Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Dalí de Púbol, known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the bizarre images in his surrealist work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork.
Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20, in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903, his father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24; as a child Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.
Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.
At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous. The exhibition was well received by critics; the following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.
His classical influences i
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, estimated to be 93 billion light years in diameter. In various multiverse hypotheses, a universe is one of many causally disconnected constituent parts of a larger multiverse, which itself comprises all of space and time and its contents; the earliest scientific models of the Universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, placing Earth at the center of the Universe. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. In developing the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built upon Copernicus' work as well as observations by Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Further observational improvements led to the realization that the Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way, one of at least hundreds of billions of galaxies in the Universe.
Many of the stars in our galaxy have planets. At the largest scale galaxies are distributed uniformly and the same in all directions, meaning that the Universe has neither an edge nor a center. At smaller scales, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters which form immense filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century have suggested that the Universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since and is still expanding at an increasing rate; the Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the Universe. Under this theory and time emerged together 13.799±0.021 billion years ago and the energy and matter present have become less dense as the Universe expanded. After an initial accelerated expansion called the inflationary epoch at around 10−32 seconds, the separation of the four known fundamental forces, the Universe cooled and continued to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and simple atoms to form.
Dark matter gathered forming a foam-like structure of filaments and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were drawn to the places where dark matter was most dense, forming the first galaxies and everything else seen today, it is possible to see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light-years because space itself has expanded, it is still expanding today. This means that objects which are now up to 46.5 billion light-years away can still be seen in their distant past, because in the past when their light was emitted, they were much closer to the Earth. From studying the movement of galaxies, it has been discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects; this unseen matter is known as dark matter. The ΛCDM model is the most accepted model of our universe, it suggests that about 69.2%±1.2% of the mass and energy in the universe is a cosmological constant, responsible for the current expansion of space, about 25.8%±1.1% is dark matter.
Ordinary matter is therefore only 4.9% of the physical universe. Stars and visible gas clouds only form about 6% of ordinary matter, or about 0.3% of the entire universe. There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe and about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information about prior states will be accessible; some physicists have suggested various multiverse hypotheses, in which our universe might be one among many universes that exist. The physical Universe is defined as all of their contents; such contents comprise all of energy in its various forms, including electromagnetic radiation and matter, therefore planets, stars and the contents of intergalactic space. The Universe includes the physical laws that influence energy and matter, such as conservation laws, classical mechanics, relativity; the Universe is defined as "the totality of existence", or everything that exists, everything that has existed, everything that will exist.
In fact, some philosophers and scientists support the inclusion of ideas and abstract concepts – such as mathematics and logic – in the definition of the Universe. The word universe may refer to concepts such as the cosmos, the world, nature; the word universe derives from the Old French word univers, which in turn derives from the Latin word universum. The Latin word was used by Cicero and Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used. A term for "universe" among the ancient Greek philosophers from Pythagoras onwards was τὸ πᾶν, tò pân, defined as all matter and all space, τὸ ὅλον, tò hólon, which did not include the void. Another synonym was ho kósmos. Synonyms are found in Latin authors and survive in modern languages, e.g. the German words Das All and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, such as everything, the cosmos, the world (as in the many-worlds interpr
Secularity is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being allied with or against any particular religion. The word secular was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin which would relate to any mundane endeavour. However, the term, saecula saeculorum as found in the New Testament in the Vulgate translation of the original Koine Greek phrase "εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων", e.g. at Galatians 1:5, was used in the early Christian church, in the doxologies, to denote the coming and going of the ages, the grant of eternal life, the long duration of created things from their beginning to forever and ever. The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the European Enlightenment. Furthermore, since religion and secular are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them. In many cultures, "little conceptual or practical distinction is made between'natural' and'supernatural' phenomena" and the notions of religious and nonreligious dissolve into unimportance, nonexistence, or unawareness since people have beliefs in other supernatural or spiritual things irrespective of belief in God or gods.
Conceptions of what is and what is not religion vary in contemporary East Asia as well. The shared term for "irreligion" or "no religion" with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions but not non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao and Japanese Shinto. In modern Japan, religion has negative connotation since it is associated with foreign belief systems so many identify as "nonreligious", but this does not mean they have a complete rejection or absence of beliefs and rituals relating to supernatural, metaphysical, or spiritual things. In the Meiji era, the Japanese government consciously excluded Shinto from the category of religion in order to enforce State Shinto while asserting their state followed American-mandated requirements for freedom of religion. One can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them.
Some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views. Saying a prayer derived from religious text or doctrine, worshipping through the context of a religion, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy, attending a religious seminary school or monastery are examples of religious activities; the "secular" is experienced in diverse ways ranging from separation of religion and state to being anti-religion or pro-religion, depending on the culture. For example, the United States has both separation of church and state and pro-religiosity in various forms such as protection of religious freedoms. A related term, involves the principle that government institutions and their representatives should remain separate from religious institutions, their beliefs, their dignitaries. Many businesses and corporations, some governments operate on secular lines; this stands in contrast to government with deity as its highest authority.
Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saeculum which meant "of a generation, belonging to an age" or denoted a period of about one hundred years. In the ancient world, saeculum was not defined in contrast to any sacred concerns and had a freestanding usage in Latin, it was in Christian Latin of medieval times, that saeculum was used for distinguishing this temporal age of the world from the eternal realm of God. The Christian doctrine that God exists outside time led medieval Western culture to use secular to indicate separation from religious affairs and involvement in temporal ones; this does not imply hostility to God or religion, though some use the term this way. According to cultural anthropologists such as Jack David Eller, secularity is best understood, not as being "anti-religious", but as being "religiously neutral" since many activities in religious bodies are secular themselves and most versions of secularity do not lead to irreligiosity. According to the anthropologist Jack David Eller's review of secularity, he observes that secularization is diverse and can vary by degree and kind.
He notes the sociologist Peter Glasner's ten institutional, normative, or cognitive processes for secularization as: Decline – the reduction in quantitative measures of religious identification and participation, such as lower church attendance/membership or dec
Truthiness is the belief or assertion that a particular statement is true based on the intuition or perceptions of some individual or individuals, without regard to evidence, intellectual examination, or facts. Truthiness can range from ignorant assertions of falsehoods to deliberate duplicity or propaganda intended to sway opinions; the concept of truthiness has emerged as a major subject of discussion surrounding U. S. politics during the 1990s and 2000s because of the perception among some observers of a rise in propaganda and a growing hostility toward factual reporting and fact-based discussion. American television comedian Stephen Colbert coined the term truthiness in this meaning as the subject of a segment called "The Wørd" during the pilot episode of his political satire program The Colbert Report on October 17, 2005. By using this as part of his routine, Colbert satirized the misuse of appeal to emotion and "gut feeling" as a rhetorical device in contemporaneous socio-political discourse.
He applied it to U. S. President George W. Bush's nomination of Harriet Miers to the Supreme Court and the decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Colbert ascribed truthiness to other institutions and organizations, including Wikipedia. Colbert has sometimes used a Dog Latin version of the term, "Veritasiness". For example, in Colbert's "Operation Iraqi Stephen: Going Commando" the word "Veritasiness" can be seen on the banner above the eagle on the operation's seal. Truthiness was named Word of the Year for 2005 by the American Dialect Society and for 2006 by Merriam-Webster. Linguist and OED consultant Benjamin Zimmer pointed out that the word truthiness had a history in literature and appears in the Oxford English Dictionary, as a derivation of truthy, The Century Dictionary, both of which indicate it as rare or dialectal, to be defined more straightforwardly as "truthfulness, faithfulness". Responding to claims by Michael Adams that the word existed with a different meaning, Colbert said: "Truthiness is a word I pulled right out of my keister".
Stephen Colbert, portraying his character Dr. Stephen T. Colbert, chose the word truthiness just moments before taping the premiere episode of The Colbert Report on October 17, 2005, after deciding that the scripted word – "truth" – was not ridiculous enough: "We're not talking about truth, we're talking about something that seems like truth – the truth we want to exist", he explained, he introduced his definition in the first segment of the episode, saying: "Now I'm sure some of the'word police', the'wordinistas' over at Webster's are gonna say,'Hey, that's not a word'. Well, anybody who knows me knows. They're elitist. Telling us what is or isn't true. Or what did or didn't happen."When asked in an out-of-character interview with The Onion's A. V. Club for his views on "the'truthiness' imbroglio that's tearing our country apart", Colbert elaborated on the critique he intended to convey with the word: Truthiness is tearing apart our country, I don't mean the argument over who came up with the word...
It used to be, everyone was entitled to their own opinion, but not their own facts. But that's not the case anymore. Facts matter not at all. Perception is everything. It's certainty. People love the President because he's certain of his choices as a leader if the facts that back him up don't seem to exist. It's the fact that he's certain, appealing to a certain section of the country. I feel a dichotomy in the American populace. What is important? What you want to be true, or what is true?... Truthiness is'What I say is right, anyone else says could be true.' It's not only that I feel it to be true. There's not only an emotional quality. During an interview on December 8, 2006, with Charlie Rose, Colbert stated: I was thinking of the idea of passion and emotion and certainty over information, and what you feel in your gut, as I said in the first Wørd we did, sort of a thesis statement of the whole show – however long it lasts – is that sentence, that one word, that's more important to, I think, the public at large, not just the people who provide it in prime-time cable, than information.
On his April 2, 2009 episode of The Colbert Report, Colbert added an addendum to the definition: a word so straight that it drives men wild. After Colbert's introduction of truthiness, it became used and recognized. Six days after, CNN's Reliable Sources featured a discussion of The Colbert Report by host Howard Kurtz, who played a clip of Colbert's definition. On the same day, ABC's Nightline reported on truthiness, prompting Colbert to respond by saying: "You know what was missing from that piece? Me. Stephen Colbert, but I'm not surprised. Nightline's on opposite me..."Within a few months of its introduction by Colbert, truthiness was discussed in The New York Times, The Washington Post, USA Weekly, the San Francisco Chronicle, the Chicago Tribune, Newsweek, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News, the Associated Press, Editor & Publisher, The Huffington Post, Chicago Reader, CNET, on ABC's Nightline, CBS's 60 Minutes, The Oprah Winfrey Show. The February 13, 2006 issue of Newsweek featured an article on The Colbert Report titled "The Truthiness Teller", recounting the career of the word truthiness since its popularization by Colbert.
In its issue of October 25, 2005, eight days after the premiere episode of the Report, The New York Times ran its third article on The Colbert Report, "Bringing Out the Absurdity of the News". The article discussed the segment on "truthiness", although the Times misreported the word as "trustiness". In its November 1, 2005 issue, the Tim
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, descriptions, or skills, acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to a practical understanding of a subject, it can be explicit. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception and reasoning; the eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible by the notion that philosophy's core was "theory of knowledge," a theory distinct from the sciences because it was their foundation... Without this idea of a "theory of knowledge," it is hard to imagine what "philosophy" could have been in the age of modern science; the definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology. The classical definition, described but not endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified and believed.
Some claim that these conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples demonstrate. There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert Nozick's arguments for a requirement that knowledge'tracks the truth' and Simon Blackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet any of these conditions'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge. Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth. In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moore's paradox, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on this account, to know that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular task with the statement that the kettle is boiling.
Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natural languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance. Following this idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but, not adequately captured by any definition. Symbolic representations can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, audio and video recordings. Philosophers of language and semioticians construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication. While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant tools for the transfer of knowledge is writing and reading, argument over the usefulness of the written word exists nonetheless, with some scholars skeptical of its impact on societies. In his collection of essays Technopoly, Neil Postman demonstrates the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt from Plato's work Phaedrus.
In this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. In this story, Theuth presents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new invention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians". King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge, he argues that the written word will infect the Egyptian people with fake knowledge as they will be able to attain facts and stories from an external source and will no longer be forced to mentally retain large quantities of knowledge themselves. Classical early modern theories of knowledge those advancing the influential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke, were based implicitly or explicitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words; this analogy between language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowledge in which the mind was treated as a table, a container of content, that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters, numbers or symbols.
This created a situation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognitive weight, so much so that educators paid close attention to the visual structure of information on the page and in notebooks. Major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge, it is only that audio and video technology for recording knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay equipment and electricity. Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limited to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could interpret wr
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
Peter L. Berger
Peter Ludwig Berger was an Austrian-born American sociologist and Protestant theologian. Berger became known for his work in the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of religion, study of modernization, theoretical contributions to sociological theory. Berger is arguably best known for his book, co-authored with Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, considered one of the most influential texts in the sociology of knowledge and played a central role in the development of social constructionism. In 1998 the International Sociological Association named this book as the fifth most-influential book written in the field of sociology during the 20th century. In addition to this book, some of the other books that Berger has written include: Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. Berger spent most of his career teaching at The New School for Social Research, at Rutgers University, at Boston University. Before retiring, Berger had been at Boston University since 1981 and was the director of the Institute for the Study of Economic Culture.
Peter Ludwig Berger was born on March 17, 1929, in Vienna, Austria, to George William and Jelka Berger, who were Jewish converts to Christianity. He died on June 27, 2017, in his Brookline, home after a prolonged illness, he emigrated to the United States shortly after World War II in 1946 at the age of 17 and in 1952 he became a naturalized citizen. On September 28, 1959, he married Brigitte Kellner, herself an eminent sociologist, on the faculty at Wellesley College and Boston University where she was the chair of the sociology department at both schools. Brigitte was born in Eastern Germany in 1928, she moved to the United States in the mid-1950s. She was a sociologist who focused on the sociology of the family, arguing that the nuclear family was one of the main causes of modernization. Although she studied traditional families, she supported same-sex relationships, she was on the faculties of Hunter College of the City University of New York, Long Island University, Wellesley College, Boston University.
Additionally, she was author of Societies in Change, The Homeless Mind, The War over the Family, The Family in the Modern Age. Brigitte Kellner Berger died May 28, 2015, they had Thomas Ulrich Berger and Michael George Berger. Thomas is himself a scholar of international relations, now a Professor at the Pardee School of Global Studies at Boston University and author of War and World Politics After World War II and Cultures of Antimilitarism: National Security in Germany and Japan. After the Nazi takeover of Austria in 1938, Berger and his family emigrated to Palestine under British rule, he attended a British High school, St. Luke's. Following the German bombings of Haifa, he was evacuated to Mt. Carmel, where he developed his life-long interest in religion. In 1947 Berger and his family emigrated again, this time to the United States, where they settled in New York City. Berger attended Wagner College for his Bachelor of Arts and received his M. A. and Ph. D. from the New School for Social Research in New York in 1954.
Berger, in his memoir, described himself as an "accidental sociologist", enrolling here in an effort to learn about American society and help become a Lutheran minister, learning under Alfred Schütz. In 1955 and 1956 he worked at the Evangelische Akademie in West Germany. From 1956 to 1958 Berger was an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro; the next stations in his career were professorships at the New School for Social Research, Rutgers University, Boston College. Since 1981 Berger was the University Professor of Theology at Boston University, he retired from BU in 2009. In 1985 he founded the Institute for the Study of Economic Culture, which transformed into the Institute on Culture and World Affairs, is now part of the Boston University Pardee School of Global Studies, he remained the Director of CURA from 1985 to 2010. CURA Berger founded The Institute on Culture and World Affairs at Boston University in 1985, it is a world-center for research and public scholarship on religion and world affairs.
Some of the questions it attempts to answer are: How do religion and values affect political and public ethical developments around the world? Defying earlier forecasts, why have religious actors and ideas become more rather than less globally powerful in recent years? and In a world of increasing religious and ethical diversity, what are the implications of the revival of public religion for citizenship and civil coexistence? CURA has over 140 projects in 40 countries. Religious views Berger was a moderate Christian Lutheran conservative whose work in theology and modernity at times has challenged the views of contemporary mainstream sociology which tends to lean away from any right-wing political thinking. However, Berger's approach to sociology was humanist with special emphasis on "value-free" analysis. Human beings construct a shared social reality; this is explained in Thomas Luckmann's book The Social Construction of Reality. This reality includes things from ordinary language to large-scale institutions.
Our lives are governed by the knowledge about the world that we have and use the information, relevant to our lives. We take into account typificatory schemes, which are general a