Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2
The Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2, known in French as the Conseil scolaire Centre-Nord, is one of Alberta’s four French language school board. French language education is intended for children who are eligible under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the CSCN is a composite board, operating both public and catholic francophone schools in Beaumont, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Legal, Red Deer, Sherwood Park, St. Albert and Wainwright; the CSCN receives funding for all students from the provincial Government of Alberta. In 1993, the Government of Alberta adopted a bill amending the School Act to comply with Mahe v. Alberta, a leading Supreme Court of Canada decision on the minority language education rights under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the district was created in 1994 under section 223.3 of the School Act under the name Regional Authority of the North Central Francophone Education Region No. 4. It is one of four French school boards in Alberta.
According to the School Act, the seven members of the Board of Trustees are elected to represent francophone communities in central and northern Alberta. The composite regional Authority’s mandate is to protect the linguistic and confessional rights of section 23 holders; the CSCN updates its list of electors by carrying out a census. Results of the census determine the proportion of Public school Trustees and Catholic school Trustees to be elected to the Board; the Catholic trustees constitute a separate entity – Conseil scolaire catholique Centre-Nord – according to section 255.4 of the School Act. Based on the 2010 census, there are two Public school trustees and five Catholic school trustees. In 2016-2017 school year, there were 3,200 students attending 19 schools in total: 9 elementary schools, 1 elementary/junior high school, 1 junior high school, 2 junior/senior high school, 5 elementary/junior/senior high schools, 1 senior high school; the CSCN employs 350 teachers and professionals. List of Alberta school boards Conseil scolaire Centre-Nord’s official website Alberta Education Study in Alberta
Conseil de l'Entente
The Conseil de l'Entente is a West African regional co-operation forum established in May 1959 by Ivory Coast, Upper Volta and Dahomey, joined in 1966 by Togo. The body grew out of the short-lived Sahel-Benin Union, itself created by the four original Council members as a partial successor to the dissolved French regional colonial federation of French West Africa. Since 1966 the Council has possessed a permanent administrative Secretariat based in Abidjan, the largest city of Ivory Coast. A Mutual Aid and Loan Guarantee Fund exists to assist poorer members from a common pool. Entente Trade bloc International organizations Thompson, West Africa's Council of the Entente, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-0683-8, OCLC 201010. Http://www.conseildelentente.org
Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea: A Tour of the Underwater World is a classic science fiction adventure novel by French writer Jules Verne published in 1870. The novel was serialized from March 1869 through June 1870 in Pierre-Jules Hetzel's periodical, the Magasin d'Éducation et de Récréation; the deluxe illustrated edition, published by Hetzel in November 1871, included 111 illustrations by Alphonse de Neuville and Édouard Riou. The book was acclaimed when it was released and still is; the description of Nemo's ship, the Nautilus, was considered ahead of its time, as it describes features on submarines, which at the time were primitive vessels. A model of the French submarine Plongeur was displayed at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, where it was studied by Jules Verne, who used it as an inspiration for the novel; the title refers to the distance traveled while under the sea and not to a depth, as 20,000 leagues is nearly twice the circumference of the Earth. The greatest depth mentioned in the book is four leagues.
The book uses metric leagues. During the year 1866, ships of several nations spot a mysterious sea monster, which some suggest to be a giant narwhal; the United States government assembles an expedition in New York City to find and destroy the monster. Professor Pierre Aronnax, a French marine biologist and narrator of the story, who happens to be in New York at the time, receives a last-minute invitation to join the expedition, which he accepts. Canadian whaler and master harpoonist Ned Land and Aronnax's faithful servant Conseil are brought aboard; the expedition departs Brooklyn aboard the United States Navy frigate Abraham Lincoln and travels south around Cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean. After a long search, the ship finds the monster and attacks the beast, which damages the ship's rudder; the three protagonists are hurled into the water and grasp hold of the "hide" of the creature, which they find, to their surprise, to be a submarine far ahead of its era. They are captured and brought inside the vessel, where they meet its enigmatic creator and commander, Captain Nemo.
The rest of the story follows the adventures of the protagonists aboard the creature—the submarine, the Nautilus—which was built in secrecy and now roams the seas free from any land-based government. Captain Nemo's motivation is implied to be both a scientific thirst for knowledge and a desire for revenge upon civilization. Nemo explains that his submarine is electrically powered and can perform advanced marine biology research. Aronnax and Conseil are enthralled by the undersea adventures, but Ned Land can only think of escape, they visit many places under some real-world and others fictional. The travelers witness the real corals of the Red Sea, the wrecks of the battle of Vigo Bay, the Antarctic ice shelves, the Transatlantic telegraph cable and the legendary submerged land of Atlantis; the travelers use diving suits to hunt sharks and other marine life with air-guns and have an underwater funeral for a crew member who died when an accident occurred under mysterious conditions inside the Nautilus.
When the Nautilus returns to the Atlantic Ocean, a pack of "poulpes" attacks the vessel and kills a crew member. Throughout the story Captain Nemo is suggested to have exiled himself from the world after an encounter with the forces that occupied his country that had devastating effects on his family. Not long after the incident of the poulpes, Nemo changes his behavior toward Aronnax, avoiding him. Aronnax begins to sympathize with Ned Land. Near the end of the book, the Nautilus is attacked by a warship of some nation that had made Nemo suffer. Filled with hatred and revenge, Nemo ignores Aronnax's pleas for mercy. Nemo—nicknamed "angel of hatred" by Aronnax—destroys the ship, ramming it just below the waterline, sinking it into the bottom of the sea, much to Aronnax's horror, as he watches the ship plunge into the abyss. Nemo bows before the pictures of his wife and children and is plunged into deep depression after this encounter. For several days after this, the protagonists' situation changes.
No one seems to be on board any longer and the Nautilus moves about randomly. Ned Land is more depressed, Conseil fears for Ned's life, Aronnax, horrified at what Nemo had done to the ship, can no longer stand the situation either. One evening, Ned Land announces an opportunity to escape. Although Aronnax wants to leave Nemo, whom he now holds in horror, he still wishes to see him for the last time, but he knows that Nemo would never let him escape, so he has to avoid meeting him. Before the escape, however, he sees him one last time, hears him say "Almighty God! Enough! Enough!". Aronnax goes to his companions and they are ready to escape, but while they loosen the dinghy, they discover that the Nautilus has wandered into the Moskenstraumen, more known as the "Maelstrom". They manage to escape and find refuge on a nearby island off the coast of Norway, but the fate of the Nautilus is unknown. Captain Nemo's name is an allusion to Homer's Odyssey, a Greek epic p
Council of States (Switzerland)
The Council of States is the smaller chamber of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, is considered the Assembly's upper house, with the National Council being the lower house. There are 46 Councillors. Twenty of the country's cantons are represented by two Councillors each. Six cantons, traditionally called "half cantons", are represented by one Councillor each for historical reasons; these are Obwalden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden. The Councillors serve for four years, are not bound in their vote to instructions from the cantonal authorities. Under the Swiss Federal Constitution, the mode of election to the Council of States is left to the cantons, the proviso being that it must be a democratic method. All cantons now provide for the councillors to be chosen by popular election, however those eligible to vote varies according to the applicable cantonal law. In all cantons except for Appenzell Innerrhoden, the councillors are elected concurrently with the members of the National Council.
In the Appenzell Innerrhoden the representative is elected by the physically convened popular assembly the April prior to the national vote. With the exception of the cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura, where a proportional representation election system is used, the representatives are elected by majority vote in either one or two rounds of voting. In debates, councilors can choose any of the federal languages the one he is most proficient with: German, Italian, or Romansh. German and French are used; the Council of States represents the federal nature of Switzerland: seats are distributed by state, not by population. Most cantons send 2 representatives; the number of people represented by a single seat in the Council of State varies by a factor of 40, from 15,000 for Appenzell Innerrhoden to 600,000 for Zurich. Notes: ¹ Population data from 2015. ² Relative representation compared to Zürich. List of members of the Swiss Council of States List of members of the Swiss Council of States List of Presidents of the Swiss Council of States The Swiss Confederation – A Brief Guide 2015, Switzerland: Swiss Confederation, Swiss Federal Chancellery FCh of the Federal Chancellor Corina Casanova, 28 April 2015, retrieved 2016-01-04 Official website— The Swiss Parliament— The Law Collection: SR 17 Bundesbehörden/Autorités fédérales/Autorità federali—