendes presidency was ended by a coup before he could complete a full term in office. During his tenure, Chilean politics reached a state of civil unrest amid strikes, economic sanctions, CIA-sponsored propaganda and strikes, Allendes coalition, Unidad Popular, faced the problem of being a minority in the congress and it was plagued by factionalism. On 11 September 1973, a coup led by General Augusto Pinochet overthrew the government of Allende. In the 1970 election, Allende ran with the Unidad Popular coalition, Allende received a plurality with 36. 2% of the vote. Christian Democrat Radomiro Tomic won 27. 8% with a similar platform to Allendes. Both Allende and Tomic promised to nationalize the mineral industry and redistribute land. Conservative former president Jorge Alessandri, standing for the National Party, according to the constitution, Congress had to decide between the two candidates who had received the most votes. 6% of the popular vote.
This statute was suggested as a means to convince the majority of Christian Democrat senators that favoured Allessandri, as they doubted Allendes allegiance to democracy, after signing the statute, members of the Christian Democrat party in the Senate gave their vote in favor of Allende. It has been argued that given that less than the majority of the voters voted for him, but the legality of the election itself is not in dispute. In office, Allende pursued a policy he called La vía chilena al socialismo, the previous government of Eduardo Frei had already partly nationalised copper by acquiring a 51 percent share in foreign owned mines. The primary U. S. business in Chile at this time was copper mining, the Chilean government sought to fully nationalize U. S. mining operations and the Chilean constitution required just compensation to be made according to minimum international standards. However, the Allende government chose to hold mining companies to damages caused to the state. Subsequently, Chile made significant deductions in computing the amount of due to the North American industries.
Such deductions included charges for loans invested poorly and excessive profits among other reasoning, excessive profits were assessed dating back to the 1950s. Ultimately, deductions for social and financial malfeasance when combined with other deductions resulted in the total deductions greatly exceeding the base values of the mining enterprises. In effect, compensation to three of the five nationalized mines was wholly eliminated by subjective deductions determined by Allendes government, Allende did nationalized coal mining in 1971, a move that was welcomed by the miners of Lota. Chilean presidents were allowed a maximum of six years, which may explain Allendes haste to restructure the economy and he had a significant restructuring program organized
Chilean Civil War of 1891
The Chilean Civil War of 1891, known as Revolution of 1891 was an armed conflict between forces supporting Congress and forces supporting the President, José Manuel Balmaceda. The war saw a confrontation between the Chilean Army and the Chilean Navy, which sided with the president and the congress and this conflict ended with the defeat of the Chilean Army and the presidential forces and President Balmaceda committing suicide as a consequence. In Chilean historiography the war marks the end of the Liberal Republic, the Chilean civil war grew out of political disagreements between the president of Chile, José Manuel Balmaceda, and the Chilean congress. In 1889, the congress became distinctly hostile to the administration of President Balmaceda, according to usage and custom in Chile at the time, a minister could not remain in office unless supported by a majority in the chambers. At this juncture, the president assumed that the constitution gave him the power of nominating and maintaining in office any ministers of his choice, the Congress was now only waiting for a suitable opportunity to assert its authority.
In 1890, it came to light that President Balmaceda had decided to nominate a close friend as his successor. This brought matters to confrontation and the congress refused to approve a budget for supplies to run the government, Balmaceda compromised with congress, agreeing to nominate a cabinet to their liking on condition that the budget would be approved. This cabinet, resigned when the ministers understood the full scope of the conflict between the president and congress, Balmaceda nominated a cabinet not in accord with the views of Congress under Claudio Vicuña, whom it was no secret Balmaceda intended to be his successor. To avoid opposition to his actions, Balmaceda refrained from summoning an extraordinary session of the legislature for the discussion of the estimates of revenue and expenditure for 1891. On January 1,1891, president Balmaceda published a Manifest to the Nation in various newspapers to the effect that the budget of 1890 would be considered the official budget for 1891 and this act was interpreted by the opposition as illegal and beyond the attributes of the executive power.
For the present, and without prejudice to the future, command of the sea was held by Montts squadron, Balmaceda hoped to create a navy, the congress took steps to recruit an army by taking its sympathizers on board the fleet. While both sides were preparing for extremities, Balmaceda administered the government under dictatorial powers with a congress of his own nomination. In June 1891 he ordered the election to be held. Preparations had long made for the naval pronunciamento, and in the end few vessels of the Chilean navy adhered to the cause of Balmaceda. If these were secured by the Balmacedists the naval supremacy of the congress would be seriously challenged, the organization of the revolutionary forces went on slowly. They were experiencing difficulty in obtaining the necessary arms and ammunition, a supply of rifles was bought in the United States, and embarked on board the Itata, a Chilean vessel in the service of the rebels. The United States authorities refused to allow this steamer to leave San Diego, the Itata, slipped away and made for the Chilean coast, carrying with her the representatives of the United States. A fast cruiser was sent in pursuit, but only succeeded in overhauling the rebel ship after she was at her destination