Hartford is the capital of the U. S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, as of the 2010 Census, Hartfords population was 124,775, making it Connecticuts third-largest city after the coastal cities of Bridgeport and New Haven. Census Bureau estimates since have indicated Hartfords subsequent fall to fourth place statewide as a result of sustained growth in the coastal city of Stamford. Nicknamed the Insurance Capital of the World, Hartford houses many insurance company headquarters, founded in 1635, Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States. In 1868, resident Mark Twain wrote, Of all the towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief. Following the American Civil War, Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades, Hartford is one of the poorest cities in the nation with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty line. In sharp contrast, the Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production, various tribes, all part of the loose Algonquin confederation, lived in or around present-day Hartford.
The area was referred to as Suckiaug, meaning Black Fertile River-Enhanced Earth, the first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch, under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post, the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop, or the House of Hope, in 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to perhaps a couple families and a few dozen soldiers, the area today is known as Dutch Point, and the name of the Dutch fort, House of Hope, is reflected in the name of Huyshope Avenue. The fort was abandoned by 1654, but its neighborhood in Hartford is still known as Dutch Point, the Dutch outpost, and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers that were stationed there, did little to check the English migration.
The Dutch soon realized they were vastly outnumbered, the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was steadily swallowed up by waves of English settlers. The English began to arrive 1637, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown, the settlement was originally called Newtown, but was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stones hometown of Hertford, England. Hooker created the town of Windsor. The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, the Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer, which in full maturity was referred to by the medieval hunting term hart. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River had issues with the authority by which it was to be governed because it was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colonys charter. Historians suggest that Hookers conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders went on to inspire the Connecticut Constitution, one of Connecticuts nicknames is the Constitution State
James M. Ridenour
James Michael Ridenour was the director of the National Park Service. He served as director of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources for eight years before becoming NPS director in April 1989, director Rindenour was not willing to accept additions to the system simply for local economic development. He spoke out against the thinning of the blood of the system and he departed with the Bush administration in January 1993. General Hospital, as chief of the Welfare and Recreation Branch, director Ridenour brought together a diverse gathering of park officials, public officials, and public interest groups and individuals at Vail, Colorado in 1991. The group developed a program called the VAIL AGENDA, which laid out a program of standards to bring the Park Service into the 21st Century, the National Park Service underwent an intensive review of its responsibilities and prospects for the future during its 75th anniversary celebration in 1991. It culminated its efforts in October 1991 with a symposium in Vail, National Park Service National Park Service Biography James M.
Ridenour Papers at Clemson University Special Collections Library
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Fran P. Mainella
Frances P. Mainella was the 16th Director of the National Park Service of the United States and first woman to hold that position. She was appointed by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the U. S. Senate in 2001 and she announced her retirement in July 2006 and resigned effective October 15,2006. Mary A. Bomar, was sworn-in as the 17th Director on October 17,2006 and she subsequently gave contradictory accounts of this to federal investigators. She currently is a scholar at Clemson University where she is Co-Chair of the US Play Coalition - a partnership to promote the value of play throughout life. She was born in Willimantic and received a degree from the University of Connecticut. In 2002 she received an Honorary Doctorate in Public Service from Central Connecticut State University, the Fran P. Mainella Award is subtitled the Outstanding Woman in Park Resources Award. In 2002, Clemson University presented her with its Walter T. Cox Award, which recognizes leadership in service, public land administration.
The American Recreation Coalition presented her with its 2002 Sheldon Coleman Great Outdoors Award, in 2006, she was awarded the William Penn Mott, Jr. Award for Excellence by the National Society for Park Resources. From 2007-2010, the Clemson University Board of Trustees presented her with an award for faculty excellence, Clemson recently named an award in her honor to encourage women to pursue conservation careers. In 2007, Fran was presented the Pugsley Medal a second time for outstanding national leadership, Fran is one of very few that have ever received this high recognition twice. She has selected as the Metcalf Lecturer for SUNY- Cortland, the first ever Ralph Steele Lecturer for East Carolina University. In 2011, Mainella received the alumni of the year award from the University of Connecticut Neag School of Education. A January 19,2006 report from the U. S. Smith, Mainellas Special Assistant at the National Park Service, the report said Smith told investigators that during the game, Mainella told Snyders associate to speak with Smith.
After the game, Mainella assigned Smith the project of assisting Snyder, Smith worked through the National Capital Regional Office of the NPS and the parks Acting Superintendent, Kevin Brandt, to pressure and push for the projects completion. The report noted Smith went so far as to meet with Snyder at Snyders Potomac, the report stated that when she was asked about her actions regarding Snyder and the trees, Mainella said she failed to recall these meetings and conversations. The report concluded Snyder should not have cut the trees and the NPS violated law, shortly thereafter, Mainella resigned as Director of the NPS
A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The title landscape architect was first used by Frederick Law Olmsted and this definition of the profession of landscape architect is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations, International Labour Office, Geneva. Some notable Australian landscape architects include William Guilfoyle, Ina Higgins, Edna Walling, after at least two years of recognised professional practice, graduates may submit for further assessment to obtain full professional recognition by the AILA. The Landscape Institute is the recognised body relating to the field of Landscape architecture throughout the UK, to become a recognised landscape architect in the UK takes approximately 7 years. To begin the process, one has to study a course by the Landscape Institute to obtain a bachelors degree in Landscape Architecture or a similar field. Following this one must progress onto a Postgraduate Diploma in the field of Landscape Architecture covering the subject in far greater detail such as urban planning, construction.
Following this, the trainee must complete the Pathway to Chartership and those in this field work both to create an aesthetically pleasing setting and to protect and preserve the environment in an area. The actual activities however are common to most human cultures around the globe for several millennia, in the U. S. a need to formalize the practice and name were resolved in 1899 with the formation of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Developing policies and plans and implementing and monitoring proposals for conservation and recreation such as national parks. Contributing to the planning and functional design, location and maintenance of such as roads, wind farms and other energy. Undertaking landscape assessments including environmental and visual impact assessments to prepare policies or inform new developments, monitoring the realisation and inspecting the construction of proposals to ensure compliance with plans, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules. Project management of large scale landscape planning and design projects including management of other such as engineers, architects.
Acting as a witness in Development and Environment Courts Kerb 15. Launched by Charles Waldheim, April 2007, content includes articles and interviews from Charles Waldheim, Mohsen Mostafavi, Alejandro Zaera-Polo, Kathryn Gustafson, Bart Brands and Richard Weller. Landscape design software List of landscape architects Job Description at the U. S. Department of Labor
When the National Park Service was created in 1916, long-distance travel in North America was typically accomplished by train. There was no road system, and airline travel was in its infancy. With the development of the US highway system as a works project during the Great Depression, many previously remote parks became accessible via good roads. The explosion in prosperity following World War II brought a tide of automobile-borne tourists that the parks were ill-equipped to receive, by the mid-1950s it was apparent that massive investment in park infrastructure was required. Mission 66 was conceived as the means to accommodate increased visitor numbers, while Mission 66 involved a variety of infrastructure projects such as roads and employee housing, the most visible components were the interpretational facilities, or visitor center. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the Park Service came under increasing criticism for neglect of the park system, an essay by Bernard DeVoto in Harpers Magazine proposed that the national parks should be closed until they were funded appropriately.
While this had little effect, it highlighted an increasing level of concern about the state. In 1955, Park Service Director Conrad Wirth proposed a program of capital improvement. The expressed aim was to complete the upgrades in time for the Park Services 50th anniversary in 1966, in early parks, visitor orientation facilities were built on a relatively small scale, often in the form of trailside museums for visitor edification. As a new feature, visitor centers had to be built quickly, managers such as Thomas Chalmers Vint, the Park Service director of design and construction, made a conscious decision to employ a more streamlined modern style of design for Mission 66 facilities. The simpler, cleaner design philosophy was faster and less expensive to implement, Mission 66 involved substantial re-planning of entire park infrastructures, with entirely new developments reaching the proportions of new towns. The similar Wuksachi Village in Sequoia National Park was planned to replace the Giant Forest, colter Bay Village in Grand Teton National Park included the relocation of cabins from guest ranches displaced by the expansion of the park into Jackson Hole.
While a large portion of the funding for Mission 66 was devoted to visitor facilities, much of the existing housing was built by the CCC and amounted to little more than cabins. Using the model of military housing, a series of standard designs was developed. The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial on the St. Louis, Missouri riverfront entailed the demolition of forty blocks of the city to create a new park at the feet of Gateway Arch. The old warehouse district had been targeted for demolition by the city to eradicate urban blight, and the arch and its park were seen as a means to this end, much of the exploration and expansion the new project commemorated had originated from the demolished riverfront district. In Philadelphia, the development of Independence National Historical Park involved the creation of Independence Mall, the mall was designed to provide a vista of Independence Hall, necessitating the demolition of numerous 19th-century buildings. While Mission 66 is most frequently associated with improvements, it funded a number of continuing programs
Civilian Conservation Corps
The Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal. Originally for young men ages 18–25, it was expanded to young men ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the head of the agency, the CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men, and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. At the same time, it implemented a general natural resource conservation program in every state, maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Over the course of its nine years in operation,3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them shelter, clothing. The American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs, principal benefits of an individuals enrollment in the CCC included improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability. The CCC operated separate programs for veterans and Native Americans, approximately 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression.
Despite its popular support, the CCC was never a permanent agency and it depended on emergency and temporary Congressional legislation and funding to operate. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, as governor of New York, Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, uniforms, the Emergency Conservation Work Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5,1933 which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, the organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program, to end the opposition from labor unions Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the American Machinists Union, as director of the corps.
William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor. Reserve officers from the U. S. Army were in charge of the camps, General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army. But the Army found benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni corporals, CCC provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the performance of both Regular and Reserve Officers
Robert Stanton (park director)
Robert G. Bob Stanton is a retired career civil service administrator who served for almost four decades in the United States National Park Service. He was the first African American to be appointed as the Director of the Park Service, Stanton was born in Fort Worth, where he grew up in Mosier Valley, one of the oldest African-American communities in the state. He earned a B. S. in 1963 from Huston-Tillotson University and he did graduate work at Boston University and George Washington University. Stanton began his Federal career as a park ranger at Grand Teton National Park, during the summers of 1962 and 1963. He took a position with the National Park Service in 1966, as a personnel management and public information specialist in the headquarters at Washington. In 1970, he was promoted to superintendent of National Capital Parks-East, in 1971, he was selected as superintendent of Virgin Islands National Park, St. Thomas and gained experience in the Caribbean. In 1974, he was promoted to Deputy Regional Director of the Southeast Region, based in Atlanta, in 1976, Stanton returned to Washington, D. C.
as Assistant Director, Park Operations. In 1978 he was selected as Deputy Regional Director of the National Capital Region, in 1987, he returned to headquarters as Associate Director for Operations. In 1988 he was selected as the Regional Director of the National Capital Region, shortly after his retirement, and that same year, Stanton was called back from retirement when he was appointed as the 15th National Park Service Director by President Bill Clinton. He served from August 1997 until January 2001, Stanton was the first African American to serve as NPS Director, as well as the first career civil service employee appointed to the position since Russell E. Dickensons term from 1980 to 1985. As Director, Stanton supported increasing staff diversity, as well as programs to ensure recognition of cultural and he worked to improve the agencys public programs to better serve minority populations. Over his long NPS career, Stanton completed numerous programs in conservation, Stanton is an executive professor in the Department of Recreation and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University.
National Park Service Roger G. Kennedy - 14th Director Fran P. Mainella - 16th Director Robert Stanton Papers at Clemson University Special Collections Library
Stephen Tyng Mather was an American industrialist and conservationist who as president and owner of Thorkildsen-Mather Borax Company became a millionaire. In 1917, Mather was appointed as the first director of the National Park Service, Mather was educated at the private Boys High School in San Francisco, and graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1887. His family moved to New York, where Mather worked as a reporter for the New York Sun until 1893, during that time he met and befriended Robert Sterling Yard, another reporter, who would become a close friend. In 1893 Mather married Jane Thacker Floy of Elizabeth, New Jersey and they had one daughter, Bertha Floy Mather. In 1906, Mather became the owner of the Mather family homestead in Connecticut. He and his family used it during the summers and he regarded it as his true home, Mather started working for the Pacific Coast Borax Company at its headquarters in New York, where his father was administrator. Borax is a component of a variety of detergents and compounds, Borax is a commodity, and as such, one brand is essentially as good as another.
For a company to be successful, it had to mine the product more cheaply, process it more efficiently, in 1894 the younger Mather moved with his wife to Chicago, where he established a distribution center for the company. In this role, he proved vital in advertising and sales promotion for the company, in particular he is credited with the idea of adding the label 20 Mule Team Borax to the companys product, which subsequently became a household name throughout the country. In 1898 Mather helped a friend, Thomas Thorkildsen, in starting another borax company, after suffering a severe episode of bipolar disorder in 1903 and having his salary withheld during extended sick leave, Mather resigned from Pacific Coast and joined Thorkildsen full-time in 1904. They named their firm the Thorkildsen-Mather Borax Company and their company became prosperous, and they were millionaires by 1914. This gave Mather the financial independence to pursue personal projects, and while in his mid-forties, Mather was active in many civic groups, including the Chicago City Club and Municipal Voters League.
Travel with his wife to Europe in 1904 renewed Mathers longtime interest in nature and he became a dedicated conservationist, and a friend and admirer of the influential John Muir. In 1904 Mather joined the Sierra Club, and climbed Mount Rainier with some of its members the following year and he was active in the group and made numerous allies who helped support the creation of the National Park Service. In 1916 the Sierra Club made him an honorary vice-president, in 1915 Mather became a member of the Boone and Crockett Club, a conservation organization founded by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell in 1887. There is the story of how Mather came to Washington to run the National parks. Heres the traditional, if incorrect, story, In 1914, Mather observed the deteriorating conditions in several National Parks, soon he received a reply from Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, a former classmate of Mathers from the University of California. Lane responded, Dear Steve, If you dont like the way the parks are being run, come on down to Washington, but in years, Mathers assistant Horace Albright was to state, In reality, they didnt know each other
The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, soil conservation and sustainable forestry. Some say the movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their sustainable use by humans. The conservation movement can be traced back to John Evelyns work Sylva, published as a book two years later, it was one of the most highly influential texts on forestry ever published. The field developed during the 18th century, especially in Prussia and these methods were first applied rigorously in British India from the early-19th century. This early ecological idea was in order to preserve the growth of teak trees. The first forestry officer was appointed in 1806 to regulate and preserve the trees necessary for shipbuilding and this promising start received a setback in the 1820s and 30s, when laissez-faire economics and complaints from private landowners brought these early conservation attempts to an end.
Conservation was revived in the century, with the first practical application of scientific conservation principles to the forests of India. Edward Percy Stebbing warned of desertification of India and this was the first case of state management of forests in the world. These local attempts gradually received more attention by the British government as the unregulated felling of trees continued unabated, in 1850, the British Association in Edinburgh formed a committee to study forest destruction at the behest of Dr. Hugh Cleghorn a pioneer in the nascent conservation movement. He had become interested in forest conservation in Mysore in 1847, in the same year, Cleghorn organised the Madras Forest Department and in 1860 the Department banned the use shifting cultivation. Cleghorns 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, in 1861, the Forest Department extended its remit into the Punjab. Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester, joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma.
During that time Burmas teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals and he introduced the taungya system, in which Karen villagers provided labour for clearing and weeding teak plantations. After seven years in Burma, Brandis was appointed Inspector General of Forests in India and he formulated new forest legislation and helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him, germans were prominent in the forestry administration of British India. As well as Brandis, Berthold Ribbentrop and Sir William P. D, schlich brought new methods to Indian conservation, the latter becoming the Inspector-General in 1883 after Brandis stepped down. Schlich helped to establish the journal Indian Forester in 1874, and he authored the five-volume Manual of Forestry on silviculture, forest management, forest protection, and forest utilisation, which became the standard and enduring textbook for forestry students
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2015, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and Saint Paul anchor the second-largest economic center in the Midwest, after Chicago. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul. It was once the worlds flour milling capital and a hub for timber, the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Chicago and Seattle, with Minneapolis proper containing Americas fifth-highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies. As an integral link to the economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city. Noted for its music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. The name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the citys first schoolteacher, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, and polis, Dakota Sioux had long been the regions sole residents when French explorers arrived around 1680.
For a time relations were based on fur trading, gradually more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Dakota. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired this territory from France, fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the United States Army, and it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present-day Minneapolis as a town in 1856 on the Mississippis west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago. It joined with the city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, sashes.
Due to the hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s. The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the citys thirty-four flour mills, a father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from the Hungarians by William de la Barre, pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that Minneapolis
Hatteras Island is a barrier island located off the North Carolina coast. Dividing the Atlantic Ocean and the Pamlico Sound, it parallel to the coast. It is part of North Carolinas Outer Banks and includes the towns of Rodanthe, Salvo, Buxton, Frisco and it contains the largest part of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore. It is almost entirely in Dare County, North Carolina, the island is one of the longest in the contiguous United States, measuring 42 miles along a straight line from end to end, or roughly 50 miles along the curve of the land. Hatteras Island is known for fishing, surfing and kiteboarding. Accommodations range from hotels and condos to luxurious oceanfront cottages, Hatteras Island is often used for destination weddings, family reunions, and special events. According to the United States Census Bureau the island has an area of 85.56 km². It lies in parts of Kinnakeet Township and Hatteras Township in Dare County, the Hatteras Indians were the first human inhabitants of Hatteras Island.
They established a settlement known as Croatoan on the island, the story of the missing colony began when John White finally returned to Roanoke on a fifth voyage to the colony, a much-delayed re-supply mission arriving in 1590. At that time, the settlement was found abandoned, the only clue to the colonists whereabouts was the word Croatoan found carved into the palisade of the fort. It is logical that the left on Roanoke had gone back to Croatoan, as they had already lived there and had had a strong relationship with the natives. White had instructed them that if anything happened to them, they should carve a Maltese cross on a tree nearby, as there was no cross, White took this to mean they had moved to Croatoan Island. However, he was unable to conduct a search, as a storm was brewing. The next day, they left the area without looking further for the colonists. While there are no incorporated places on Hatteras, there are resort communities along the length of the island. Hatteras Village, terminus of the ferry to Ocracoke Island, as there are no incorporated places on Hatteras, the island is patrolled by the Dare County Sheriffs Office, North Carolina Highway Patrol, and the National Park Service.
For many years, the ways to reach Hatteras Island was by ferry. In November 1963, the Herbert C, Bonner Bridge was completed, connecting Hatteras Island to the northern Outer Banks