The Consensus Coding Sequence Project is a collaborative effort to maintain a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assemblies. The CCDS project tracks identical protein annotations on the reference mouse and human genomes with a stable identifier, ensures that they are represented by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, UCSC Genome Browser; the integrity of the CCDS dataset is maintained through stringent quality assurance testing and on-going manual curation. Biological and biomedical research has come to rely on accurate and consistent annotation of genes and their products on genome assemblies. Reference annotations of genomes are available from various sources, each with their own independent goals and policies, which results in some annotation variation; the CCDS project was established to identify a gold standard set of protein-coding gene annotations that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assemblies by the participating annotation groups.
The CCDS gene sets that have been arrived at by consensus of the different partners now consist of over 18,000 human and over 20,000 mouse genes. The CCDS dataset is representing more alternative splicing events with each new release. Participating annotation groups include: National Center for Biotechnology Information European Bioinformatics Institute Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee Mouse Genome Informatics Manual annotation is provided by: Reference Sequence at NCBI Human and Vertebrate Analysis and Annotation at WTSI "Consensus" is defined as protein-coding regions that agree at the start codon, stop codon, splice junctions, for which the prediction meets quality assurance benchmarks. A combination of manual and automated genome annotations provided by and Ensembl are compared to identify annotations with matching genomic coordinates. In order to ensure that CDSs are of high quality, multiple quality assurance tests are performed. All tests are performed following the annotation comparison step of each CCDS build and are independent of individual annotation group QA tests performed prior to the annotation comparison.
Annotations that fail QA tests undergo a round of manual checking that may improve results or reach a decision to reject annotation matches based on QA failure. The CCDS database is unique in that the review process must be carried out by multiple collaborators, agreement must be reached before any changes can be made; this is made possible with a collaborator coordination system that includes a work process flow and forums for analysis and discussion. The CCDS database operates an internal website that serves multiple purposes including curator communication, collaborator voting, providing special reports and tracking the status of CCDS representations; when a collaborating CCDS group member identifies a CCDS ID that may need review, a voting process is employed to decide on the final outcome. Coordinated manual curation is supported by a restricted-access website and a discussion e-mail list. CCDS curation guidelines were established to address specific conflicts that were observed at a higher frequency.
Establishment of CCDS curation guidelines has helped to make the CCDS curation process more efficient by reducing the number of conflicting votes and time spent in discussion to reach a consensus agreement. A link to the CCDS curation guidelines can be found here. Curation policies established for the CCDS data set have been integrated in to the RefSeq and HAVANA annotation guidelines and thus, new annotations provided by both groups are more to be concordant and result in addition of a CCDS ID; these standards address specific problem areas, are not a comprehensive set of annotation guidelines, do not restrict the annotation policies of any collaborating group. Examples include, standardized curation guidelines for selection of the initiation codon and interpretation of upstream ORFs and transcripts that are predicted to be candidates for nonsense-mediated decay. Curation occurs continuously, any of the collaborating centers can flag a CCDS ID as a potential update or withdrawal. Conflicting opinions are addressed by consulting with scientific experts or other annotation curation groups such as the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee and Mouse Genome Informatics.
If a conflict cannot be resolved collaborators agree to withdraw the CCDS ID until more information becomes available. Nonsense-mediated decay: NMD is the most powerful mRNA surveillance process. NMD eliminates defective mRNA; this is important because if the defective mRNA is translated, the truncated protein may cause disease. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain NMD. In this model, if the stop codon is >50 nt upstream of the last exon-exon junction, the transcript is assumed to be a NMD candidate. The CCDS collaborators use a conservative method, based on the EJC model, to screen mRNA transcripts. Any transcripts determined to be NMD candidates are excluded from the CCDS data set except in the following situations: all transcripts at one particular locus are assessed to be NMD candidates however the locus is known to be protein coding region. NMD candidate transcripts were considered to be protein coding transcripts by both RefSeq and HAVANA, thereby, these NMD candidate transcripts were represented in the CC
Asbjørn Edvin Sunde was a Norwegian politician for the Communist Party of Norway, communist partisan during the Spanish Civil War, saboteur against the Nazi occupation of Norway during the Second World War, a convicted Soviet spy. During the Second World War, from 1941 to 1944, Sunde's group, the Osvald Group, carried out 39 acts of sabotage and assassination against the German occupation forces and Norwegian collaborators. In 1954 he was convicted by Eidsivating Court of Appeal of treason and espionage in favour of the Soviet Union, sentenced to eight years in prison, he was released from prison in 1959 after serving two thirds of his sentence. He was expelled from the Communist Party of Norway in 1970. Sunde had served a 30-month stint in the Royal Norwegian Navy, rising to non-commissioned officer rank in 1930, he was trained as a navigator and a gunner. He was married, the father of one son. For several years he sailed in the Norwegian merchant marine. In the years preceding the Second World War, Sunde joined the Communist Party of Norway, wrote for the communist daily Arbeideren and was involved with work to aid and support the labourers and unemployed in his home town Horten.
Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Sunde played a central role in the early efforts of the Communist Party of Norway in support of the Spanish Republic. In January 1937 Sunde led a group of four volunteers he had recruited from Oslo to the headquarters of the International Brigades in Albacete, Spain. Sunde, who spoke Spanish, first served as a front line ambulance driver in Spain, before requesting transfer to a Republican special operations unit as a saboteur and partisan, operating behind Nationalist lines. Among the tasks Sunde carried out. While in Spain he wrote letters, describing his experiences and the situation in Spain, that were published in Arbeideren. Sunde left Spain in the summer of 1938. From 1938 he was the leader of the Norwegian branch of Ernst Wollweber's secret sabotage organization, whose actions were directed against Fascist-controlled shipping; the Wollweber League had been established as an initiative of the Soviet NKVD. Following the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, Sunde's group initiated sabotage activities in Norway.
The group, consisting predominately of sailors and industrial labourers, was responsible for some 39 known actions between July 1941 and July 1944, dominating sabotage activity in Norway during this period. One of Sunde's cover names was Osvald, his group became known as the Osvald Group; the group's main area of operations was Buskerud. According to historian Lars Borgersrud, Sunde's renown as an aggressive and daring saboteur, led other resistance organisations to approach him to carry out delicate missions, in particular assassinations. After attacking the Oslo and Aker offices of the State Police 21 August 1942, a reward of 50,000 NOK was offered for information that would lead to his capture. On 30 May 1944 he and 8 other members of "Osvald" are surrounded by German forces, at a former hotel at Søndre Land, Oppland.*Signe Raassum After the war Sunde wrote the book Menn i mørket, describing his wartime activities. Sunde received an award —by certified mail—from the Norwegian government. In 2013 minister of defence honored 8 members—of the 17 who are still alive.
Sunde and his organization received award and recognition the Soviet Union for their contributions during the war. The more famous and acknowledged partisan Gunnar Sønsteby unsuccessfully spoke in favour of giving Sunde a war pension, given to both the merchant sailors and the military branch of the resistance. Sunde played a central role in the internal conflicts of the Communist Party of Norway in the late 1940s; the struggle culminated with the expulsion of former chairman Peder Furubotn and a number of other so-called "Titoists" in 1949/1950. From 1949 the Norwegian Police Surveillance Agency began a surveillance operation against Sunde, leading to his arrest five years on suspicion of espionage. In 1954 Sunde was convicted for treason and espionage for the Soviet Union, sentenced to 8 years imprisonment. After serving two thirds of his sentence, he was paroled from prison in 1959. After his parole, he lived a quiet life. Terje Ranes who portrayed Sunde in a 2015 film, said that Sunde "was a Stalinist hardliner, but there are many questions surrounding the trial against him ".
A film, Offer eller spion? was scheduled to be shown on Thursday at Ringen Kino in Oslo, Norway. Egil Ulateig: Raud krigar, raud spion, 1989. Asbjørn Sunde: Menn i mørket, 1947.. Reissued in 2009, with foreword by Lars Borgersrud Moen, Jo Stein. Tusen dager – Norge og den spanske borgerkrigen 1936–1939. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. ISBN 978-82-05-39351-6. Offer eller Spion - Trailer #1 Offer eller Spion - Trailer #2
In organic chemistry, a directing group is a substituent on a molecule or ion that facilitates reactions by interacting with a reagent. The term is applied to C-H activation of hydrocarbons, where it is defined as a "coordinating moiety, which directs a metal catalyst into the proximity of a certain C–H bond." In a well known example, the ketone group in acetophenone is the DG in the Murai reaction. The Murai reaction is related to directed ortho metalation, a reaction is applied to the lithiation of substituted aromatic rings... Since directing groups are ligands, their effectiveness correlates with their affinities for metals. Common functional groups such as ketones are only weak ligands and thus are poor DGs; this problem is solved by the use of a transient directing group. Transient DGs reversibly convert weak DGs into strong DG's via a Schiff base condensation. Subsequent to serving their role as DGs, the imine can hydrolyze, regenerating the ketone and amine
Ryan Jaunzemis, is an American musician, entrepreneur, Pickup artist, YouTube personality, former professional Aggressive inline skating Rollerblader & most famously known as a Soap Shoes "Soaper". Jaunzemis rose to prominence in 1997, after being signed onto the fledgling "grind shoe" footwear company named Soap Shoes, his rise to fame after being featured in the Soap Shoes national & international sales commercials where he is shown grinding a 72-stair handrail was played in retail stores such as Journeys, Pacific Sunwear, Rollerskates of America, many other retailers throughout the country, leading him to becoming ranked as the #1 "Soaper" in the world. He was described as the "Poster boy" for the 90's fad in Vice magazine, was named, "The Best Soaper in the World" by the now defunct "SoapShoe.com", in 1999. He was fired from Soap by CEO, Chris Morris, after Jaunzemis mis-sent an expletive and insult filled E-mail he had in his saved in his drafts, describing his personal issues with the company, the employees and his own mother.
After being fired from Soap in 1999 he became engaged to his girlfriend, Sarah Lowery, pregnant with his son, Aaron. In 2000 Ryan got a job at Guitar Center in hopes of helping to advance his music career as a "gangsta" rapper. After a month he was fired. Returning to rob the Guitar Center and was arrested by Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department on 2 Felony counts of grand theft, & burglary. Upon his release he joined the U. S. Navy as a Lithographer, 3rd class, he graduated from the National Geospatial Intelligence School, Ft Belvoir, VA, for graphic design in Adobe Photoshop, was stationed at Top Gun, Naval Air Station, Fallon, NV, where he worked in the Reprographics department print shop in 2002. Upon his release of the Navy he attended and graduated from the Musicians Institute in Hollywood, CA, for recording engineering & live sound in 2005. Jaunzemis and his family relocated to Newcastle upon Tyne, England in 2005 but was arrested on 7 criminal charges the following year. Upon his release he is now banned from re-entry into the United Kingdom.
In 2006 Jaunzemis dodging legal disputes in the U. K. he moved to Las Vegas, NV, got a job as an audio stagehand at The Joint, a venue inside of the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino the same year. He became a member of the underground ]/Seduction Community. Becoming a professional PUA/dating & relationship guru in 2008, is the founder of "The Las Vegas PUA Lair", where he claims to have had over 215+ students. Teaching formal PUA bootcamps/seminars/classes for single men on how to "pick-up" women, he became a rapper, successful YouTube personality, a self-help author. His most notable works being his autobiography, "PRO SOAPER", his self-help guide, "10 STEPS TO SUCCESS". Jaunzemis has claimed according to the Bloomberg billionaire index, he is worth $154.1 million, although his name does not appear. Jaunzemis is the star of the film, Soap Or Die, produced & directed by Californian-based film makers, Grey Keith & Logan Shillinglaw IV, covered in Vice Magazine. Many liken Jaunzemis’ work to that of Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson’s early work.
He was a major character in the film, Lords of Soaptown, produced & directed by film maker, Jason Klamm. Jaunzemis has appeared in several videos produced by h3h3 Productions. One video on the subject of him having over 7M+ views. Jaunzemis is the father of Aiden Jaunzemis. Jaunzemis is banned from the United Kingdom after being arrested on 7 criminal charges. Upon his release from solitary confinement he fled the country, disregarding/violating his terms of probation, is now subject to arrest upon re-entry. Ryan has struggled with alcohol abuse for a large part of his life. Jaunzemis burned a tattoo of the Soap Shoes "O" logo off of his left shoulder/arm with a hot spoon while drunk on vodka, resulting in a large scar, he has since tried to cover the scar with another tattoo. He tattooed the Soap "O" logo once again on his right forearm. Jaunzemis resides in Las Vegas, NV
Yuan Jinkai, was a politician in the late Qing Empire, serving subsequently under the Beiyang Government and the Fengtian clique, subsequently becoming a cabinet minister in the Empire of Manchukuo. A native of Liaoyang city, Yuan served as deputy commander of the local police under the late Qing dynasty. In October 1913, after the Xinhai Revolution, he was appointed deputy governor of Liaoning Province and in 1915 was selected to represent the province in the Upper House of the legislature of the Republic of China. However, after the death of Yuan Shikai, northern China fell back into chaos, Yuan became a supporter of the Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin. In 1916, Yuan was appointed chief secretary to the Fentian Army, he subsequently served as chief secretary to Zhang’s army in Heilongjiang Province, was given a seat on the board of directors of the Chinese Eastern Railway. In 1930, he served as deputy director on the Control Yuan. After the Mukden Incident in 1931, Yuan worked with Kan Chaoxi to declare Shenyang independent from the Republic of China, subsequently cooperated with the Imperial Japanese Army on the Self-Government Guiding Board in the establishment of the state of Manchukuo.
He served in local government and on various legal committees from 1932-1935 including the Constitutional Commission, in February 1935 was appointed to Senate of Manchukuo, to the cabinet as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. Yuan retired in April 1944 after suffering from a stroke. Somehow overlooked during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria by the Soviet Red Army, subsequently, by the Chinese Communist Party, Yuan died in his hometown of Liaoyang in March 1947 at the age of 78. Rana, Mitter; the Manchurian Myth: Nationalism and Collaboration in Modern China. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22111-7. Yamamuro, Shinichi. Manchuria Under Japanese Domination. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3912-1. Rulers: China Administrative divisions: Liaoning
Leslie Kwok Ying Wah is a Singaporean former swimmer, who specialized in sprint freestyle events and turned into an actor, a part-time professional model. He earned three bronze medals each in the 50 m freestyle from the Southeast Asian Games, represented Singapore at the 2000 Summer Olympics. Kwok is an Anglo-Chinese School alumnus, a graduate with a bachelor of science degree in civil and structural engineering at Nanyang Technological University. Kwok competed for Singapore in the men's 50 m freestyle at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, he achieved a FINA B-cut of 23.72 from the Southeast Asian Games in Brunei. He challenged seven other swimmers in heat four, including Kyrgyzstan's Sergey Ashihmin, Goodwill Games silver medalist for Russia, Kazakhstan's two-time Olympian Sergey Borisenko. Diving in with a 0.73-second deficit, Kwok scorched the entire race to share a fourth seed with Peru's Luis López Hartinger in an exact time of 24.00, but finished outside an entry standard. Kwok failed to advance into the semifinals.
At the 2005 Southeast Asian Games in Manila, Kwok added a third bronze to his six-year-old hardware in the 50 m freestyle, finishing behind Indonesia's veteran Richard Sam Bera and Thailand's newcomer Arwut Chinnapasaen by more than half a second. In early 2006, Kwok announced his official retirement from swimming to extend his resume in entrepreneurship and other lifestyle businesses; as a part-time professional model, he has appeared in several sports magazines, print ad campaigns, TV commercials, has featured on the cover of a popular Asian woman magazine Female. A top-class entrepreneur, Kwok owns a massage and health spa called Elements Spa & Slimming, founded in April 2002. Hall of Fame Profile – Nanyang Technological University Feature: The ACS Connection Profile – Most Beautiful Man