Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
Eucharistic theology is a branch of Christian theology which treats doctrines concerning the Holy Eucharist commonly known as the Lord's Supper. It exists in Christianity and related religions, as others do not contain a Eucharistic ceremony. In the Gospel accounts of Jesus' earthly ministry, a crowd of listeners challenges him regarding the rain of manna before he delivers the famous Bread of Life Discourse, he describes himself as the "True Bread from Heaven"; the aforementioned Bread of Life Discourse occurs in the Gospel of John, 6:30–59. Therein, Jesus promises to give His Flesh and Blood, which will give eternal life to all who receive It. In John 6:53, Jesus says, "I tell you the truth, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you." And continues, "Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is real food and my blood is real drink." Every year, the nation of Israel celebrated the Passover Meal and celebrating their liberation from captivity in Egypt.
It was at the Passover. Saint Paul in his First Letter to the Corinthians and the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew and Luke state that Jesus, in the course of the Last Supper on the night before his death and resurrection, said: "This is my body", "This is my blood". For instance, Matthew recounts: "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed it, brake it, gave it to the disciples, said, eat; the Gospel of John, on the other hand, makes no mention of this. One explanation offered is that he wrote his Gospel to supplement what the other evangelists had written; because Jesus Christ is a person, theologies regarding the Eucharist involve consideration of the way in which the communicant's personal relationship with God is fed through this mystical meal. However, debates over Eucharistic theology in the West have centered not on the personal aspects of Christ's presence but on the metaphysical; the opposing views are summarized below. The substance of the bread and wine is changed in a way beyond human comprehension into that of the Body, Blood and Divinity of Christ, but the accidents of the bread and wine remain.
This view is taught including its Eastern Rites. Eastern Orthodox Christians prefer not to be tied down by the specifics of the defined doctrine of transubstantiation, though they all agree with the definition's conclusion about the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they prefer to use the term "change", as in the epiclesis of the Divine Liturgy, to describe the change of the bread and wine into the actual Body and Blood of Christ. The terminology of transubstantiation was adopted within the Eastern Orthodox Church by the Synod of Jerusalem, although it is not recognized as having the authority of an Ecumenical Council and has been criticized for a perceived tendency toward Latinization. "The bread retains its substance and... Christ’s glorified body comes down into the bread through the consecration and is found there together with the natural substance of the bread, without quantity but whole and complete in every part of the sacramental bread." It was the position of the Lollardists.
It is erroneously used to denote the position of the Lutheran Church, who instead affirm the doctrine of sacramental union. Some Anglicans identify with this position. In the "use" of the sacrament, according to the words of Jesus Christ and by the power of his speaking of them once for all, the consecrated bread is united with his body and the consecrated wine with his blood for all communicants, whether believing or unbelieving, to eat and drink; this is the position of the Lutheran Church that echoes the next view with its "pious silence about technicalities" in that it objects to philosophical terms like "consubstantiation." "Objective reality, but pious silence about technicalities" is the view of all the ancient Churches of the East, as well as of many Anglicans and Methodists. While they agree that in the sacrament the bread and the wine are and changed into the body and the blood of Christ, while they have at times employed the terminology of "substance" to explain what is changed, they avoid this language, considering it redolent of scholasticism, as presenting speculative metaphysics as doctrine, as scrutinizing excessively the manner in which the mystical transformation takes place.
"Real Spiritual presence" called "pneumatic presence", holds that not only the Spirit of Christ, but the true body and blood of Jesus Christ, are received by the sovereign and miraculous power of the Holy Spirit, but only by those partakers who have faith. This view approaches the "pious silence" view in its unwillingness to specify how the Holy Spirit makes Christ present, but positively excludes not just symbolism but trans- and con-substantiation, it is known as the "mystical presence" view, is held by some Low Church Reformed Anglicans, as well as other Reformed Christians. This understanding is called "receptionism"; some argue that this view can be seen as being suggested—though not clearly—by
Worship is an act of religious devotion directed towards a deity. An act of worship may be performed individually, in an informal or formal group, or by a designated leader; such acts may involve honoring. The word is derived from the Old English weorþscipe, meaning to venerate "worship, honour shown to an object, etymologised as "worthiness or worth-ship"—to give, at its simplest, worth to something. Worship in Buddhism may take innumerable forms given the doctrine of skillful means. Worship is evident in Buddhism in such forms as: guru yoga, thanka, yantra yoga, the discipline of the fighting monks of Shaolin, mantra recitation, tea ceremony, amongst others. Buddhist Devotion is an important part of the practice of most Buddhists. According to a spokesman of the Sasana Council of Burma, devotion to Buddhist spiritual practices inspires devotion to the Triple Gem. Most Buddhists use ritual in pursuit of their spiritual aspirations. In Buddhism, puja are expressions of "honour and devotional attention."
Acts of puja include making offerings and chanting. These devotional acts are performed daily at home as well as during communal festivals and Uposatha days at a temple. Meditation is a central form of worship in Buddhism; this practice is focused on the third step of the Eightfold Path that leads to self awakening known as enlightenment. Meditation promotes exploration of the mind and spirit. Traditionally, Buddhist meditation had combined samatha and vipasyana to create a complete mind and body experience. By stopping one's everyday activities and focusing on something simple, the mind can open and expand enough to reach a spiritual level. By practicing the step of vipasyana, one does not achieve the final stage of awareness, but rather approaches one step closer. Mindful meditation teaches one to stop reacting to thoughts and external objects that present themselves, but rather to peacefully hold the thought without responding to it. Although in traditional Buddhist faith, enlightenment is the desired end goal of meditation, it is more of a cycle in a literal sense that helps individuals better understand their minds.
For example, meditation leads to leading to kindness, leading to peace, etc.. In Christianity, a church service is a formalized period of communal worship but not occurring on Sunday; the church service is the gathering together of Christians to be taught the "Word of God" and encouraged in their faith. Technically, the "church" in "church service" refers to the gathering of the faithful rather than to the building in which the event takes place. In Christianity, worship is reverent homage paid to God; the New Testament uses various words to express the concept of worship. The word proskuneo - "to worship" - means to bow down. Mass is the central act of divine worship in the Catholic Church; the Congregation for Divine Worship at the Vatican publishes a Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Roman Catholic devotions are "external practices of piety" which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics, they do not become part of liturgical worship if conducted in a Catholic church, in a group, in the presence of a priest.
Anglican devotions are private prayers and practices used by Anglican Christians to promote spiritual growth and communion with God. Among members of the Anglican Communion, private devotional habits vary depending on personal preference and on affiliation with low-church or high-church parishes; the New Testament uses various words translatable as "worship". The word proskuneo - "to worship" - means to bow down to kings. Roman Catholicism, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy make a technical distinction between two different concepts: adoration or latria, due to God alone veneration or dulia, which may be lawfully offered to the saintsThe external acts of veneration resemble those of worship, but differ in their object and intent. Protestant Christians, who reject the veneration of saints, question whether Catholics always maintain such a distinction in actual devotional practice at the level of folk religion. According to Mark Miravalle the English word "worship" is equivocal, in that it has been used to denote both adoration/latria and veneration/dulia, in some cases as a synonym for veneration as distinct from adoration: As St. Thomas Aquinas explains, known as latria in classical theology, is the worship and homage, rightly offered to God alone.
It is the manifestation of submission, acknowledgement of dependence, appropriately shown towards the excellence of an uncreated divine person and to his absolute Lordship. It is the worship of the Creator. Although we see in English a broader usage of the word "adoration" which may not refer to a form of worship exclusive to God—for example, when a husband says that he "adores his wife"—in general it can be maintained that adoration is the best English denotation for the worship of latria. Veneration, known as dulia in classical theology, is the honor and reverence appropriately due to the excellence of a created person. Excellence exhibited by created beings deserves recognition and honor. We see a general example of veneratio
Desecration is the act of depriving something of its sacred character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of that, held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual. Many consider acts of desecration to be sacrilegious acts; this can include desecration of sacred places or sacred objects. Desecration may be considered from the perspective of a particular religion or spiritual activity. Desecration may be applied to natural systems or components if those systems are part of naturalistic spiritual religion. To respectfully remove the sacred character of a place or an object is deconsecration, is distinct from desecration; some religions, such as the Roman Catholic Church have specific rules as to what constitutes desecration and what should be done in these circumstances. Examples of the destruction of pagan temples in the late fourth century, as recorded in surviving texts, describe Martin of Tours' attacks on holy sites in Gaul, the destruction of temples in Syria by Marcellus the destruction of temples and images in, surrounding, the Patriarch Theophilus who seized and destroyed pagan temples in Alexandria, the levelling of all the temples in Gaza and the wider destruction of holy sites that spread throughout Egypt.
This is supplemented in abundance by archaeological evidence in the northern provinces exposing broken and burnt out buildings and hastily buried objects of piety. The leader of the Egyptian monks who participated in the sack of temples replied to the victims who demanded back their sacred icons: "I peacefully removed your gods...there is no such thing as robbery for those who possess Christ." At the turn of the century St Augustine would exhort his congregation in Carthage to smash all tangible symbols of paganism: "for that all superstition of pagans and heathens should be annihilated is what God wants, God commands, God proclaims!" In the year 407 a decree was issued to the west from Rome: "If any images stand now in the temples and shrines.... They shall be torn from their foundations... The temples situated in cities or towns shall be taken for public use. Altars shall be destroyed in all places." Sacred sites were now appropriated by Christianity: "Let altars be built and relics be placed there" wrote Pope Gregory I, "so that have to change from the worship of the daemones to that of the true God".
The Red Terror in Spain during the Spanish Civil War involved massive desecration of churches and other sacred objects and places by leftists. On the night of July 19, 1936 alone, 50 churches were burned. In Barcelona, out of the 58 churches, only the Cathedral was spared, similar events occurred everywhere in Republican Spain. All the Catholic churches in the Republican zone were closed, but the attacks were not limited to Catholic churches, as synagogues were pillaged and closed, but some small Protestant churches were spared; the ethnic cleansing campaign that took place throughout areas controlled by the Army of the Republika Srpska targeted Bosnian Muslims, included the destruction of Muslim places of worship. Numerous Albanian cultural sites in Kosovo were destroyed during the Kosovo conflict which constituted a war crime violating the Hague and Geneva Conventions. In all 225 out of 600 mosques in Kosovo were damaged, vandalised, or destroyed alongside other Islamic architecture during the conflict.
Archives belonging to the Islamic Community of Kosovo with records spanning 500 years were destroyed. During the war, Islamic architectural heritage posed for Yugoslav Serb paramilitary and military forces as Albanian patrimony with destruction of non-Serbian architectural heritage being a methodical and planned component of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Revenge attacks against Serbian religious sites commenced following the conflict and the return of hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanian refugees to their homes. During violent unrest in 2004, more than 35 Serbian Orthodox church buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed. Host desecration Qur'an desecration
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
A synonym is a word or phrase that means or nearly the same as another lexeme in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are synonymous in one particular sense: for example and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field; the former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have the same meaning because etymology, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat.
Synonyms are a source of euphemisms. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U. S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym; the analysis of synonymy, polysemy and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation; the word comes from ónoma. Synonyms can be any part of speech. Examples: noun drink and beverage verb buy and purchase adjective big and large adverb and speedily preposition on and upon"glass" and"cup"Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student; such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. In English, many synonyms emerged after the Norman conquest of England.
While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people and archer, the Saxon-derived folk and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Lat Latinate equivalents in English. A thesaurus lists related words; the word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, car is a hyponym of vehicle. Homophones are words that have different meanings. For example and which are homophones in most accents. Homographs are words that have different pronunciations.
For example, one can keep a record of documents. Homonyms are words that have different meanings. For example and rose are homonyms. -onym Cognitive synonymy Elegant variation, the gratuitous use of a synonym in prose Synonym ring Synonomy in Japanese Tools which graph words relations: Graph Words – Online tool for visualization word relations Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day. Plain words synonyms finder: Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian and German Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions Classic Thesaurus - Crowdsourced Synonym Dictionary Power Thesaurus - Synonym dictionary with definitions and examples
The Antimins, is one of the most important furnishings of the altar in many Eastern Christian liturgical traditions. It is a rectangular piece of cloth of either linen or silk decorated with representations of the Descent of Christ from the Cross, the Four Evangelists, inscriptions related to the Passion. A small relic of a martyr is sewn into it, it is not permitted to celebrate the Eucharist without an antimins. The antimins is kept in the centre of the Holy Table and is unfolded only during the Divine Liturgy, before the Anaphora. At the end of the Liturgy, the antimins is folded in thirds, in thirds again, so that when it is unfolded the creases form a cross; when folded, the antimins sits in the centre of another larger cloth called the eileton —similar to the Western corporal, except it is red in colour—which is folded around it in the same manner, encasing it completely. A flattened natural sponge is kept inside the antimins, used to collect any crumbs which might fall onto the Holy Table.
When the antimins and eileton are folded, the Gospel Book is laid on top of them. The antimins must be signed by a bishop; the antimins, together with the chrism remain the property of the bishop, are the means by which a bishop indicates his permission for the Holy Mysteries to be celebrated in his absence. It is, in effect, a church's licence to hold divine services. Whenever a bishop visits a church or monastery under his jurisdiction, he will enter the altar and inspect the antimins to be sure that it has been properly cared for, that it is in fact the one that he issued. Besides the bishop, no one is allowed to touch an antimins except a priest or deacon, because it is a consecrated object, they should be vested when they do so—the deacon should be vested, the priest should vest in at least the epitrachil and epimanikia; the antimins may function as a substitute altar, in that a priest may celebrate the Eucharist on it in the absence of a properly consecrated altar. In emergencies and persecution, the antimins thus serves a important pastoral need.
If the priest celebrated at a consecrated altar, the sacred elements were placed only on the eileton, but in current practice the priest always uses the antimins on a consecrated altar that has relics sealed in it. At the Divine Liturgy, during the Ektenias that precede the Great Entrance, the eileton is opened and the antimins is opened three-quarters of the way, leaving the top portion folded. During the Ektenia of the Catechumens, when the deacon says, "That He may reveal unto them the Gospel of righteousness," the priest unfolds the last portion of the antimins, revealing the mystery of Christ's death and resurrection. After the Entrance, the chalice and diskos are placed on the antimins and the Gifts are consecrated; the antimins remains unfolded until after all have received Holy Communion and the chalice and diskos are taken back to the Prothesis. The deacon must carefully inspect the antimins to be sure there are no crumbs left on it, it is folded up, the eileton is folded, the Gospel Book placed on top of it.
A wooden tablet, the ţablîtho, is the liturgical equivalent of the antimins in the churches of Syriac tradition. However, it is no longer used by the Antiochian Orthodox Church or the Assyrian Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church. In the Ethiopian Tawahedo Church, the tâbot is functionally similar to the tablitho. However, this word is used in the Ge'ez language to describe the Ark of the Covenant; the Ark is symbolically represented by a casket that sits on the altar. In the Coptic Orthodox church, a wooden tablet, the maqta‘ or al-lawh al-muqaddas, is the liturgical equivalent of the antimins in contemporary usage, it is decorated with a cross and bears letters in Coptic which signify "Jesus Christ Son of God" in the four squares between the arms of the cross. The Armenian Orthodox tradition has the antimins, known as gorbura. Consecration of an Antimins Thabilitho Tabot Altar stone Corporal Antimensium article in the Catholic Encyclopedia Coptic Antimensium article in the Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia