East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire. A successor state of Charlemagne's empire, it was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, it was created through the Treaty of Verdun. The east–west division, enforced by the German-Latin language split, "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms", with East Francia becoming the Kingdom of Germany and West Francia the Kingdom of France. In August 843, after three years of civil war following the death of emperor Louis the Pious on 20 June 840, the Treaty of Verdun was signed by his three sons and heirs; the division of lands was based on the Meuse, Scheldt and Rhone rivers. While the eldest son Lothair I kept the imperial title and the kingdom of Middle Francia, Charles the Bald received the West Francia and Louis the German received the eastern portion of Germanic-speaking lands of Duchy of Saxony, Alamannia, Duchy of Bavaria, March of Carinthia; the contemporary East Frankish Annales Fuldenses describes the kingdom being "divided in three" and Louis "acceding to the eastern part".
The West Frankish Annales Bertiniani describe the extent of Louis's lands: "at the assigning of portions, Louis obtained all the land beyond the Rhine river, but on this side of the Rhine the cities of Speyer and Mainz with their counties". The kingdom of West Francia went to Louis's younger half-brother Charles the Bald and between their realms a kingdom of Middle Francia, incorporating Italy, was given to their elder brother, the Emperor Lothair I. While Eastern Francia contained about a third of the traditional Frankish heartland of Austrasia, the rest consisted of lands annexed to the Frankish empire between the fifth and the eighth century; these included the duchies of Alemannia, Bavaria and Thuringia, as well as the northern and eastern marches with the Danes and Slavs. The contemporary chronicler Regino of Prüm wrote that the "different people" of East Francia Germanic- and Slavic-speaking, could be "distinguished from each other by race, customs and laws". In 869 Lotharingia was divided between East Francia under the Treaty of Meersen.
The short lived Middle Francia turned out to be the theatre of Franco-German wars up until the 20th century. All the Frankish lands were reunited by Charles the Fat, but in 888 he was deposed by nobles and in East Francia Arnulf of Carinthia was elected king; the increasing weakness of royal power in East Francia meant that dukes of Bavaria, Franconia and Lotharingia turned from appointed nobles into hereditary rulers of their territories. Kings had to deal with regional rebellions. In 911 Saxon, Franconian and Swabian nobles no longer followed the tradition of electing someone from the Carolingian dynasty as a king to rule over them and on November 10, 911 elected one of their own as the new king; because Conrad I was one of the dukes, he found it hard to establish his authority over them. Duke Henry of Saxony was in rebellion against Conrad I until 915 and struggle against Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria cost Conrad I his life. On his deathbed Conrad I chose Henry of Saxony as the most capable successor.
This kingship changed from Franks to Saxons, who had suffered during the conquests of Charlemagne. Henry, elected to kingship by only Saxons and Franconians at Fritzlar, had to subdue other dukes and concentrated on creating a state apparatus, utilized by his son and successor Otto I. By his death in July 936 Henry had prevented collapse of royal power as was happening in West Francia and left a much stronger kingdom to his successor Otto I. After Otto I was crowned as the Emperor in Rome in 962 the era of the Holy Roman Empire began; the term orientalis Francia referred to Franconia and orientales Franci to its inhabitants, the ethnic Franks living east of the Rhine. The use of the term in a broader sense, to refer to the eastern kingdom, was an innovation of Louis the German's court. Since eastern Francia could be identified with old Austrasia, the Frankish heartland, Louis's choice of terminology hints at his ambitions. Under his grandson, the terminology was dropped and the kingdom, when it was referred to by name, was Francia.
When it was necessary, as in the Treaty of Bonn with the West Franks, the "eastern" qualifier appeared. Henry I refers to himself in the treaty. By the 12th century, the historian Otto of Freising, in using the Carolingian terminology had to explain that the "eastern kingdom of the Franks" was "now called the kingdom of the Germans"; the regalia of the Carolingian empire had been divided by Louis the Pious on his deathbed between his two faithful sons, Charles the Bald and Lothair. Louis the German in rebellion, received nothing of the crown jewels or liturgical books associated with Carolingian kingship, thus the symbols and rituals of East Frankish kingship were created from scratch. From an early date the East Frankish kingdom had a more formalised notion of royal election than West Francia. Around 900, a liturgy for the coronation of a king, called the early German ordo, was written for a private audience, it required the coronator to ask the "designated prince" whether he was willing to defend the church and the people and to turn and ask the people whether they were willing to be subject to the prince and obey his laws.
The latter shouted, "Fiat, fiat!", an act that became k
Franconia is a region in southern Germany, characterised by its culture and language, may be associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, colloquially referred to as "Franconian", is spoken. Because of this, the region can be associated with the three administrative regions of Lower and Upper Franconia in the state of Bavaria. Part of the cultural region of Franconia are the adjacent Franconian-speaking region of South Thuringia, as well as Heilbronn-Franconia in the state of Baden-Württemberg, small parts of the state of Hesse; the German word Franken refers to the ethnic group of Franconians. They are to be distinguished from the Germanic tribe of the Franks, of whom they are but one descendant; the origins of Franconia as a cultural region begins with the settlement of Franks in the Main river area from the 6th century onwards becoming known as East Francia. In the Middle Ages the region formed much of the eastern part of the Duchy of Franconia and, beginning in 1500, the Franconian Circle.
After the demise of the Holy Roman Empire following the Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent German mediatisation, most of Franconia was placed under administration of the emerging Kingdom of Bavaria. The German name for Franconia, comes from the dative plural form of Franke, a member of the Germanic tribe known as the Franks; the name of the Franks in turn derives from a word meaning "daring, bold", cognate with old Norwegian frakkr, "quick, bold". In the 9th century the realm of the Franks was divided; the German region of Franconia corresponds to the region along the river Main, the original territory of the Ripuarian Franks. English distinguishes between Franks and Franconians in reference to the high medieval stem duchy, following Middle Latin use of Francia for France vs. Franconia for the German duchy, while in German the name Franken is used for both, while the French are called Franzosen, after Old French françois, from Latin franciscus, from Late Latin Francus, from Frank, the Germanic tribe.
The Franconian lands lie principally in Bavaria and south of the sinuous River Main which, together with the left Regnitz tributary, including its Rednitz and Pegnitz headstreams, drains most of Franconia. Other large rivers include the upper Werra in Thuringia and the Tauber, as well as the upper Jagst and Kocher streams in the west, both right tributaries of the Neckar. In southern Middle Franconia, the Altmühl flows towards the Danube; the man-made Franconian Lake District has become a popular destination for day-trippers and tourists. The landscape is characterized by numerous Mittelgebirge ranges of the German Central Uplands; the Western natural border of Franconia is formed by the Spessart and Rhön Mountains, separating it from the former Rhenish Franconian lands around Aschaffenburg, whose inhabitants speak Hessian dialects. To the north rise the Rennsteig ridge of the Thuringian Forest, the Thuringian Highland and the Franconian Forest, the border with the Upper Saxon lands of Thuringia.
The Franconian lands include the present-day South Thuringian districts of Schmalkalden-Meiningen and Sonneberg, the historical Gau of Grabfeld, held by the House of Henneberg from the 11th century and part of the Wettin duchy of Saxe-Meiningen. In the east, the Fichtel Mountains lead to Vogtland, Bohemian Egerland in the Czech Republic, the Bavarian Upper Palatinate; the hills of the Franconian Jura in the south mark the border with the Upper Bavarian region, historical Swabia, the Danube basin. The northern parts of the Upper Bavarian Eichstätt District, territory of the historical Bishopric of Eichstätt, are counted as part of Franconia. In the west, Franconia proper comprises the Tauber Franconia region along the Tauber river, which As of 2014 is part of the Main-Tauber-Kreis in Baden-Württemberg; the state's larger Heilbronn-Franken region includes the adjacent Hohenlohe and Schwäbisch Hall districts. In the city of Heilbronn, beyond the Haller Ebene plateau, South Franconian dialects are spoken.
Furthermore, in those easternmost parts of the Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis which had belonged to the Bishopric of Würzburg, the inhabitants have preserved their Franconian identity. Franconian areas in East Hesse along Spessart and Rhön comprise Ehrenberg; the two largest cities of Franconia are Würzburg. Though located on the southeastern periphery of the area, the Nuremberg metropolitan area is identified as the economic and cultural centre of Franconia. Further cities in Bavarian Franconia include Fürth, Bayreuth, Aschaffenburg, Hof, Coburg and Schwabach; the major Franconian towns in Baden-Württemberg are Schwäbisch Hall on the Kocher — the imperial city declared itself "Swabian" in 1442 — and Crailsheim on the Jagst river. The main towns in Thuringia are Meiningen. Franconia may be distinguished from the regions that surround it by its peculiar historical factors and its cultural and linguistic characteristics, but it is not a political entity with a fixed or defined area; as a result, it is debated.
Pointers to a more precise definition of Franconia's boundaries include: the territories covered by the former Duchy of Franconia and former Franconian Circle, the range of the East Franconian dialect group, the common culture and history of the region and the use of the Franconian Rake on coats of arms and seals. However, a sense of popular consciousness of being Fran
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Matilda. Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936, he continued his father's work of unifying all German tribes into a single kingdom and expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family in the kingdom's most important duchies; this reduced the various dukes, co-equals with the king, to royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen royal authority and subjected its clergy to his personal control. After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe; the victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto a reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom.
By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy. The patronage of Otto and his immediate successors facilitated a so-called "Ottonian Renaissance" of arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome. Otto's years were marked by conflicts with the papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son Otto II in April 972. Otto returned to Germany in August 972 and died at Memleben in May 973. Otto II succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor. Otto was born on 23 November 912, the oldest son of the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda, the daughter of Dietrich of Ringelheim, a Saxon count in Westphalia. Henry had married Hatheburg of Merseburg a daughter of a Saxon count, in 906, but this marriage was annulled in 909 after she had given birth to Henry's first son and Otto's half-brother Thankmar.
Otto had four full siblings: Hedwig, Gerberga and Bruno. On 23 December 918, King of East Francia and Duke of Franconia, died. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad persuaded his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia, the presumptive heir, to offer the crown of East Francia to Otto's father Henry. Although Conrad and Henry had been at odds with one another since 912, Henry had not opposed the king since 915. Furthermore, Conrad's repeated battles with German dukes, most with Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia, had weakened the position and resources of the Conradines. After several months of hesitation and the other Frankish and Saxon nobles elected Henry as king at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in May 919. For the first time, a Saxon instead of a Frank reigned over the kingdom. Burchard II of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new king, but Arnulf of Bavaria did not recognize Henry's position. According to the Annales iuvavenses, Arnulf was elected king by the Bavarians in opposition to Henry, but his "reign" was short-lived.
In 921, Henry forced him into submission. Arnulf had to accept Henry's sovereignty. Otto first gained experience as a military commander when the German kingdom fought against Wendish tribes on its eastern border. While campaigning against the Wends/West Slavs in 929, Otto's illegitimate son William, the future Archbishop of Mainz, was born to a captive Wendish noblewoman. With Henry's dominion over the entire kingdom secured by 929, the king began to prepare his succession over the kingdom. No written evidence for his arrangements is extant, but during this time Otto is first called king in a document of the Abbey of Reichenau. While Henry consolidated power within Germany, he prepared for an alliance with Anglo-Saxon England by finding a bride for Otto. Association with another royal house would give Henry additional legitimacy and strengthen the bonds between the two Saxon kingdoms. To seal the alliance, King Æthelstan of England sent Henry two of his half-sisters, so he could choose the one which best pleased him.
Henry selected Eadgyth as Otto's bride and the two were married in 930. Several years shortly before Henry's death, an Imperial Diet at Erfurt formally ratified the king's succession arrangements; some of his estates and treasures were to be distributed among Thankmar and Bruno. But departing from customary Carolingian inheritance, the king designated Otto as the sole heir apparent without a prior formal election by the various dukes. Henry died from the effects of a cerebral stroke on 2 July 936 at his palace, the Kaiserpfalz in Memleben, was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey. At the time of his death, all of the various German tribes were united in a single realm. At the age of 24, Otto assumed his father's position as Duke of Saxony and King of Germany, his coronation was held on 7 August 936 in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen, where Otto was anointed and crowned by Hildebert, the Archbishop of Mainz. Though he was a Saxon by birth, Otto appeared at the coronation in Frankish dress in an attempt to demonstrate his sovereignty over the Duchy of Lotharingia and his role as true successor to Charlemagne
The Ottonian dynasty was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs, named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto its first Emperor Otto I. It is known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony; the family itself is sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Count Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers were successors of the Germanic king Conrad I, the only Germanic king to rule in East Francia after the Carolingian dynasty and before this dynasty. In the 9th century, the Saxon count Liudolf held large estates on the Leine river west of the Harz mountain range and in the adjacent Eichsfeld territory of Thuringia, his ancestors acted as ministeriales in the Saxon stem duchy, incorporated into the Carolingian Empire after the Saxon Wars of Charlemagne. Liudolf married a member of the Frankish House of Billung. About 852 the couple together with Bishop Altfrid of Hildesheim founded Brunshausen Abbey, relocated to Gandersheim, rose to a family monastery and burial ground.
Liudolf held the high social position of a Saxon dux, documented by the marriage of his daughter Liutgard with Louis the Younger, son of the Carolingian king Louis the German in 869. Liudolf's sons Bruno and Otto the Illustrious ruled over large parts of Saxon Eastphalia, Otto acted as lay abbot of the Imperial abbey of Hersfeld with large estates in Thuringia, he married a daughter of the Babenberg duke Henry of Franconia. Otto accompanied King Arnulf on his 894 campaign to Italy. According to the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Otto upon the death of the last Carolingian king Louis the Child in 911 was a candidate for the East Frankish crown, which however passed to the Franconian duke Conrad I. Upon Otto's death in 912, his son Henry. Henry had married Matilda of Ringelheim, a descendant of the legendary Saxon ruler Widukind and heiress to extended estates in Westphalia; the Ottonian rulers of East Francia, the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire were: Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony from 912, King of East Francia from 919 until 936 Otto I, the Great, Duke of Saxony and King of East Francia from 936, King of Italy from 951, Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until 973 Otto II, co-ruler from 961, Holy Roman Emperor from 967, sole ruler from 973 until 983 Otto III, King of the Romans from 983, Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until 1002 Henry II, the Saint, Duke of Bavaria from 995, King of the Romans from 1002, King of Italy from 1004, Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until 1024 Although never Emperor, Henry the Fowler was arguably the founder of the imperial dynasty.
While East Francia under the rule of the last Carolingian kings was ravaged by Hungarian invasions, he was chosen to be primus inter pares among the German dukes. Elected Rex Francorum in May 919, Henry abandoned the claim to dominate the whole disintegrating Carolingian Empire and, unlike his predecessor Conrad I, succeeded in gaining the support of the Franconian, Bavarian and Lotharingian dukes. In 933 he led a German army to victory over the Hungarian forces at the Battle of Riade and campaigned both the land of the Polabian Slavs and the Duchy of Bohemia; because he had assimilated so much power through his conquest, he was able to transfer power to his second son Otto I. Otto I, Duke of Saxony upon the death of his father in 936, was elected king within a few weeks, he continued the work of unifying all of the German tribes into a single kingdom expanding the powers of the king at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, he installed members of his own family to the kingdom's most important duchies.
This, did not prevent his relatives from entering into civil war: both Otto's brother Duke Henry of Bavaria and his son Duke Liudolf of Swabia revolted against his rule. Otto was able to suppress their uprisings, in consequence, the various dukes, co-equals with the king, were reduced into royal subjects under the king's authority, his decisive victory over the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 ended the Hungarian invasions of Europe and secured his hold over his kingdom. The defeat of the pagan Magyars earned King Otto the reputation as the savior of Christendom and the epithet "the Great", he transformed the Church in Germany into a kind of proprietary church and major royal power base to which he donated charity and for the creation of which his family was responsible. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy, a troublesome inheritance that none wanted, extended his kingdom's borders to the north and south. In control of much of central and southern Europe, the patronage of Otto and his immediate successors caused a limited cultural renaissance of the arts and architecture.
He confirmed the 754 Donation of Pepin and, with recourse to the concept of translatio imperii in succession of Charlemagne, proceeded to Rome to have himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in 962. He reached a settlement with the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes by marrying his son and heir Otto II to John's niece Theophanu. In 968 he established the Archbishopric of Magdeburg at his long-time residence. Co-ruler with his father since 961 and crowned emperor in 967, Otto II ascended the throne at the age of 18. By excluding the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of succession, he strengthened Imperial authority and secured his own son's
St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier
St. Maximin's Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Trier in the Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany; the abbey, traditionally considered one of the oldest monasteries in western Europe, was held to have been founded by Saint Maximin of Trier in the 4th century. Maximin and other early bishops of Trier were buried in the crypt of the church on the site, an early Christian cemetery, the church, at first dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist, was renamed after Maximin. A Benedictine monastery was established here in the 6th century replacing an earlier community, it was destroyed by the Normans in 882 and re-built from 942 to 952. In the 13th century it was destroyed by a fire and re-built again on the plan of the previous buildings. Albero de Montreuil failed to subject the abbey to Trier's jurisdiction in the early 12th century, but the question of the abbey's Imperial immediacy was for centuries a matter of conflict, contested by Trier, to whom in 1669 the abbot formally renounced all claim to the status, making submission to the archbishop in his capacity as Prince-elector.
In 1674 the abbey was destroyed by French troops. It was rebuilt between 1680 and 1684 but, unusually for the period, still in a Gothic form; the abbey was secularised in 1802. The monastic buildings were put to various secular uses — barracks, school — and were destroyed in World War II except for the freestanding gateway. A school stands on the site; the church of St. Maximin survived the war, but was de-consecrated, between 1979 and 1995 converted to secular uses. In 1995 it opened as a concert hall, now well known for its exceptional acoustics. Regino of Prüm Maximin of Trier
Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria
Arnulf known as the Bad or the Evil, a member of the Luitpolding dynasty, held the title of a Duke of Bavaria from about 907 until his death in 937. The year of Arnulf's birth is unknown, but it is said that he was the namesake of other Arnulfs and so would have been born around the time of the reign of the seventh century bishop Arnulf of Metz and the Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia. Arnulf was the son of Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria and Cunigunde, herself a member of the Ahalolfing dynasty, daughter of Berthold I, the count palatine of Swabia, her brother Erchanger assumed the Swabian ducal title in 915. Under the weak rule of the East Frankish king Louis the Child, Margrave Luitpold had achieved a strong position in the Bavarian lands, succeeding the Wilhelminer margraves, he ruled over extended estates along the Danube with Regensburg, in the adjacent Nordgau. Together with numerous Bavarian nobles, Arnulf's father was killed in the 907 Battle of Pressburg, when the Bavarian Heerbann under his command suffered a crushing defeat in a campaign against the Hungarian forces of Grand Prince Árpád.
After the death of his father, Arnulf succeeded him in his Bavarian lands, soon after he assumed the title of a "Duke of Bavaria" as ruler of the estates around Regensburg. An energetic and combative man, he received broad support by the local nobles, however during his ascension in to dukedom, he was faced with constant raids from the Hungarians; these attacks had laid waste to the East Frankish lands of Bavaria and Thuringia. Besieged by frequent Hungarian raids and desperate to raise funds to finance a re-organized defense, Arnulf strengthened his power through confiscation of church lands and the secularization of numerous monastery estates, which earned him the nickname "the Bad" by medieval chroniclers. In several skirmishes he was able to force back the Hungarian invaders and defeated a small force in 913 with the support by his Swabian relatives. Having re-established the stem duchy of Bavaria, he negotiated a truce with the Hungarian princes, who thereafter passed through Bavaria on their raids into other German duchies.
Duke Arnulf pursued a policy of independence from the East Frankish kings. Though in 911 he participated in the election of King Conrad I of Germany in 911; the dispute was only temporarily settled, when in 913 Arnulf’s widow mother Cunigunda married King Conrad. In 916 the Conrad's forces invaded Bavaria and pillaging Regensburg; these attacks drove Arnulf into exile to his former enemies in Hungary. In September, the king convoked a church council in Hohenaltheim, attended by the Bavarian episcopate, which summoned Arnulf and his younger brother Berthold on the grounds of excommunication at Regensburg on 1 November, it is more than that Arnulf and his family never appeared at the convocation, or that the council meeting was never held. As a result, they remained exiled among the Hungarians. In January 917, with King Conrad now angered by the situation, he called for the execution of his rebellious Swabian brother-in-law and his brother Berthold, giving Arnulf more pause for concern. In 919, the death of Conrad I allowed Arnulf to expel the king's forces.
With Conrad I being childless, the throne was open to Arnulf, again. With his return, according to the Annales iuvavenses, in 920, Baiuarii sponte se reddiderunt Arnolfo duci et regnare ei fecerunt in regno teutonicorum; the 919 ascension of Henry the Fowler would bring forth a battle for the throne. In any case, Arnulf's "reign" was short-lived; when Arnulf was besieged by Henry in Regensburg, the duke entered into peace negotiations and recognized the sovereignty of the German king. King Henry confirmed Arnulf's autonomous rule over Bavaria, including the right of investiture and several important regalia, in return for Arnulf's renunciation of his royal claim. Arnulf accompanied King Henry I on his 928 campaign against Duke Wenceslaus of Bohemia. In 935 he launched an attack against King Hugh of Provence to obtain the Iron Crown of Lombardy for his eldest son Eberhard, which only resulted in defeat. After King Henry had died in 936, the duke attended the coronation of his son Otto as King of the Romans at Aachen Cathedral.
Duke Arnulf died in his Regensburg residence on 14 July 937. Arnulf is buried at St. Emmeram's Abbey. A commemorative plaque in tribute to him was attached to the Walhalla memorial in 1842. Historians believed Arnulf was married to Judith of Friuli, a member of the Unruoching dynasty, daughter of Count Eberhard of Friuli; the dates, however, do not match up. Judith of Friuli died. 881. This would have made a marriage between a boy Arnulf and an elder Judith, supposed to have produced several children 23 years or so after her death. More therefore, is that he was married to Judith of Sülichgau, daughter of Margrave Eberhard's grandson Count Eberhard of Sülichgau and Gisela of Verona, they had the following children: Eberhard, Duke of Bavaria from 937 to 938 Arnulf II, Count palatine of Bavaria from 938 Herman (d
Louis the Child
Louis the Child, sometimes called Louis III or Louis IV, was the king of East Francia from 900 until his death in 911 and was the last ruler of Carolingian dynasty there. He succeeded king Arnulf of Carinthia in 899, when he was only six. Louis inherited the crown of Lotharingia with the death of his elder illegitimate half-brother Zwentibold in 900. During his reign the country was ravaged by Magyar raids. Louis was October 893 in Altötting, Duchy of Bavaria, he was the only legitimate son of king Arnulf of Carinthia and his wife, Ota, a member of the Conradine dynasty. He had at least two brothers: his elder, illegitimate brother Zwentibold, who ruled Lotharingia, another brother named Ratold, who ruled Kingdom of Italy. Ratold's maternity and age are unknown. Louis was crowned in Forchheim on 4 February 900; this is the earliest East Frankish royal coronation. Louis was of a weak personal constitution sick, due to his young age, the reins of government were in the hands of others - the nobles and bishops.
Indeed, the coronation was a result of the fact that there was little Louis could gain at the expense of the nobles. The most influential of Louis's councillors were Hatto I, Solomon III, it was these two who assured that the royal court decided in favour of the Conradines against the Babenbergers in the matter of the Duchy of Franconia. They appointed Louis's nephew. In 903 Louis promulgated the Raffelstetten Customs Regulations, the first customs regulations in the East Frankish part of Europe. In 900, during Hungarian invasions of Europe, Magyar army ravaged Bavaria. Another group of Magyars were defeated by Bishop Richer of Passau. In 901 they devastated the Duchy of Carinthia. In 904 Louis invited Kurszán, the kende of Magyars to negotiations, but killed him and his delegation. In 906 Magyars twice ravaged Duchy of Saxony. In 907 they inflicted a heavy defeat on the Bavarians who had invaded Hungary, killing the Margrave Liutpold and many high nobles in the Battle of Pressburg. Next year it was the turn of Thuringia, in 909 that of Alemannia.
On their return, Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria inflicted a defeat on them on the river Rott, but in 910 they, in their turn, defeated Louis the Child's army in the battle of Augsburg. Louis himself tried to take some military control as he grew older, but he had little success against the Magyars, his army was destroyed at Ennsburg in 907. In a state of despair afflicted by severe depression, Louis died at Frankfurt am Main on 20 or 24 September 911, only seventeen or eighteen years old. Louis was buried in the monastery of Saint Emmeram in Regensburg, where his father Arnulf of Carinthia lay, his death brought an end to the eastern branch of the Carolingian dynasty. The vacuum left in the Carolingian East was filled in 919 by the family of Henry the Fowler, a cousin, heralded the beginning of the Ottonian dynasty. However, in 911 the dukes of East Francia elected Conrad of Franconia as the king of East Francia, while the nobles of Lotharingia elected as their king Charles the Simple, king of West Francia.
In an interview with the Daily Trojan, one member of the EDM duo Louis the Child said, "We went on Wikipedia and hit the random article button a couple of times Louis The Child popped up and we thought,'Yeah, that sounds good and we went with it.'" Kings of Germany family tree List of Frankish kings Media related to Louis the Child at Wikimedia Commons