Hybrid tea rose
Hybrid tea is an informal horticultural classification for a group of garden roses. They were created by cross-breeding two types of roses, initially by hybridising hybrid perpetuals with tea roses and it is the oldest group classified as a modern garden rose. Hybrid teas exhibit traits midway between both parents, being hardier than the often quite tender teas, and more inclined to repeat-flowering than the somewhat misleadingly-named hybrid perpetuals, Hybrid tea flowers are well-formed with large, high-centred buds, supported by long, straight and upright stems. Each flower can grow to 8-12.5 cm wide, Hybrid teas are the worlds most popular type of rose by choice due to their color and flower form. Their flowers are borne singly at the end of long stems which makes them popular as cut flowers. Most hybrid tea bushes tend to be somewhat upright in habit and it is the provincial flower of Islamabad capital territory. The birth of the worlds first hybrid tea is generally accepted to have been La France in 1867 and it was raised by Jean-Baptiste André Guillot, a French nurseryman. He did it by hybridising a tea rose, supposedly Madame Bravy, with a perpetual, supposedly Madame Victor Verdier. Other early cultivars were Lady Mary Fitzwilliam, Souvenir of Wootton, caroline Testout, introduced by Pernet-Ducher in 1890. Hybrid tea roses did not become popular until the beginning of the 20th century, michele Meilland Richardier cultivated a hybrid tea which had double flowers, with a coral inside and a yellow and pink outside. It was said to last very well when cut, the rose was classified as being part of the meilimona variety. The patent was filed on October 14,1975 and was issued February 1,1977, most hybrid tea cultivars are not fully hardy in continental areas with very cold winters. The hybrid tea remains the standard rose of the industry, however. This is usually done by budding, a technique that involves grafting buds from a parent plant onto strongly growing rootstocks, one such rootstock is R. multiflora. Hybrid tea cultivars bred in continental areas tend to be hardier than those hailing from more maritime regions, media related to Hybrid tea rose at Wikimedia Commons
The term cultivar most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants governed by the ICNCP, most cultivars have arisen in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, trees used in forestry are also special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a part of Liberty Hyde Baileys broader grouping. Cultivar was coined by Bailey and it is regarded as a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. A cultivar is not the same as a variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies. In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory plant patents, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to people or organisations who introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be distinct, uniform and stable, to be distinct, it must have characteristics that easily distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be uniform and stable, the cultivar must retain these characteristics under repeated propagation, a cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet. The cultivar epithet is usually in a vernacular language, for example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum King Edward. The King Edward part of the name is the cultivar epithet, the origin of the term cultivar arises from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that have arisen in cultivation. This distinction dates back to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the Father of Botany, botanical historian Alan Morton notes that Theophrastus in his Enquiry into Plants had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus listed all the known to him. Most of the listed by Linnaeus were of garden origin rather than being wild plants. Over time there was an increasing need to distinguish between plants growing in the wild, and those with variations that had produced in cultivation. In the nineteenth century many garden-derived plants were given names, sometimes in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international terminology was proposed for the classification and it is essentially the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin. However, Bailey was never explicit about the etymology of the word, and it has suggested that it is a contraction of the words cultigen and variety
Cut flowers are flowers or flower buds that have been cut from the plant bearing it. It is usually removed from the plant for indoor decorative use, typical uses are in vase displays, wreaths and garlands. Many gardeners harvest their own cut flowers from gardens, but there is a significant commercial market. The plants cropped vary by climate, culture and the level of wealth locally, often the plants are raised specifically for the purpose, in field or glasshouse growing conditions. Cut flowers can also be harvested from the wild, the cultivation and practices of raising cut flowers form a part of horticulture. They are often included in that branch of horticulture called floriculture, a common use is for floristry, usually for decoration inside a house or building. Typically the cut flowers are placed in a vase, a number of similar types of decorations are used, especially in larger buildings and at events such as weddings. These are often decorated with additional foliage, in some cultures, a major use of cut flowers is for worship, this can be seen especially in south and southeast Asia. Sometimes the flowers are picked rather than cut, without any significant leaf or stem, such flowers may be used for wearing in hair, or in a button-hole. Masses of flowers may be used for sprinkling, in a way to confetti. Garlands, and wreaths are major derived and value added products, live cut flowers have a limited life. The majority of cut flowers can be expected to last several days with proper care and this generally requires standing them in water in shade. They can be treated in ways to increase their life. In most countries, cut flowers are a crop, because of their limited life after harvest they have to be marketed quickly. In India, much of the product has a life of only a day. Among these are marigold flowers for garlands and temples, which are harvested before dawn. There is also a market for everlasting or dried flowers, which species such as Helichrysum bracteatum. These can have a long shelf life
La Conquista (opera)
La Conquista is an opera in two acts by Lorenzo Ferrero set to a trilingual libretto by the composer and Frances Karttunen, based on a concept by Alessandro Baricco. It depicts the major episodes of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, the libretto is a blend of historical and literary sources drawn from transcriptions of indigenous and European literature, both kept, with some exceptions, in their original languages. The premiere directed by Nicholas Muni and conducted by Zbyněk Müller took place at the Prague National Theatre on 12 March 2005. Place, Cortés camp at Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz and Tenochtitlan Time, one day, the prayer of Emperor Moctezuma in the temple is interrupted by the entrance of a group of messengers who bring him the news of the Spanish landing on the Gulf coast. Moctezuma is visibly worried and asks the men to keep their knowledge secret, the Emperor makes an offering to the gods and a priest sprinkles the messengers with the blood of the victim, then they are sent back carrying a message and laden with gifts for the newcomers. Left alone, Moctezuma is scrutinizing the uncertain future, in contemporary Mexico City a woman called Marina has strange dreams of a distant past. She decides to confront these recurring nightmares, moctezumas emissaries arrive at the camp and lay out their presents before Cortés and his companions. The soldiers tie them up and frighten them by firing their guns in the air, Alvarado and Cortés argue about the priorities of the conquest, whether it should be a search for gold or the evangelization of indigenous peoples. When Cortés tries to force an Aztec to worship the cross, Father Olmedo advises against such violence, Cortés orders Alvarado to sink the ships, as a precaution against mutiny. While watching the ships burn Cortés laments that stepmother Spain ignores her true sons, during the fire Marina passes by and she and Cortés notice each other. She expresses conflicting thoughts and feelings about meeting this strange man, Cortés leads his troops inland towards Tenochtitlan. Act 2 The long-standing attempts to dissuade Cortés from coming to Tenochtitlan had failed, Moctezuma and Cortés meet on the Great Causeway leading into the capital. Coming from opposite sides in a long and complex ceremony the cortège of Moctezuma, the Emperor dresses Cortés with flowers from his own gardens, the highest honour he could give. In turn, Cortés attempts to him but is restrained by a courtier. Marina is at the time inside and outside the picture. She pantomimes the translating of the conversation while her offstage voice describes the scene, finally Moctezuma invites the Spaniards into the city. In the absence of Cortés, taking advantage of the ceremonies of the Aztecs in the Great Temple, Alvarado. Cortés, away, thinks, writes, prays, but cannot decide upon the final act, news about the massacre reaches him and he returns to Tenochtitlan
Lorenzo Ferrero is a contemporary Italian composer, librettist, author, and book editor. His musical idiom is characterized by eclecticism, stylistic versatility, and his most popular compositions include the operas Marilyn, La figlia del mago, Salvatore Giuliano, Charlotte Corday, La Conquista, and Risorgimento. In 1986 he participated in the Prix Italia with his work La fuga di Foscolo and his music is published by Casa Ricordi, Milan. As an active manager of art events, he has served as director of the Festival Puccini in Torre del Lago, Unione Musicale in Turin, Arena di Verona Festival. In 1999 he co-founded and coordinated the Festa della Musica, a showcase of classical, jazz and world music held in Milan, in 2007 Lorenzo Ferrero was appointed to the board of directors and elected vice-president of SIAE, the Italian Authors and Publishers Association. In 2008 he translated, edited and published Lo studio dellorchestrazione, the Italian edition of Samuel Adlers The Study of Orchestration, Lorenzo Ferrero has been professor of composition at Milan Conservatory since 1980. His teaching appointments also include positions at St. Marys College of Maryland and LUISS Business School, a division of LUISS Guido Carli University of Rome. With a group of six other Italian composers he wrote the Requiem per le vittime della mafia, the requiem was first performed in the Palermo Cathedral on 27 March 1993. Furthermore, he wrote the music for the Sestriere Alpine World Ski Championships opening ceremony of 1997 including the anthem, incidental music for stage productions. British musicologist David Osmond-Smith described his style as a synthesis of classical traditions. Prima variazione, for organ and orchestra Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No.2 Fantasy Suite No, Ferrero, Lorenzo, ed. Lo studio dellorchestrazione. Ostali, Piero, ed. Il Piccolo Marat, Storia e rivoluzione nel melodramma verista, atti del terzo convegno di studi su Pietro Mascagni. Harpner, S, ed. Über Musiktheater, Eine Festschrift, Il suono e lanima, Il paesaggio invisibile del melodramma. La musica sacra nelle chiese cristiane, Donati, P, and Pacetti, E, eds. Lo studio di fonologia della Rai di Milano nello sviluppo della nuova musica in Italia, Rome, RAI Teche, Milano, Scuole civiche di Milano, Fondazione di partecipazione, Accademia internazionale della musica, Istituto di ricerca musicale, Rome, RAI-ERI. Maurizi, P, ed. Quattordici interviste sul «nuovo teatro musicale» in Italia, galileo e il segreto dei Maya. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, un bel dì vedremo, Il festival di Giacomo Puccini. ISBN 978-88-6800-040-0 Anon. Lorenzo Ferrero Marilyn—Anmerkungen zur Oper, in Neuland, Ansätze zur Musik der Gegenwart, edited by Herbert Henck Vol.3, pp 142–146
Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is an occupation of floriculturists. Floriculture crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, as distinguished from nursery crops, floriculture crops are generally herbaceous. Bedding and garden plants consist of young flowering plants and vegetable plants and they are grown in cell packs, in pots, or in hanging baskets, usually inside a controlled environment, and sold largely for gardens and landscaping. Pelargonium, Impatiens, and Petunia are the best-selling bedding plants, the many cultivars of Chrysanthemum are the major perennial garden plant in the United States. Flowering plants are sold in pots for indoor use. The major flowering plants are poinsettias, orchids, florist chrysanthemums, foliage plants are also sold in pots and hanging baskets for indoor and patio use, including larger specimens for office, hotel, and restaurant interiors. Cut flowers are sold in bunches or as bouquets with cut foliage. The production of cut flowers is known as the cut flower industry. In Australia and the United States some species are harvested from the wild for the cut flower market, the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Retrieved September 17,2012. researchgate. net/publication/295862115_Diversification_Through_Floriculture_in_Kashmir_Valley Open Directory Project, Cut Flowers and Greens Growers
Garden roses are predominantly hybrid roses that are grown as ornamental plants in private or public gardens. They are one of the most popular and widely cultivated groups of flowering plants, numerous cultivars have been produced, especially over the last two centuries, though roses have been known in the garden for millennia beforehand. While most garden roses are grown for their flowers, some are also valued for other reasons, such as having ornamental fruit, providing ground cover and it is believed that roses were grown in all the early civilisations of temperate latitudes from at least 5000 years ago. They are known to have grown in ancient Babylon. Paintings of roses have been discovered in Egyptian pyramid tombs from the 14th century BC, records exist of them being grown in Chinese gardens and Greek gardens from at least 500 BC. Most of the plants grown in these gardens are likely to have been species collected from the wild. The significant breeding of modern times started slowly in Europe, from about the 17th century and this was encouraged by the introduction of new species, and especially by the introduction of the China rose into Europe in the 19th century. An enormous range of roses has been bred since then, a major contributor in the early 19th century was Empress Josephine of France who patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. Roses are one of the most popular garden shrubs in the world and they possess a number of general features that cause growers and gardeners to choose roses for their gardens. Rose flowers have always been available in a number of colours and shades, breeders have been able to widen this range through all the options available with the range of pigments in the species. This gives us yellow, orange, pink, red, white, however, they lack the blue pigment that would give a true purple or blue colour and until the 21st century all true blue flowers were created using some form of dye. Now, however, genetic modification is introducing the blue pigment, there is no single system of classification for garden roses. In general, however, roses are placed in one of three groups, Wild, Old Garden, and Modern Garden roses. The latter two groups are subdivided further according to hybrid lineage, although due to the complex ancestry of most rose hybrids. Growth habit and floral form are used as means of classification. Wild Roses, also denominated Species Roses, include the natural species, for most of these, the plants found in cultivation are often selected clones that are propagated vegetatively. Wild roses are low-maintenance shrubs in comparison to other garden roses and they generally have only one flush of blooms per year, described as being non-remontant, unlike remontant, modern roses. Some species have colorful hips in Autumn, e. g, Rosa moyesii, or have colourful autumnal foliage, e. g
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies, Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. The leaves are borne alternately on the stem, most roses are deciduous but a few are evergreen or nearly so. The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals and these may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes, the aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination, the hips of most species are red, but a few have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 seeds embedded in a matrix of fine. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose and rugosa rose, are rich in vitamin C. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds. While the sharp objects along a stem are commonly called thorns. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation growing over it. Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer, a few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points. Hesperrhodos contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America, platyrhodon with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii
List of Rosa species
There is significant disagreement over the number of true rose species. Lists of rose species usually show more than 360, hesperrhodos has two species, both from southwestern North America. These are R. minutifolia and R. stellata, platyrhodon with one species from east Asia, R. roxburghii. Rosa containing all the other roses and this subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections
Rosa 'Abraham Darby'
Abraham Darby is a popular apricot rose cultivar which was introduced by David Austin in England in 1985. The naming happened in collaboration with the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust, Abraham Darby is an old-fashioned looking rose with many large, showy flowers with a classic quartered shape in an apricot-pink colour which varies with climate and age. It ranges from soft apricot pink on the inside, pale yellow on the outside in areas to a rich peachy pink with lighter edges in cooler climates. Additionally the colour pales as the flower matures, the cupped flowers have an average diameter of 11 cm and up to 70 petals. They usually have strong, fruity fragrance, grow in small clusters, as the rather heavy flowers tend to bow their heads, Abraham Darby is suited to be trained as a climber. The cultivar is winter hardy down to -20 °C and generally disease resistant, the vigorous plant grows very bushy growing approximately 150 to 300 cm high and 90 to 150 cm wide. It is almost thornless and has glossy, leathery foliage of a medium to dark green colour, due to its long arching shoots, it can be grown as a freestanding shrub or trained as a climber, if given some support. The cultivar can be used in beds, rose borders, landscaping or as container rose in sunny or partially shaded locations. Abraham Darby is used as a parent rose and was used to hybridise the cultivars Crown Princess Margareta, Golden Celebration, Pat Austin and Marianne
An ADR rose is a winner in the German ADR rose trial. No chemical pesticides have been allowed since 1997 and breeders often describe the trial as among the most challenging in the world, the trial is set up by a working group that includes the Bund deutscher Baumschulen, rose breeders, and eleven independent trial stations in Germany. The trial results are analyzed by the Bundessortenamt, Roses are tested over three years and criteria analyzed include disease resistance, hardiness, attractiveness, and habit. About 50 cultivars are judged annually and more than 2000 cultivars have been tested since the creation in the 1950s. Roses that no longer fulfill quality standards have their certificate removed, as of November 2013,161 cultivars are recognized. List of Award of Garden Merit roses Rose Hall of Fame Removed ADR varieties, report on Kordes® ADR Roses in the United States,2010. In Shanley, Pat, Kukielski, Peter, Waering, Gene, ADR - Performance Testing of New Rose Varieties in Germany
Alain is a popular red floribunda rose variety. It was developed by Francis Meilland from the Meilland family of France and introduced in 1948, named for the son, present-day company head Alain Meilland. The new variety won a medal at Geneva that year. The bright red flowers are scented and range up in 8 cm in diameter and relatively flat. Blooms occur in clusters, up to as many as nine. Generally, the shrubs have glossy, dark foliage and upright, bushy form, the cultivar is winter hardy up to -29° C. Alain was developed from a cross of Guinee and Wilhelm, in turn crossed with Orange Triumph, delforge of Belgium introduced a climbing sport Climbing Alain in 1957. Alain was selected as Most Beautiful French Rose at the Lyon Rose Trials in 1946, in 1948 another gold medal was won at the Geneva Rose Trials
Rosa 'American Beauty'
American Beauty is a deep pink rose cultivar, bred by Henri Lédéchaux in France in 1875, and was originally named Madame Ferdinand Jamin. The hybrid perpetual has cup-shaped flowers with a brilliant crimson colour and up to 50 petals, the buds are thick and globular and open to strongly scented, hybrid tea-like flowers with a diameter of 11 cm. They appear in flushes over a period, but according to the RHS Encyclopedia of Roses. The height of the upright, vigorous shrub ranges between 90 and 200 centimetres at a width of 90 to 125 centimetres. American Beauty has prickly shoots, dark foliage and is winter hardy up to -29 °C. It is well suited as cut flower, and can be grown in greenhouses, in containers or as garden rose, in 1875 it was brought to the United States by George Valentine Nash. It was introduced as a new rose cultivar named American Beauty by Bancroft and Field Bros in 1886, in 1888, Bassett & Washburn first introduced the rose to other florists for purchase. It became a famous greenhouse variety and was the best selling rose cultivar in the United States until the 1920s, due to its high price per stem and its popularity, the cultivar was called the million-dollar rose. Its popularity remained focused on the United States, while it is rarely cultivated in other countries. The flower is commemorated in the Joseph Lamb ragtime composition American Beauty Rag and it makes repeated appearances in the 1999 film American Beauty. It was also featured on the cover of the Grateful Dead album American Beauty, American Beauty is the official flower of the District of Columbia. It was further adopted as the symbol of the upscale Lord & Taylor store chain in 1943
Rosa 'Angel Face'
Angel Face is a large-flowered floribunda rose introduced in 1968 by Swim & Weeks. Angel Face is a cross between × Sterling Silver, in certain sunlight it is possible to detect a faint silvery sheen as a hint of its parentage. The fragrance of this AARS Winner is a fruity scent. It is as appealing as its lavender colour and it has 3, lavender ruffled-edge blossoms, edged in an attractive deeper ruby, and often grow on single stems as well as in clusters. Angel Face is an upright, bushy plant with lustrous foliage and it is a good rose to use as a cut flower, both for its beauty and its deep fragrance. It is a growing plant, and blooms abundantly. It does best in sun and any well-drained soil. It is hardy in zones 5–9, one must take intentional precautions against insects and disease early in the growing season, for the fragrant blossoms are a favorite snack to aphids and do fall prey to rose rust
Rosa 'Arthur Bell'
Rosa Arthur Bell is a rose cultivar, bred by Sam McGredy IV in Northern Ireland in 1956. It is a cross between Cläre Grammerstorf and Piccadilly, and is classed as a floribunda rose. Arthur Bell forms compact deciduous shrub of upright bushy growth to 1 m height with repeat-flowering properties, in summer it bears clusters of very fragrant, bright yellow flowers fading to pale yellow. They reach a diameter of 3 inches and have up to 25 petals. This rose has gained awards, including the Royal National Rose Societys Certificate of Merit. It was named for the Scotch whiskey maker, there is also a climbing sport, which was discovered by Pearce in 1978 and introduced as Arthur Bell, Cl. In 2001, the sport was granted the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit
Rosa Belmonte is a robust pearly blush floribunda rose, with medium scent, created by Robert Harkness of Harkness Roses at Hitchin, Hertfordshire. It was introduced at the Royal Horticultural Societys Chelsea Flower Show by the English television gardener Alan Titchmarsh in 2007, at the request of the Donna Francesca, proceeds from the sale of Rosa Belmonte are donated to support the work of the charity The Princes Trust. Belmonte has dark glossy foliage and forms shrubs with up to 100 cm height and 70 cm width. Its double flowers with up to 30 petals have a diameter of 10 cm. They appear in clusters of three to seven flowers throughout the season and their perfume is described as fruity with citrus undertones. The cultivar is very disease-tolerant, and can grow without regular fungicide spraying, the parentage of Rosa Belmonte is, (Dr Darley x (Pretty Lady x Rosa Belmonte was a Gold Standard Award Winner in 2009. The Gold Standard is an award granted in the Gold Standard Trials, conducted by the British Association of Rose Breeders. A fee is paid for each submitted variety, which is tested and judged throughout a two year trial period. The first trials took place between 2006, Belmonte on helpmefind. com Royal Horticultural Society, RHS official web site Alan Titchmarsh official web site
Rosa 'Blush Noisette'
Rosa Blush Noisette is a light pink Noisette rose introduced by Phillipe Noisette around 1815. According to the RHS Encyclopedia of Roses, the cultivar is most called Blush Noisette in Amerika, the dainty, cupped, semi-double to double flowers appear solitary and in tight clusters on long, smooth stems. They have a diameter of up to 2.5 inches with up to 35 petals and their colour changes from crimson buds to pale lilac pink and fades to pinkish white in mature petals. Blush Noisette is described to have a characteristic clove-like fragrance varying in strength, the flowers appear continuously throughout the season, that can span the entire year in warmer regions. As a climber, the cultivar can be trained to reach heights of up to 4.5 metres, the dense shrub has long arching shoots with a reddish colour, very few prickles, and many soft, glossy leaves. The foliage is medium to dark green with crimson veins. Blush Noisette tolerates half shade, is resistant and heat tolerant, but not hardy in severe winters. It can be solitary, in dense hedges, or with some support be trained as a climber and is well suited for obelisk trellises
Rosa 'Camp David'
Camp David is a red hybrid tea rose developed by Mathias Tantau, Jr. in 1984. The cultivar forms nearly black buds, which turn a red when blooming –. The fragrant flowers have a diameter of about 13 cm. Due to their growth, they are used as cut flowers as well as in gardens. The robust shrubs are of average height, very weather and disease resistant, while the rose was hybridized in Germany, it was not introduced in its home country but in Australia, where the cultivar is well liked. Camp David on helpmefind. com Agnes Pahler, Rosen, die große Enzyklopädie, dorling Kindersley, Starnberg 2004, ISBN 3-8310-0590-7
Rosa 'Charles Austin'
Charles Austin is an apricot rose cultivar bred and introduced by David Austin in England in 1973. The rose was hybridised by crossing the English rose Chaucer with the pink Hybrid Tea Aloha and is named after the breeders father and it was one of the early English roses. Double, flat or slightly cupped flowers with a strong, fruity fragrance, and their colour is an apricot blend, with stronger colours at the petal base, fading to cream at the edges. The flowers have about 70 petals arranged in a quartered bloom form, with the outer ones lighter than the inner ones, and are well suited as cut flowers. The tall and bushy shrub can grow well in excess of 200 cm, especially in climates and is somewhat slow to rebloom. The cultivar has large leaves and fine, red prickles, is winter hardy up to -20 °C, due to its size, it can be grown as a freestanding shrub, pegged or trained as a small climber. In 1981, Austin introduced a sport - Yellow Charles Austin - with lemon to golden yellow colours, Charles Austin is one of a number of varieties which has been retired by the David Austin Roses company in favour of other more modern and healthy varieties. David Austins English Roses for the West Coast Jim Gardiner The Timber Press Encyclopedia of Flowering Shrubs, p.329 ISBN 978-0-88192-823-5 Austin, David Old Roses and English Roses
Chopin is a rose cultivar which was introduced by Stanisław Żyła in Poland in 1980. The hybrid tea rose was bred by crossing the Crêpe de Chine with the Peer Gynt and is named after Polish-French composer Frédéric Chopin, Chopin is a strong growing rose with showy, large flowers of light cream to pale yellow colour. Flowers have a diameter of 5 inches and 17-25 petals. They grow in clusters, have moderate fragrance and appear in flushes throughout the season. The cultivar is winter hardy and generally disease resistant, helpme Find Roses, Chopin Website in Polish
Rosa 'Chrysler Imperial'
Chrysler Imperial is a strongly fragrant, dark red hybrid tea rose cultivar. This variety was bred and publicly debuted by Dr. Walter E. Lammerts of Descanso Gardens, La Cañada Flintridge, California and its stock parents Charlotte Armstrong and Mirandy are both All American Rose Selections-roses. The elegantly tapered buds open into high-centered blossoms with a diameter of about 11–13 cm and can have up to 45-50 petals with a rich, deep, the cultivar flushes in a chronological blooming pattern throughout its local season, starting in late spring until fall. The long-stemmed rose flowers are long lasting and showy and make excellent cut flowers, the rose bush reaches 75 to 200 cm height, and a diameter of 60 to 120 cm. The shrub has a form with very thorny canes and semi-glossy dark green foliage. It is not a cold hardy rose and needs good sun exposure, without good air circulation it is susceptible to mildew and blackspot, particularly in cool climates. Cultivar, United States Patent No, PP1,167,1951 Portland Gold Medal 1953 All American Rose Selections 1953 only two roses including Chrysler Imperial were awarded the All American Rose Selections. The theme of the float was Life of an American Workman, RHS Encyclopedia of Roses, Charles and Brigid Quest-Ritson,2008, Penguin
Rosa 'Double Delight'
Double Delight is a hybrid tea rose cultivar bred by Swim & Ellis and introduced in 1977. Its parents were two hybrid tea cultivars – the red and yellow Granada and the ivory Garden Party, the large, strongly fragrant red and white flowers have a high-centered bloom form and appear continuously throughout the season. They are double, have a diameter of more than 10 cm, in the sun, their colour changes from white to carmin red, beginning at the edges. The change is more pronounced in warmer, sunnier regions and is absent in greenhouses due to the UV filtering of glass. The plant has large, medium green foliage, grows about 90 to 150 cm high and it is winter hardy up to −25 °C, but can be susceptible to mildew and black spot. The cultivar needs sunny, warm places, but can be grown in containers, double Delight is used as garden rose and as cut flower. Double Delight was granted several awards, such as medals in Baden-Baden and Rome in 1976, fragrance awards in Geneva. In 1985, the cultivar was inducted into the Rose Hall of Fame
Rosa 'Duchess of Cornwall'
Rosa Duchess of Cornwall is an orange blend rose cultivar bred by Hans Jürgen Evers from Rosen Tantau in Germany and introduced in 2005. The nostalgic hybrid tea rose is known as Music Hall in France, according to Robert Markley, it is already one of Tantaus most successful roses. The name Duchess of Cornwall was chosen in the UK in honour of Camilla and she received it during a tour at BBC Gardeners World Live at the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham in June 2005. The German cultivar name Chippendale alludes to the ornate English Rococo style called Chippendale, the rose is described as a very double apricot flower. It has an old fashioned, quartered bloom form with up to 100 petals, the colour is weather dependent, reaching from deep orange to soft pink. The buds open slowly to medium-sized flowers with a diameter of 8 to 10 centimetres, are suited as cut flowers. The vigorous, upright shrub reaches a height of 0.7 to 1.2 m, has dark and glossy foliage, Tantau recommends the plantation in small groups, but the shrub can also be grown solitary or in containers. In 2012, it was granted the Award of Garden Merit by the Royal Horticultural Society, at the rose show in the Rosarium Uetersen in 2013, the cultivar won a bronze medal in the category Most Beautiful Rose
Rosa Eden is a light pink and white climbing rose. The cultivar was created by Marie-Louise Meilland and introduced in France by Meilland International in 1985 as part of the Renaissance® Collection. It was named Pierre de Ronsard, after the French Renaissance poet Pierre de Ronsard in reference to his famous ode that begins, Mignonne, the cultivar is also called Eden Rose 85 as Meilland had already introduced a rose cultivar called Eden in the 1950s. The large, old-rose type blooms are carmine-pink on the inside and cream or ivory on the outside, the large flowers are very full with 55 to 60 petals. Due to their weight the cupped, globular flowers bow their heads and they have a very light to moderate tart fragrance, appear mostly solitary, open slowly and normally not fully. Pierre de Ronsard blooms more or less throughout the season. The tall shrub rose or a small climber grows upright and bushy, reaching 100 to 365 cm height and it has very sturdy, dense, dark green foliage with large, semi-glossy leaves, and almost no prickles. It is winter hardy, heat and rain tolerant, and very disease resistant, in half shade the cultivar is less floriferous. It can be grown as solitary shrub or in groups, in containers or as standard rose to 90 cm high, due to its bowing flower heads, training the rose as a small climber along a fence or other supports is recommended. The cultivar was ahead of the times – when introduced in 1985 it wasnt very popular, in 2006, Pierre de Ronsard was selected as Worlds Favourite Rose, the highest title a rose can be granted, and inducted into the Rose Hall of Fame
Rosa Elina is a light yellow hybrid tea rose introduced by Dickson Roses in 1983. The variety was developed from the white floribunda Nana Mouskouri and the hybrid tea Lolita. Its mildly fragrant flowers are high centered, have 17 to 35 petals and their colour is weather dependent and can reach from lemon to ivory. The pointed, ovoid buds open to large flowers with an elegant, opulent bloom form. They grow mostly solitary on long stems and appear quite late. The bushy rose shrub has dense, glossy foliage and usually grows to a height of 70 to 120 cm, Elina is only moderately winter hardy, a thrips favourite, but excepting mildew in humid conditions very disease resistant. Barlage recommends the plantation in groups or hedges, thanks to its large long-living flowers on long stems, the cultivar is also used as cut flower. ADR1987 New Zealand Gold Star of the South Pacific 1987 James Mason Medal 1994 The Worlds Favourite Rose 2006
Rosa 'English Miss'
English Miss is a floribunda rose bred by Roger Pawsey of Cants of Colchester, England, and introduced in 1977. It was named in honor of the raisers three-year-old daughter Sally-Anne, the flowers are flush pink, camellia-like and emit a strong and sweet fragrance. They are often borne in clusters in the traditional floribunda style on a medium-sized rose. English Miss is repeat-flowering, starting from June and progressing through to mid-October and its flowers can stand up to rain. English Miss can tolerate exposed conditions and it has good disease resistance, especially against the common rose disease black spot
Rosa 'Garden Party'
Garden Party is an ivory hybrid tea rose cultivar created by Herbert C. Swim in 1959. Its parents are the hybrid teas Charlotte Armstrong and Peace, the high-centered, double-shaped flowers have 25–28 petals and a creamy-white colour with more or less pink-edged outer petals. The Ultimate Rose Book says that Garden Party has the Peace colors, the flowers develop from urn-shaped buds, reach an average diameter of 11 cm and have a light lemony fragrance. Garden Party blooms repeatedly throughout the season, thanks to its large well-shaped flowers, it is a popular exhibition variety. The vigorous shrub reaches 90 to 200 cm height and 60 to 75 cm width and is winter hardy up to -15 °C, the young shoots are red, the semi-glossy foliage bluish. Garden Party won a medal at the Bagatelle Rose Trials in 1959 and was included into the All-American-Rose-Selection in 1960. It is a parent to cultivars such as Double Delight, Gold Medal and Kokyu
Rosa 'Great Maiden's Blush'
Great Maidens Blush is an old rose cultivar known since the 14th century. Like other Rosa × alba cultivars, it is winter hardy, a tall shrub with arching branches. The young buds tend to have a yellow color on the outside. The flower petals are creamy-white or white in the bud, then pale pink and it is not overly pricky, has relatively few thorns. It tolerates shade and it can be grown on or beside north-facing walls and it has enough strength and vigour that it can be used as a climber. This cultivar is known by other names, including Cuisse de Nymphe, Incarnata, Maidens Blush. Great Maidens Blush has received the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, and the American Rose Societys Dowager Queen award at the Syracuse Rose Society show
Rosa 'Harison's Yellow'
Harisons Yellow, also known as R. × harisonii, the Oregon Trail Rose or the Yellow Rose of Texas, is a rose cultivar which originated as a chance hybrid in the early 19th century. It probably is a seedling of Rosa foetida and Rosa pimpinellifolia, the cultivar first bloomed at the suburban villa of George Folliott Harison, attorney, between 8th and 9th Avenues on 32nd Street, north of New York City. The site of Harisons villa is now just south of the present General Post Office, the nurseryman William Prince of Long Island took cuttings and marketed the rose in 1830. Harisons Yellow is naturalized at abandoned house sites through the west and is found as a feral rose along the Oregon Trail. Harisons Yellow was planted by the Heritage Rose Foundation in the Spring of 2009 near the grave of George Folliott Harison, the planting is now a part of the Heritage Rose District of NYC. The cultivar has semi-double, clear yellow flowers with a diameter of 5 to 6 centimetres, up to 25 petals, a slightly cupped bloom form. They appear in clusters in an early spring flush, lasting for three to four weeks, Harisons Yellow has prickles, small, greenish grey leaves with seven to nine leaflets, and develops many small, globular rose hips. The young hips are first green, then red, and turn to black in the ripe fruits, the bushy shrub forms suckers on its own roots, and reaches a height and width of 1 to 1.75 metres. The cultivar tolerates drought, shade and poorer soils, needs little care and it can be planted solitary, in groups or as hedges. My favorite plant, Harisons Yellow rose, Flower & Garden Magazine, March–April,1997 Christopher, in Search of Lost Roses 1983, paperback 2002
Iceberg is a white floribunda rose cultivar bred by Kordes in Germany in 1958. It is also known as KORbin, Fée des Neiges and Schneewittchen, Iceberg is among the worlds best known roses. Iceberg is a modern cluster-flowered floribunda rose cultivar and it is commercially available in two main forms, a bush and a standard, both produced by a form of grafting known as budding. Leaves are small, light green and glossy, blooms are about 5 cm in diameter and have 25 to 35 petals. They grow in clusters on long stems, the fragrant flowers usually appear abundantly throughout the year. The cultivar was developed by prolific German rose breeder Reimer Kordes in Germany in 1958 and he and his father Wilhelm had initially specialised in developing bush roses that were suitable for small gardens. The plant was registered under the cultivar name KORbin by Kordes in 1958, the cultivar is known as Fée des Neiges in French and Iceberg in English. In 1958 Iceberg was awarded a Royal National Rose Society Gold Medal, the cultivar was selected as the World Favourite Rose of 1983 by the World Federation of Rose Societies and is listed in their Rose Hall of Fame. The German ADR title granted in 1960 was taken away in 2004, stamps depicting the cultivar were issued in Romania in 1970 and New Zealand in 1975. A number of sports of Iceberg have been discovered, Blushing Pink Iceberg - A cultivar originating from Lilia Weatherlys garden in Tasmania in 1994 with white flowers flushed with pale pink. Brilliant Pink Iceberg - a deep pink form from the garden in Tasmania Burgundy Iceberg - a sport of Brilliant Pink Iceberg with prolific burgundy flowers. Climbing Iceberg- a climbing form discovered by Cants of Colchester in England in 1968, although plants are generally disease free, they may suffer from black spot in more humid climates or in situations where air circulation is limited. Plants tolerate shade, though they perform best in full sun, in North America they are able to be grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 4b and higher. In Australia, plants are suited to all but northern tropical areas, the hardiness and popularity of the cultivar have seen its widespread use in cultivation across the world, occasionally leading to claims that it is overdone as a garden plant. The blooms are suited for use as cut flowers, both the shrub form and grafted standard may be grown in large containers
Rosa 'Ingrid Bergman'
Rosa Ingrid Bergman is a red hybrid tea rose, bred by the Danish rose growers Pernille and Mogens Olesen and introduced by their company Poulsen Roser in 1984. It is a cross between the red hybrid tea Precious Platinum and an unnamed seedling and it was named in honor of the Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman. Ingrid Bergman has very large, moderately fragrant flowers with up to 10 centimetres diameter and their colour is a warm, velvety, dark red, described as currant to cardinal red. The well-formed flowers have a full, high-centered form and 26 to 40 petals and they appear solitary or in clusters on long stems from June to September, and are long lasting on the plant and as cut flowers, making it well liked by gardeners and florists. The shrubs are upright, reaching a height of 60 to 100 centimetres, the medium-sized dark green foliage is semi-glossy and normally healthy. The cultivar is heat and rain tolerant, very hardy down to -30°C. Ingrid Bergman can also be grown in containers, finally, it was selected as World Favourite Rose in 2000 by the World Federation of Rose Societies and is listed in their Rose Hall of Fame
Its origin is unclear – it was introduced in the UK by the garden designer Norah Lindsay, but was probably developed in the early 19th century – probably in Persia. The cultivar is named Ispahan after the city Isfahan in Iran, renowned for its gardens and roses, the double flowers are big, reaching a diameter of 9 centimetres, and have a strong, sweet fragrance. They appear in great numbers in clusters that can hold up to 15 flowers and their colour is described as silky medium pink, with a slightly darker middle, and fades only slightly. Ispahan flowers only once, but for a period of six weeks – the longest of all Damask roses. The vigorous shrub grows 1.2 to 2.5 metres tall and 0.9 to 2 metres wide, with a form, light green foliage. It is robust, disease resistant, and winter hardy up to -20 °C, the cultivar tolerates half shade, poor soils and is well suited for harsher climates. It can be grown in containers, solitary, in groups or as hedges, david Austin still recommends it highly as free flowering, among the first Old Roses to start blooming and the last to continue, and for its fine Damask fragrance. Peter Beales counts it as one of his favourite Damask roses, Christine Meile calls the flowering Ispahan the most attractive rose bush, in 1993, and was granted the Award of Garden Merit of the Royal Horticultural Society
Julia Child rose
The Julia Child rose, known in the UK as the Absolutely Fabulous rose, is a golden butter or golden floribunda rose, named after the chef Julia Child. This variety was bred by the American Tom Carruth in 2004, the stock parents of this rose are x x Topnotch. Celebrity chef Julia Child personally chose this floribunda rose to bear her name, the Julia Child cultivar features golden flowers produced in clusters that repeat all season long. Flowers are medium size, full, cup shaped, and globular, the small round bush, has foliage that is bright green, and glossy. The bush grows in height of 26 to 31, with a spread of 20 to 26 and it could grow larger in warmer climates. Usually climates with warmer temperatures offer the roses a longer season, the bright green foliage makes a nice backdrop for the buttery yellow flowers. It is used in borders, garden beds, containers, and it is a popular landscaping plant, because of its bright yellow color, disease resistance, and constant bloom. The Julia Child rose is heat tolerant, with excellent resistance to blackspot, free-flowering, the rose is known for its old-fashioned form and sweet licorice fragrance. Removing faded blooms forces the plant to more flowers. Only minimal pruning is needed to maintain its shape, the cultivar is a 2006 AARS winner. It was selected as Best of the Best in 2010, in Australia, the Julia Child rose is patented under Application No, 2009/219 since 2009. In the United States, the cultivar has a patent pending, United States-Patent No, PP18,473, submitted on Feb.52008
Heidi Klum rose
The Heidi Klum rose is a modern Beetrose from the home Tantau, was bred in 1999. This variety was the first registration number RT00681 and it was from 15 Rosenbreeding already in the autumn of 2003 Heidi Klum showing in 2005 during a public event of her personally baptized. Tantau they crossed from the Old Port and Barkarole and it is a rich flowering rose, with a very compact habit. Under normal conditions it reaches a height of 40 to 50 cm, the flowers can reach a size of up to 9 cm, are strong and have filled up to 40 petals. The flower color is predominantly Violet and they distribute an intensive intoxicating fragrance. The deciduous leaves of rose have green and rich foliage and this rose is easily susceptible to mildew and Diplocarpon rosae. Variety description at helpmefind varieties description in the world-Rosen
Rosa 'La France'
La France is a pink rose cultivar found in France in 1867 by the rosarian Jean-Baptiste André Guillot. It is generally accepted to be the first hybrid tea rose and its introduction is therefore also considered the birth of the modern rose. As the cultivar was not systematically bred, its hybrid parentage can only be speculated, la France has globular double flowers with slightly rolled outer petals and a strong sweet damask fragrance. The bloom form is high centered with up to 60 petals, the flowers develop from long pointed buds and reach an average diameter of 9 cm. Their colour is a light pink, while the reverse is deeper pink with lilac reflexes. The flowers appear solitary or in clusters on long stems in flushes throughout the season. As the stems are a bit feeble, the flower tend to nod. The plant grows vigorously to about 120 to 150 centimetres in height and 90 centimetres in width, as the mid green foliage is susceptible to fungi, the cultivar grows better in dry and warm climates or glass houses
Rosa 'Line Renaud'
Rosa Line Renaud is a hybrid tea rose cultivar bred in France by Meilland International SA and introduced in 2006. It was named for French actress Line Renaud, Line Renaud was developed at the Meilland-Richardier research center in Le Cannet-des-Maures. It is the result of a crossing in the year 1997 and its combination of fragrance and health was described as rare by Andreas Barlage. Klaus Körber described the fragrance as superb and popular with customers. The cultivar grows shoots up to 120 centimetres high with medium-sized very double flowers that are pink to red and have a very strong fragrance. The rose flowers repeatedly beginning in May or June, the rose grows one to four flowers per stem that are 9 to 10 centimetres in diameter. The bloom has been described as pink, dark pink, or fuchsia-colored in the style of old roses or resembling a peony. The petals are firm, which allows the flower to stay in shape in rain, the petals are sometimes whirled or quartered. The shrub is very thorny, branches only below flowers, and has green to dark green foliage. Its habit is upright and bushy, Line Renaud does not develop hips and does not self-clean in cold or damp weather. Bauer and Grothe suggest planting the rose in small groups and near to seats because of its fragrance, Barlage suggests a combination with garden heliotrope, sweet alyssum, and trumpet lilies. Bauer and Grothe propose combining the rose with rose mallow, cut flowers of Line Renaud last for a week. The cultivar can grow excessive shoots and gives an appearance in a container
Rosa 'Mister Lincoln'
Mister Lincoln is a large flowered bush rose introduced in 1964. This tall red rose is renowned for its fragrance and its deep. It grows to about 1.2 meters high and 1 metre across, the leaves are matte dark green. The buds are deep red and open up large, velvety red. It has typically around 30 to 35 petals per flower and it is a vigorous plant that performs well in all climates. Mister Lincoln is hardy to zone 5-9, helpMeFind Roses, Mister Lincoln Jackson and Perkins Roses, Mister Lincoln
Rosa 'Mrs. Harkness'
Mrs. Harkness is a rare light pink rose cultivar discovered by George Paul in Great Britain in 1893. It is a sport of the pink hybrid perpetual Heinrich Schultheis. The RHS Encyclopedia of Roses lists Pauls Early Blush and Mrs Harkness as two sports of Heinrich Schultheis, while Peter Beales uses the names synonymously. The name Mrs. Harkness was given by John Harkness in honour of his mother and introduced by Harkness, Mrs. Harkness has large double flowers with a cupped bloom form and 17 to 25 petals and a strong cinnamon fragrance. They are pale pink and appear quite early solitary or in clusters of up to four flowers on the repeat flowering shrub. The vigorous rose bush grows upright and reaches a height of about 90 to 150 cm and 90 cm width, the leaves grow on thick have a dark greyish green colour. Mrs. Harkness tolerates poorer soils, is hardy down to -20 °C. The cultivar can be grown in containers
Rosa Nevada is a white rose cultivar developed by Pedro Dot in Spain in 1927. It is one of his most successful creations and is named for its colour and its parentage was long under discussion, as Dot introduced the cultivar as a hybrid moyesii, but the cultivars round, black hips point to its R. pimpinellifolia-parentage. It is probably a cross between Dots pink hybrid tea La Giralda and the wild rose species Rosa pimpinellifolia var. altaica, the single to semi-double flowers have an open bloom form with an average diameter of 4 to 5, and grow on short stems. The ovoid buds have a pink or apricot colour and open to ivory-coloured flowers and they have a mild, sweet fragrance. The blooming season starts with an abundant first flush in early summer, further flowers appear throughout the season. Later flowers are often tinged pink. The removal of spent blooms helps to encourage re-bloom, in autumn, the rose develops some reddish brown, globular hips with an average diameter of 1.8 centimetres. Nevada forms tall climbing bushes with roundish, light green leaves, the long, arching shoots have a dark chocolate brown colour, few prickles, and are entirely covered with blooms during the first flowering flush. The shrub reaches an height of 7 to 13 and due to its arching habit a width of 8 to 13. Nevada can grow suckers on its own roots, the vigorous cultivar tolerates rain and poorer soils, is very hardy down to -37 °C, and generally disease resistant, but can be susceptible to black spot. Nevada is suitable for plantation in woodland areas or near water, peter Beales calls Nevada one of the best-known semi-double shrub roses. Marguerite Hilling, also called Pink Nevada is a sport of Nevada discovered by Thomas Hilling in the 1950s, that strongly resembles its parent in everything but its colour
Rosa 'Old Blush'
It is recorded in Sweden in 1752 and in England before 1759, but was probably cultivated in China for several centuries. It is believed to be the rose which inspired the song The Last Rose of Summer by the Irish composer, Old Blush has light silvery pink semi-double flowers of medium size that darken as they age. They have a light to strong tea fragrance, a cupped to flat bloom form, the red buds appear in clusters almost continuously from early June to the first frost - in warmer regions even throughout the year, and can develop to small, red rose hips. The shrub has a form, few prickles and mid-green leaves that have a crimson colour when young. It grows 100 to 150 centimetres tall and about 90 to 120 centimetres wide, tolerates half shade, poor soils, the cultivar can be trained as a small climber, reaching up to 2.5 metres height. The cultivar was one of the four cultivars inducted into the Old Rose Hall of Fame by the World Federation of Rose Societies at its creation in 1988. The Chinas and Teas became the foundation of new classes of roses, including the Bourbons, Noisettes, Hybrid perpetuals
The Peace rose, correctly Rosa Madame A. Meilland, is a well-known and successful garden rose. By 1992, over one hundred plants of this hybrid tea had been sold. The cultivar has large flowers of a yellow to cream color. It is hardy and vigorous and relatively resistant to disease, making it popular in gardens as well as in the floral trade and it was developed by French horticulturist Francis Meilland in the years 1935 to 1939. When Meilland foresaw the German invasion of France, he sent cuttings to friends in Italy, Turkey, Germany, and the United States to protect the new rose. It is said that it was sent to the US on the last plane available before the German invasion where it was propagated by the Conard Pyle Co. during the war. The cultivar was hybridized in 1935, receiving the number 3-35-40, as those first tests produced beautiful flowers in autumn of 1936, the first no. 3-35-40 were grown in Meillands rose fields in June 1939 and that summer, cuttings were sent to partners in other countries. According to Meillands records, Madame A. Meilland was hybridized from the hybrid tea Margaret McGredy, because Meilland had sent out his cuttings just before the war, communication between the cultivators was not possible, which is why the rose received different names. In France, Francis and Alain Meilland decided to call the cultivar Madame A. Meilland, in honor of the Francis deceased mother and this is the formal cultivar name. Other names are considered by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants as trade or selling names, in Italy it was called Gioia, in Germany Gloria Dei and in the USA, Sweden and Norway Peace. The rose became known as Peace in the following way, brooke declined saying that, though he was honored to be asked, his name would soon be forgotten and a much better and more enduring name would be Peace. The adoption of the trade name Peace was publicly announced in the United States on 29 April 1945 by the introducers, Messrs Conard Pyle Co and this was the very day that Berlin fell, a day considered a turning point in the Second World War in Europe. Peter Beales, English rose grower and expert, said in his book Roses, Peace, without doubt, is the finest Hybrid Tea ever raised and it will remain a standard variety forever. Mme A. Meilland forms elegant buds that open to large, cupped flowers with a high-centered form and their color is a combination of pale yellow and crimson edges that depends on the location, the weather and changes as the flower fades. The durable flowers are full, with 40 to 43 petals, survive rainy periods. The cultivar flowers continuously throughout the season up to the first frost, the vigorous shrub grows 120 to 200 cm high and 90 to 125 cm wide, is winter hardy down to −23 °C, half-shade tolerant, and disease resistant. The large, glossy leaves are dark and leathery
Rosa 'Perle d'Or'
Rosa Perle dOr is a rose cultivar bred by Joseph Rambaux in 1875 and introduced by Francis Dubreuil in France in 1883. Its parents were a double-flowered R. multiflora seedling and the tea rose Madame Falcot, the small, full flowers have 26 to 40 petals, forming small light rosettes with an average diameter of 4 centimetres. Their colour is amber with a hint of pink and ages to white. Their fragrance is described as sweet and fruity, and varying in strength from light to strong and they develop from vermillion, long, ovoid buds and appear in large, long-stemmed clusters of 5 to 25 in flushes throughout the season. Perle dOr has well-branched shoots with glossy, medium to dark green foliage, the vigorous shrub grows densely, reaching 0.9 to 1.8 metres height at a width of 0.6 to 1 metre, and is winter hardy down to -20 °C. While the original form is a low shrub, a sport also exists. Rosa Perle dOr was granted several awards, including the Lyon Gold Medal in 1883, and the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit in 1993
Rosa 'Pink Wonder'
Rosa Pink Wonder is a light pink floribunda rose cultivar. It was bred in 1970 by Meilland International in France, the flowers have an average diameter of 9 cm and a strong, sweet fragrance. They appear in clusters of 3-7 throughout the season. Pink Wonder has brilliant, dark leaves and almost no thorns. The shrub reaches a height of 60 to 130 cm and a width of 1 m and it is winter hardy up to -23.3 °C. Madrid Gold Medal 1969 Belfast Gold Medal 1972 The sport Climbing Pink Wonder is also popular, grows about 5 m tall and blooms repeatedly