Neustadt an der Aisch
Neustadt an der Aisch is a small town of around 12,000 in the northern part of Bavaria, within the Franconian administrative region Middle Franconia. It is the district town of the district Neustadt -Bad Windsheim. In 741, for the first time, the town's root settlement, was documented as the German king's court. However, in 1285 the town's name is documented for the first time as "Nivenstadt". At the end of the 12th century, Neustadt became part of the sovereign territory of the burgraves of Nuremberg, the dynasty of the Hohenzollern; the House of Hohenzollern developed Neustadt into an economical and cultural centre of its region because of its favourable geographical position in the middle of the main trade route between Würzburg and Nuremberg. At the end of the 15th century, Margrave Albrecht Achilles and Kurfürstin Anna completed Neustadt as a stronghold. In 1553, in the Second Margrave War, the town was burnt down. Afterwards, a long lasting phase of construction and extension began; this phase ended with the destructions of the Thirty Years' War.
The rebuilding after that war lasted several hundred of years. From 1791 through to 1806, Neustadt was part of the sovereign territory of Prussia was military governed by the French, in 1810 became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the political importance of Neustadt faded thereafter, but trade and industry kept growing due to the deployment of a garrison of the Uhlans, in 1865 due to the opening of its station on the Nuremberg–Würzburg Railway. In 1934, the town was the scene of an organized boycott against all Jewish merchants, violence broke out against Christian Germans who patronized stores owned by Jews. All of the Jews of Neustadt were expelled, many relocating to Nuremberg, the Jewish synagogue was razed to the ground. During the 20th century, traditional handicrafts completely vanished. With the resettlement of expellees from Sudetenland, new handicraft industries were imported: construction of musical instruments and the textile industry flourished. From 1969 through to 1980, in total 16 Ortsteile were incorporated.
In the course of an administrative reorganization, Neustadt became capital of the newly formed district "Neustadt -Bad Windsheim". In the 1980s and 1990s, the infrastructure was improved on a grand scale: a beltway was built, a pedestrian area around the market place was created. Birkenfeld Diebach Eggensee Herrnneuses Kleinerlbach Obernesselbach Unterschweinach Oberschweinach Schauerheim Schellert Unternesselbach Elias Levita, humanist, Hebrew grammarian, Yiddish writer Johannes Gramann, Protestant Reformer and poet of chants Lazarus Nürnberger, merchant, in cooperation with Jacob and Hans Cromberger founder of the Deutscher Amerikahandel Johann Mützel, master builder of several castles in ernestinian principalities of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, in the principalities Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Arnstadt, in Schlitz, in Tann. Informations for genealogists in GenWiki
Electorate of Mainz
The Electorate of Mainz known in English as Mentz and by its French name Mayence, was one of the most prestigious and influential states of the Holy Roman Empire. In the Roman Catholic hierarchy, the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz was the Primate of Germany, a purely honorary dignity, unsuccessfully claimed from time to time by other archbishops. There were only two other ecclesiastical Prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Cologne and the Electorate of Trier; the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz was archchancellor of Germany and, as such, ranked first among all ecclesiastical and secular princes of the Empire, was second only to the Emperor. His political role as an intermediary between the Estates of the Empire and the Emperor, was considerable; the episcopal see was established in ancient Roman times in the city of Mainz, a Roman provincial capital, Moguntiacum. The first bishops before the 4th century have legendary names, beginning with Crescens; the first verifiable Bishop of Mainz was Martinus in 343.
The ecclesiastical and secular importance of Mainz dates from the accession of St. Boniface to the see in 747. Boniface was an archbishop though without an assigned see, but that ecclesiastical status did not devolve upon the see itself until his successor Lullus. Another early bishop of Mainz was Aureus of Mainz; the territory of the Electorate included several non-contiguous blocks of territory: lands near Mainz on both the left and right banks of the Rhine. As was the case in the Holy Roman Empire, the territory of a prince-bishopric or archbishopric differed from that of the corresponding diocese or archdiocese, the purely spiritual jurisdiction of the prince-bishop or archbishop. During the early modern age, the archdiocese of Mainz was the largest ecclesiastical province of Germany, covering Mainz and 10 suffragant dioceses. In 1802, Mainz lost its archiepiscopal character. In the secularizations that accompanied the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, the seat of the elector, Karl Theodor von Dalberg, was moved to Regensburg, the electorate lost its left bank territories to France, its right bank areas along the Main below Frankfurt to Hesse-Darmstadt and the Nassau princes, Eichsfeld and Erfurt to the Kingdom of Prussia.
Dalberg retained the Aschaffenburg area as the Principality of Aschaffenburg. In 1810 Dalberg merged Aschaffenburg, Wetzlar and Fulda, to form the new Grand Duchy of Frankfurt in 1810. Dalberg resigned in 1813 and in 1815 the Congress of Vienna divided his territories between the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and the Free City of Frankfurt; the modern Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz was founded in 1802 when Mainz lost its archdiocese status and its territory west of the Rhine River became a mere diocese within the territory of France. In 1814 its jurisdiction was extended over the territory of Hesse-Darmstadt. Since it has had two cardinals and via various concordats was allowed to retain the medieval tradition of the cathedral chapter electing a successor to the bishop. Elector of Mainz Mainz Cathedral Primas Germaniae Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz Official website of the modern Diocese Map of the Archbishopric of Mainz in 1789
Mainz Cathedral or St. Martin's Cathedral is located near the historical center and pedestrianized market square of the city of Mainz, Germany; this 1000-year-old Roman Catholic cathedral is the site of the episcopal. Mainz Cathedral is predominantly Romanesque in style, but exterior additions over many centuries have resulted in the appearance of various architectural influences seen today, it stands under the patronage of Saint Martin of Tours. The eastern quire is dedicated to Saint Stephen; the interior of the cathedral houses tombs and funerary monuments of former powerful Electoral-prince-archbishops, or Kurfürst-Erzbischöfe, of the diocese and contains religious works of art spanning a millennium. The cathedral has a central courtyard and statues of Saint Boniface and The Madonna on its grounds. During the time of Mainz Archbishop Willigis, the city of Mainz flourished economically, Willigis became one of the most influential politicians of that time, ascending to regent of the empire between 991 and 994.
In 975-976 shortly after his installation he ordered the construction of a new cathedral in the pre-Romanesque Ottonian architecture style. This new and impressive building was part of his vision of Mainz as the "second Rome"; this new cathedral was to take over the functions of two churches: the old cathedral and St. Alban's, the largest church in the area, belonging to a Benedictine abbey and serving as the burial ground for the bishops and other nobles, including Fastrada, a spouse of Charlemagne. Most of the synods and other important meetings were held at St. Alban's Abbey; the new cathedral consisted of a double chancel with two transepts. The main hall was built in the typical triple-nave "cross" pattern; as was usual at that time no vault was included because of structural difficulties relating to the size of the building. Six towers rose from the church. A cloister was enclosed in the structure and a small freestanding church, St. Mary's Church, connected by a colonnade; this small church developed into the collegiate church of St. Maria ad Gradus.
Sandstone was used as the primary building material for the cathedral. The inside was plastered white under the Archbishop Bardo in the middle of the 10th century. During renovations ordered by Henry IV in the late 11th century, much of the outside was plastered, but the cornices were left exposed in their original red and yellow, it is believed that the coloring of the cathedral was changed more times, but no further documentation of the coloring is available until record of the Baroque works. The cathedral suffered extensive damage from a fire on the day of its inauguration in 1009. Archbishop Bardo presided over the completion of the cathedral begun under Willigis. By 1037 the main portions of the body of Mainz Cathedral were complete. Willigis was buried in the second church he had initiated, St. Stephan's, in 1011; the reason for building two chancels is not clear. Many scholars suggest that there is some symbolic significance, such as empire and church, or body and spirit, but no irrefutable evidence for these theories exists.
Others claim. Whatever the original intent of the double chancel, the eastern chancel came to serve as the location for the mass and the western chancel was reserved for the bishop and pontiffs. In most cathedrals at the time, the main chancel lay on the east side. Willigis, designed his cathedral with the main chancel on the west modeled after the great basilicas in Rome, which were constructed this way; the chancel was badly damaged in the fire of 1009, remained that way under Archbishops Erkanbald and Aribo. The chancel was reconstructed under Bardo, he buried his predecessor Aribo there, before the rest of the cathedral was finished.. In 1081, fire once again struck the cathedral, the appearance of the Salian western end is not known. In 1100, Henry IV ordered reconstruction in the old Lombardic style; the old flat chancel end on the east side was replaced with a large apse, which external gallery with a narrow arcade supported by short columns crowned the semicircular wall with a wide pseudo arcade and tall pillasters on both sides.
The new chancel had a triple-nave crypt. The damaged square tower had been replaced with an octagonal dome, above which an octagonal tower was added later. Flanking stair turrets remained from the first cathedral; these changes resembled the renovations Henry had overseen on Speyer Cathedral a few years earlier. Henry undertook a few other minor changes, such as raising the transept on the east side and adding openings at the column level; these column-level portals were among the first such constructed. Henry died in 1106. With his death, the funding for the renovation of the cathedral dried up and so the remaining construction was abandoned. Mainz Cathedral is considered one of the three Kaiserdome of the Holy Roman Empire, along with Worms Cathedral and Speyer Cathedral. Archbishop Adalbert I of Saarbrücken had a two-story chapel, called the Gotthard Chapel, built as the official palace chapel next to the cathedral, it is believed that he ordered the renovation of the main body of the cathedral due to similarities between the main hall and the vault of the new chapel.
Conception for the renovations was agai
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and of Constance, heiress to the Norman kings of Sicily. Frederick's reign saw the Holy Roman Empire achieve its greatest territorial extent, his political and cultural ambitions were enormous as he ruled a vast area beginning with Sicily and stretching through Italy all the way north to Germany. As the Crusades progressed, he styled himself its king. However, the Papacy became his enemy, it prevailed. Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman emperors of antiquity, he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; as such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, of Burgundy. At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily, his other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade.
At war with the papacy, hemmed in between Frederick's lands in northern Italy and his Kingdom of Sicily to the south, he was excommunicated four times and vilified in pro-papal chronicles of the time and after. Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was an avid patron of the arts, he played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, beginning around 1220, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian; the poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language. He was the first king to formally outlaw trial by ordeal, which had come to be viewed as superstitious. After his death his line did not survive, the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Furthermore, the Holy Roman Empire entered a long period of decline from which it did not recover until the reign of Charles V, 250 years later.
Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Donald Detwiler, who wrote: A man of extraordinary culture and ability – called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi, by Nietzsche the first European, by many historians the first modern ruler – Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy. Born in Iesi, near Ancona, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI, he was known as the puer Apuliae. Some chronicles say that his mother, the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a public square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin such as son of a butcher. Frederick was baptised in Assisi. In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Germans, his rights in Germany were disputed by Henry's brother Philip of Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy, traveling towards Germany, when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto.
Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, where he was crowned king on 17 May 1198, at just three years of age. Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, she established herself as regent. In Frederick's name she dissolved Sicily's ties to Germany and the Empire, created by her marriage, sending home his German counsellors and renouncing his claims to the German throne and empire. Upon Constance's death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Frederick's guardian. Frederick's tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Pope Honorius III. Markward of Annweiler, with the support of Henry's brother, Philip of Swabia, reclaimed the regency for himself and soon after invaded the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1200, with the help of Genoese ships, he landed in Sicily and one year seized the young Frederick, he thus ruled Sicily until 1202, when he was succeeded by another German captain, William of Capparone, who kept Frederick under his control in the royal palace of Palermo until 1206.
Frederick was subsequently under tutor Walter of Palearia. His first task was to reassert his power over Sicily and southern Italy, where local barons and adventurers had usurped most of the authority. Otto of Brunswick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209. In southern Italy, Otto became the champion of those noblemen and barons who feared Frederick's strong measures to check their power, such as the dismissal of the pro-noble Walter of Palearia; the new emperor invaded Italy. In response, Innocent sided against Otto, in September 1211 at the Diet of Nuremberg Frederick was elected in absentia as German King by a rebellious faction backed by the pope. Innocent excommunicated Otto, forced to return to Germany. Frederick sailed to Gaeta with a small following, he agreed with the pope on a future separation between the Sicilian and Imperial titles, named his wife Constance as regent. Passing through Lombardy and Engadin, he reached Konstanz in September 1212, preceding Otto by a few hours.
Frederick was crowned as king on 9 December 1212 in Mainz. Frederick's authority in Germany rem
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany. Located on the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia; the regional dialect is East Franconian. Würzburg lies about equidistant from Frankfurt am Nuremberg. Although the city of Würzburg is not part of the Landkreis Würzburg, it is the seat of the district's administration; the city has a population of around 130,000 people. A Bronze Age refuge castle stood on the site of the present Fortress Marienberg; the former Celtic territory was settled by the Alamanni in the 4th or 5th century, by the Franks in the 6th to 7th. Würzburg was the seat of a Merovingian duke from about 650, it was Christianized in 686 by Irish missionaries Kilian and Totnan. The city is mentioned in a donation by Duke Hedan II to bishop Willibrord, dated 1 May 704, in castellum Virteburch; the Ravenna Cosmography lists the city as Uburzis at about the same time. The name is of Celtic origin, but based on a folk etymological connection to the German word Würze "herb, spice", the name was Latinized as Herbipolis in the medieval period.
Beginning in 1237, the city seal depicted the cathedral and a portrait of Saint Kilian, with the inscription SIGILLVM CIVITATIS HERBIPOLENSIS. It shows a banner on a tilted lance in a blue field, with the banner quarterly argent and gules or and gules; this coat of arms replaced the older seal of the city, showing Saint Kilian, from 1570. The first diocese was founded by Saint Boniface in 742 when he appointed the first bishop of Würzburg, Saint Burkhard; the bishops created a secular fiefdom, which extended in the 12th century to Eastern Franconia. The city was the site of several Imperial Diets, including the one of 1180, at which Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was banned for three years from the Empire and his duchy Bavaria was handed over to Otto of Wittelsbach. Massacres of Jews took place in 1147 and 1298; the first church on the site of the present Würzburg Cathedral was built as early as 788 and consecrated that same year by Charlemagne. The University of Würzburg was founded in 1402 and re-founded in 1582.
The citizens of the city revolted several times against the prince-bishop. In 1397, King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia had visited the city and promised its people the status of a free Imperial City. However, the German ruling princes forced him to withdraw these promises. In 1400, the citizenry was decisively defeated by the troops of the bishop in the Schlacht von Bergtheim, the city fell under his control permanently until the dissolution of the fiefdom; the Würzburg witch trials, which occurred between 1626 and 1631, are one of the largest peace-time mass trials. In Würzburg, under Bishop Philip Adolf an estimated number between 600 and 900 alleged witches were burnt. In 1631, Swedish King Gustaf Adolf plundered the castle. In 1720, the foundations of the Würzburg Residence were laid. In 1796, the Battle of Würzburg between Habsburg Austria and the First French Republic took place; the city passed to the Electorate of Bavaria in 1803, but two years in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, it became the seat of the Electorate of Würzburg, the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
In 1814, the town became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria and a new bishopric was created seven years as the former one had been secularized in 1803. In 1817, Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer founded Schnellpressenfabrik Bauer. In the early 1930s, around 2,000 Jews had lived in Würzburg, a rabbinic center. Between November 1941 and June 1943 Jews from the city were sent to the Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe. On 16 March 1945, about 90% of the city was destroyed in 17 minutes by fire bombing from 225 British Lancaster bombers during a World War II air raid. Würzburg became a target for its role as a traffic hub. All of the city's churches and other monuments were damaged or destroyed; the city center, which dated from medieval times, was destroyed in a firestorm in which 5,000 people perished. Over the next 20 years, the buildings of historical importance were painstakingly and reconstructed; the citizens who rebuilt the city after the end of the war were women – Trümmerfrauen – because the men were either dead or still prisoners of war.
On a relative scale, Würzburg was destroyed to a larger extent than was Dresden in a firebombing the previous month. On 3 April 1945, Würzburg was occupied by the U. S. 12th Armored Division and U. S. 42nd Infantry Division in a series of frontal assaults masked by smokescreens. The battle continued until the final Wehrmacht resistance was defeated on 5 April 1945; the 2016 Würzburg train attack took place at the Würzburg-Heidingsfeld railway station on 18 July. Würzburg is located on both banks of the river Main in the region of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany; the main body of the town is on the eastern bank of the river. The town is enclosed by the Landkreis Würzburg, but is not a part of it. Würzburg lies at an altitude of around 177 metres. Of the total municipal area, in 2007, building area accounted for 30%, followed by agricultural land, forestry/wood, green spaces, traffic and others; the centre of Würzburg is surrou
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria. The archdiocese is one of two Austrian archdioceses, serving alongside the Archdiocese of Vienna; the Archbishopric of Salzburg was a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire until 1803, when it was secularized as the Electorate of Salzburg. The archdiocese was reestablished in 1818 without temporal power. Feldkirch Graz–Seckau Gurk Innsbruck Gebhard † Thiemo von Formbach, O. S. B. † Konrad von Abensberg † Eberhard von Biburg, O. S. B. † Konrad von Babenberg † Eberhard von Regensburg † Frederic Walchen † Gregor Schenk von Osterwitz † Berthold von Wehingen † Eberhard von Neuhaus † Eberard von Starhemberg † Johann von Reisberg † Friedrich Truchseß von Emmerberg † Sigmund von Volkersdorf † Burkhard von Weißpriach † Bernhard von Rohr † Johann Beckenschlager † Friedrich Graf von Schaumberg † Sigmund von Hollenegg † Leonhard von Keutschach, C. R. S. A. † Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg † Michael von Kuenburg † Johann Jakob von Kuen-Belasy † Georg von Kuenburg † Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau † Markus Sittikus von Hohenems † Paris Reichsgraf von Lodron † Guidobald Reichsgraf von Thun † Maximilian Gandolf Reichsgraf von Kuenburg † Johann Ernst Reichsgraf von Thun † Franz Anton Fürst von Harrach zu Rorau † Leopold Anton Eleutherius Reichsfreiherr von Firmian † Jakob Ernst Graf von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn † Andreas Jakob Reichsgraf von Dietrichstein † Sigismund Christoph Graf von Schrattenbach † Hieronymus Joseph Franz de Paula Graf Colloredo von Wallsee und Mels † Augustin Johann Joseph Gruber † Friedrich Johann Joseph Cölestin zu von Schwarzenberg † Maximilian Joseph von Tarnóczy † Franz de Paula Albert Eder, O.
S. B. † Johann Evangelist Haller † Johannes Baptist Katschthaler † Balthasar Kaltner † Ignaz Rieder † Sigismund Waitz † Andreas Rohracher † Eduard Macheiner † Karl Berg † Georg Eder † Alois Kothgasser, S. D. B. Franz Lackner, O. F. M. "Archdiocese of Salzburg". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca, it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC; the rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre may still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the early sixth century. At one point, Lucca was plundered by the first Germanic King of Italy. Lucca was an important city and fortress in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke; the Holy Face of Lucca, a major relic carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742.
During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, the community being led by the Kalonymos family. Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune with a charter in 1160. For 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca.
The Lucchesi expelled him two years and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco, his biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca hosted. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Mastino II della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.
Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state with a republican constitution to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as "Princess of Lucca". From 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy; the only reigning dukes of Lucca were Maria Luisa of Spain, succeeded by her son Charles II, Duke of Parma in 1824. Meanwhile, the Duchy of Parma had been assigned for life to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Napoleon. In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, upon the death of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma in 1847, Parma reverted to Charles II, Duke of Parma, while Lucca lost independence and was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; as part of Tuscany, it became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and part of the Italian State in 1861. The walls encircling the old town remain intact as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. Built as a defensive rampart, once the walls lost their military importance they became a pedestrian promenade, the Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street atop the walls linking the bastions.
It passes through the Bastions of Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, San Donato. Each of the four principal sides of the structure is lined with a different tree species than the others; the walled city is encircled by Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi, Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini, Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento, Viale Giosuè Carducci; the town includes a number of public squares, most notably the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, site of ancient Roman amphitheater. Ducal Palace: built on the site of Ca