Marine conservation known as ocean conservation, refers to the study of Marine plants and animal resources and ecosystem functions. It is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas through planned management in order to prevent the exploitation of these resources. Marine conservation is driven by the manifested negative effects being seen in our environment such as species loss, habitat degradation and changes in ecosystem functions and focuses on limiting human-caused damage to marine ecosystems, restoring damaged marine ecosystems, preserving vulnerable species and ecosystems of the marine life. Marine conservation is a new discipline which has developed as a response to biological issues such as extinction and marine habitats change. Marine conservationists rely on a combination of scientific principles derived from marine biology and fisheries science, as well as on human factors such as, demand for marine resources and marine law and policy, in order to determine how to best protect and conserve marine species and ecosystems.
Marine conservation may be described as a sub-discipline of conservation biology. Coral reefs are the epicenter of immense amounts of biodiversity and are a key player in the survival of entire ecosystems, they provide various marine animals with food and shelter which keep generations of species alive. Furthermore, coral reefs are an integral part of sustaining human life through serving as a food source as well as a marine space for ecotourism which provides economic benefits. Humans are now conducting research regarding the use of corals as new potential sources for pharmaceuticals; because of the human impact on coral reefs, these ecosystems are becoming degraded and in need of conservation. The biggest threats include overfishing, destructive fishing practices and pollution from land-based sources. This, in conjunction with increased carbon in oceans, coral bleaching, diseases, means that there are no pristine reefs anywhere in the world. Up to 88% of coral reefs in Southeast Asia are now threatened, with 50% of those reefs at either "high" or "very high" risk of disappearing, which directly affects the biodiversity and survival of species dependent on coral.
This is harmful to island nations such as Samoa and the Philippines, because many people there depend on the coral reef ecosystems to feed their families and to make a living. However, many fishermen are unable to catch as many fish as they used to, so they are using cyanide and dynamite in fishing, which further degrades the coral reef ecosystem; this perpetuation of bad habits leads to the further decline of coral reefs and therefore perpetuates the problem. One way of stopping this cycle is by educating the local community about why the conservation of marine spaces that include coral reefs is important. Increasing human populations have resulted in increased human impact on ecosystems. Human activities has resulted in an increased extinction rate of species which has caused a major decrease in biological diversity of plants and animals in our environment; these impacts include increased pressure from fisheries including reef degradation and overfishing as well as pressure from the tourism industry which has increased over the past few years.
The deterioration of coral reefs is linked to human activities – 88% of reefs are threatened through various reasons as listed above, including excessive amounts of CO2 emissions. Oceans absorb 1/3 of the CO2 produced by humans, which has detrimental effects on the marine environment; the increasing levels of CO2 in oceans change the seawater chemistry by decreasing the pH, known as ocean acidification. Oil spills impact marine environments, contributing to marine pollution as a result of human activity; the effects of oil on marine fish have been studied following major spills in the United States. Strategies and techniques for marine conservation tend to combine theoretical disciplines, such as population biology, with practical conservation strategies, such as setting up protected areas, as with marine protected areas or Voluntary Marine Conservation Areas; these protected areas may be established for a variety of reasons and aim to limit the impact of human activity. These protected areas operate differently which includes ares that have seasonal closures and/or permanent closures as well as multiple levels of zoning that allow people to carryout different activities in separate areas.
Other techniques include developing sustainable fisheries and restoring the populations of endangered species through artificial means. Another focus of conservationists is on curtailing human activities that are detrimental to either marine ecosystems or species through policy, techniques such as fishing quotas, like those set up by the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, or laws such as those listed below. Recognizing the economics involved in human use of marine ecosystems is key, as is education of the public about conservation issues; this includes educating tourists that come to an area who might not be familiar with certain regulations regarding the marine habitat. One example of this is a project called Green Fins based in Southeast Asia that uses the scuba diving industry to educate the public; this project, implemented by UNEP, encourages scuba diving operators to educate their students about the importance of marine conservation and encourage them to dive in an environmentally friendly manner that does not damage coral reefs or associated marine ecosystems.
Marine conservation technologies are used to protec
A riparian buffer or stream buffer is a vegetated area near a stream forested, which helps shade and protect the stream from the impact of adjacent land uses. It plays a key role in increasing water quality in associated streams and lakes, thus providing environmental benefits. With the decline of many aquatic ecosystems due to agriculture, riparian buffers have become a common conservation practice aimed at increasing water quality and reducing pollution. Riparian buffers act to intercept sediment, nutrients and other materials in surface runoff and reduce nutrients and other pollutants in shallow subsurface water flow, they serve to provide habitat and wildlife corridors in agricultural areas. They can be key in reducing erosion by providing stream bank stabilization. Intercepting sediments/nutrients - Key to counteract eutrophication in downstream lakes and ponds which can be detrimental to aquatic habitats because of large fish kills that occur upon large-scale eutrophication. Intercepting pesticides - Riparian buffers keep chemicals that can be harmful to aquatic life out of the water.
Some pesticides can be harmful if they bioaccumulate in the organism, with the chemicals reaching harmful levels once they are ready for human consumption. Bank stabilization - This is important because erosion can be a major problem in agricultural regions when cut banks can take land out of production. Erosion can lead to sedimentation and siltation of downstream lakes and reservoirs. Siltation can reduce the life span of reservoirs and the dams that create the reservoirs. Provide habitat - Riparian buffers can act as crucial habitat for a large number of species those who have lost habitat due to agricultural land being put into production. Increase biodiversity - By adding this vegetated area of land near a water source it becomes a prime location for species that may have left the area due to non-conservation land use to re-establish. With this re-establishment the number of native species and biodiversity in general can be increased. Buffers acting as corridors - Buffers serve a major role in wildlife habitat.
The habitat provided by the buffers double as corridors for species that have had their habitat fragmented by various land uses. Shading water - The large trees in the first zone of the riparian buffer provide shade and therefore cooling for the water, increasing productivity and increasing habitat quality for aquatic species. Large woody debris - When branches and stumps fall into the stream from the riparian zone, more stream habitat features are created. Carbon is added as an energy source for biota in the stream. Increase land value - Often people who purchase land for recreational use are willing to pay more if there is more wooded area located on the land. Produce profitable alternative crops - Vegetation such as Black Walnut and Hazelnut, which can be profitably harvested, can be incorporated into the riparian buffer. Increase lease fees for hunting - The increased habitat means that the land will be more sought-after for hunting purposes. A riparian buffer is split into three different zones, each having its own specific purpose for filtering runoff and interacting with the adjacent aquatic system.
Buffer design is a key element in the effectiveness of the buffer. It is recommended that native species be chosen to plant in these three zones, with the general width of the buffer being 50 feet on each side of the stream. Zone 1; this zone should function to shade the water source and act as a bank stabilizer. The zone should include large native tree species that grow fast and can act to perform these tasks. Although this is the smallest of the three zones and absorbs the fewest contaminants, most of the contaminants have been eliminated by Zone 2 and Zone 3. Zone 2. Made up of native shrubs, this zone provides a habitat for wildlife, including nesting areas for bird species; this zone acts to slow and absorb contaminants that Zone 3 has missed. The zone is an important transition between forest. Zone 3; this zone is important as the first line of defense against contaminants. It consists of native grasses and serves to slow water runoff and begin to absorb contaminants before they reach the other zones.
Although these grass strips should be one of the widest zones, they are the easiest to install. Streambed Zone; the streambed zone of the riparian area is linked to Zone 1. Zone 1 provides fallen limbs and tree roots that in turn slow water flow, reducing erosional processes associated with increased water flow and flooding; this woody debris increases habitat and cover for various aquatic species The National Agroforestry Center has developed a Filter Strip Design tool, a GIS-based computer program for designing vegetative filter strips around agricultural fields that utilizes terrain analysis to account for spatially non-uniform runoff. In Zone 1: Cottonwood, Bur Oak, Swamp White Oak, Siberian Elm, Silver Maple, Black Walnut, Northern Red Oak. In Zone 2: manchurian apricot, Silver Buffaloberry, Black Cherry, Sandcherry, Peking Cotoneaster, Midwest Crabapple, Golden Currant, Washington Hawthorn, American Hazel, Amur Honeysuckle, Common Lilac, Amur Maple, American Plum, Skunkbush Sumac. In Zone 3: Western Wheatgrass, Big Bluestem, Sand Bluestem, Sideoats Grama, Blue Grama, Hairy Grama, Buffalo Grass, Sand Lovegrass, Little Bluestem, Prairie Cordgrass, Prairie Dropseed, Tall Dropseed, Green Needlegrass.
Logging is sometimes recommended as a management practice in riparian buffers
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted through deforestation. Reforestation can be used to rectify or improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems, mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, harvest for resources timber, but non-timber forest products. A similar concept, another type of forestation, refers to the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forests that may have existed long ago but were deforested or otherwise removed at some point in the past or lacked it naturally. Sometimes the term "re-afforestation" is used to distinguish between the original forest cover and the re-growth of forest to an area. Special tools, e.g. tree planting bars, are used to make planting of trees faster. A debated issue in managed reforestation is whether or not the succeeding forest will have the same biodiversity as the original forest.
If the forest is replaced with only one species of tree and all other vegetation is prevented from growing back, a monoculture forest similar to agricultural crops would be the result. However, most reforestation involves the planting of different selections of seedlings taken from the area of multiple species. Another important factor is the natural regeneration of a wide variety of plant and animal species that can occur on a clear cut. In some areas the suppression of forest fires for hundreds of years has resulted in large single aged and single species forest stands; the logging of small clear cuts and/or prescribed burning increases the biodiversity in these areas by creating a greater variety of tree stand ages and species. Reforestation need not be only used for recovery of accidentally destroyed forests. In some countries, such as Finland, many of the forests are managed by the wood products and pulp and paper industry. In such an arrangement, like other crops, trees are planted to replace those.
In such circumstances, the industry can cut the trees in a way to allow easier reforestation. The wood products industry systematically replaces many of the trees it cuts, employing large numbers of summer workers for tree planting work. For example, in 2010, Weyerhaeuser reported planting 50 million seedlings; however replanting an old-growth forest with a plantation is not replacing the old with the same characteristics in the new. In just 20 years, a teak plantation in Costa Rica can produce up to about 400 m³ of wood per hectare; as the natural teak forests of Asia become more scarce or difficult to obtain, the prices commanded by plantation-grown teak grows higher every year. Other species such as mahogany grow more than teak in Tropical America but are extremely valuable. Faster growers include pine and Gmelina. Reforestation, if several indigenous species are used, can provide other benefits in addition to financial returns, including restoration of the soil, rejuvenation of local flora and fauna, the capturing and sequestering of 38 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare per year.
The reestablishment of forests is not just simple tree planting. Forests are made up of a community of species and they build dead organic matter into soils over time. A major tree-planting program could enhance the local climate and reduce the demands of burning large amounts of fossil fuels for cooling in the summer. Forests are an important part of the global carbon cycle because trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. By removing this greenhouse gas from the air, forests function as terrestrial carbon sinks, meaning they store large amounts of carbon. At any time, forests account for as much as double the amount of carbon in the atmosphere; as more anthropogenic carbon is produced, forests remove around three billion tons of anthropogenic carbon every year. This amounts to about 30% of all carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Therefore, an increase in the overall forest cover around the world would tend to mitigate global warming. There are four major strategies available to mitigate carbon emissions through forestry activities: increase the amount of forested land through a reforestation process.
Achieving the first strategy would require enormous and wide-ranging efforts. However, there are many organizations around the world that encourage tree-planting as a way to offset carbon emissions for the express purpose of fighting climate change. For example, in China, the Jane Goodall Institute, through their Shanghai Roots & Shoots division, launched the Million Tree Project in Kulun Qi, Inner Mongolia to plant one million trees to stop desertification and help curb climate change. China has used 24 billion metres squared of new forest plantation and natural forest regrowth to offset 21% of Chinese fossil fuel emissions in 2000. In Java, Indonesia each newlywed couple is to give whoever is sermonizing their wedding 5 seedlings to combat global warming; each couple that wishes to have a divorce has to give 25 seedlings to. The second strategy has to do with selecting species for tree-planting. In theory, planting any kind of tree to produce more forest cover would absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
On the other hand, a genetically modified tree specimen might grow much faster than any other regular tree. Some of these trees are being developed in the lumber and biofuel industries. Th
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on natural and social sciences, the practice of natural resource management; the conservation ethic is based on the findings of conservation biology. The term conservation biology and its conception as a new field originated with the convening of "The First International Conference on Research in Conservation Biology" held at the University of California, San Diego in La Jolla, California in 1978 led by American biologists Bruce A. Wilcox and Michael E. Soulé with a group of leading university and zoo researchers and conservationists including Kurt Benirschke, Sir Otto Frankel, Thomas Lovejoy, Jared Diamond; the meeting was prompted by the concern over tropical deforestation, disappearing species, eroding genetic diversity within species.
The conference and proceedings that resulted sought to initiate the bridging of a gap between theory in ecology and evolutionary genetics on the one hand and conservation policy and practice on the other. Conservation biology and the concept of biological diversity emerged together, helping crystallize the modern era of conservation science and policy; the inherent multidisciplinary basis for conservation biology has led to new subdisciplines including conservation social science, conservation behavior and conservation physiology. It stimulated further development of conservation genetics which Otto Frankel had originated first but is now considered a subdiscipline as well; the rapid decline of established biological systems around the world means that conservation biology is referred to as a "Discipline with a deadline". Conservation biology is tied to ecology in researching the population ecology of rare or endangered species. Conservation biology is concerned with phenomena that affect the maintenance and restoration of biodiversity and the science of sustaining evolutionary processes that engender genetic, population and ecosystem diversity.
The concern stems from estimates suggesting that up to 50% of all species on the planet will disappear within the next 50 years, which has contributed to poverty and will reset the course of evolution on this planet. Conservation biologists research and educate on the trends and process of biodiversity loss, species extinctions, the negative effect these are having on our capabilities to sustain the well-being of human society. Conservation biologists work in the field and office, in government, non-profit organizations and industry; the topics of their research are diverse, because this is an interdisciplinary network with professional alliances in the biological as well as social sciences. Those dedicated to the cause and profession advocate for a global response to the current biodiversity crisis based on morals and scientific reason. Organizations and citizens are responding to the biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that direct research and education programs that engage concerns at local through global scales.
Conscious efforts to conserve and protect global biodiversity are a recent phenomenon. Natural resource conservation, has a history that extends prior to the age of conservation. Resource ethics grew out of necessity through direct relations with nature. Regulation or communal restraint became necessary to prevent selfish motives from taking more than could be locally sustained, therefore compromising the long-term supply for the rest of the community; this social dilemma with respect to natural resource management is called the "Tragedy of the Commons". From this principle, conservation biologists can trace communal resource based ethics throughout cultures as a solution to communal resource conflict. For example, the Alaskan Tlingit peoples and the Haida of the Pacific Northwest had resource boundaries and restrictions among clans with respect to the fishing of sockeye salmon; these rules were guided by clan elders who knew lifelong details of each river and stream they managed. There are numerous examples in history where cultures have followed rules and organized practice with respect to communal natural resource management.
The Mauryan emperor Ashoka around 250 B. C. issued edicts restricting the slaughter of animals and certain kinds of birds, as well as opened veterinary clinics. Conservation ethics are found in early religious and philosophical writings. There are examples in the Tao, Hindu and Buddhist traditions. In Greek philosophy, Plato lamented about pasture land degradation: "What is left now is, so to say, the skeleton of a body wasted by disease. In the bible, through Moses, God commanded to let the land rest from cultivation every seventh year. Before the 18th century, much of European culture considered it a pagan view to admire nature. Wilderness was denigrated. However, as early as AD 680 a wildlife sanctuary was founded on the Farne Islands by St Cuthbert in response to his religious beliefs. Natural history was a major preoccupation in the 18th century, with grand expeditions and the opening of popular public displays in Europe and North America. By 1900 there were 150 natural history museums in Germany, 250 in Great Britain, 250 in the United States, 300 in France.
Preservationist or conservationist sentiments are a development of the late 18th to early 20th centuries. Before C
The ecological restoration of islands, or island restoration, is the application of the principles of ecological restoration to islands and island groups. Islands, due to their isolation, are home to many of the world's endemic species, as well as important breeding grounds for seabirds and some marine mammals, their ecosystems are very vulnerable to human disturbance and to introduced species, due to their small size. Island groups such as New Zealand and Hawaii have undergone substantial extinctions and losses of habitat. Since the 1950s several organisations and government agencies around the world have worked to restore islands to their original states; the principal components of island restoration are the removal of introduced species and the reintroduction of native species. Isolated islands have been known to have greater levels of endemism since the 1970s when the theory of Island biogeography, formulated by Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson was developed; this higher occurrence of endemism is because isolation limits immigration of new species to the island, allowing new species to evolve separately from others on the mainland.
For example, 71% of New Zealand's bird species were endemic. As well as displaying greater levels of endemism, island species have characteristics that make them vulnerable to human disturbance. Many island species evolved on small islands, or restricted habitats on small islands. Small populations are vulnerable to modest hunting, restricted habitats are vulnerable to loss or modification of said habitat. More island species are ecologically naive, they have not evolved alongside a predator, or have lost appropriate behavioural responses to predators; this resulted in flightlessness, or unusual levels of tameness. This made many species susceptible to predation by introduced species. Some, such as the dodo, are thought to have become extinct because of the pressure of both humans and introduced animals. One estimate of birds in the Pacific islands puts the extinctions at 2000 species. Between 40 and 50% of the bird species of New Zealand have become extinct since 200 AD; the field of island restoration is credited with having been started in New Zealand in the 1960s, but other smaller projects, such as the restoration of Nonsuch Island in Bermuda have been going on for as long.
The program undertaken by the Department of Conservation is one of the largest in the world. It began on Cuvier Island, where ecologists removed stock, feral cats and in 1993, Pacific rats; the success of the project resulted in similar projects around New Zealand. The advantages to the DOC were considerable. Species like the takahe, where the remaining wild population was at considerable risk from feral cats and dogs, could be moved to these islands to safeguard the species. One important aspect of island restoration is the removal of invasive alien species. Since these species are most the reason that native fauna and flora is threatened, their removal is essential to the restoration project. From 1673 until 2009, 786 successful invasive vertebrate eradication have been recorded and in the last few decades the frequency of eradications and the size of islands from which invasive vertebrates have been eradicated has increased. A definitive list of past island restoration efforts exists as the Database of Island Invasive Species Eradications.
In addition a list of the current invasive species present on the world's islands exists as the Threatened Island Database Islands are suitable for restoration as once cleared of an introduced species they can be kept cleared of these species by virtue of being an island. Species removal is intensive and expensive, methods used must be chosen as to not create too much impact on non-target species. Feral cats and three species of rats are among the most damaging species introduced to islands; the differences in size and behaviour preclude the use of the same techniques for all of them, but with many species a range of techniques needs to be used in order to ensure success. Larger animals, such as goats and pigs, can be hunted. On larger islands ecologists use a Judas goat, where a radio collared goat is released into the wild; this goat is followed and groups it joins are removed. To remove cats a combination of techniques is needed: hunting and poisoning. Cats are more difficult to hunt than goats and pigs, requiring the use of experienced hunters and night hunting.
Trapping is ineffective for rats, given their sheer numbers, the only method that works is poisoning, which can be delivered into the field by broadcasting or by the maintenance of bait stations. This method has been employed around the world, in the Falkland Islands, in the tropical Pacific, off New Zealand, where over 40 islands have been cleared; this method is not without problems if the rats share the island with other, native species of rodent that might take the bait as well, as has happened on Anacapa Island in the Channel Islands and Rat Island in the Aleutian archipelago. In the Pacific poison intended for rats
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Areas are designated in recognition of their national importance, by the relevant public body: Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, or the Northern Ireland Environment Agency. In place of AONB, Scotland uses the similar national scenic area designation. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty enjoy levels of protection from development similar to those of UK national parks, but unlike with national parks the responsible bodies do not have their own planning powers, they differ from national parks in their more limited opportunities for extensive outdoor recreation. The idea for what would become the AONB designation was first put forward by John Dower in his 1945 Report to the Government on National Parks in England and Wales. Dower suggested there was need for protection of certain beautiful landscapes which were unsuitable as national parks owing to their small size and lack of wildness.
Dower's recommendation for the designation of these "other amenity areas" was embodied in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 as the AONB designation. The purpose of an AONB designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the designated landscape by placing it under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. There two secondary aims: meeting the need for quiet enjoyment of the countryside and having regard for the interests of those who live and work there. To achieve these aims, AONBs rely on practical countryside management; as they have the same landscape quality, AONBs may be compared to the national parks of England and Wales. National parks are well known to many inhabitants of the UK. However, the National Association of AONBs is working to increase awareness of AONBs in local communities, in 2014 negotiated to have the boundaries of AONBs in England shown on Google Maps. There are 46 AONBs in Britain; the first AONB was designated in 1956 in South Wales.
The most confirmed is the Tamar Valley AONB in 1995, although the existing Clwydian Range AONB was extended in 2012 to form the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley AONB, the Strangford Lough and Lecale Coast AONBs were merged and redesignated as a single AONB in 2010. AONBs vary in terms of size and use of land, whether they are or wholly open to the public; the smallest AONB is the Isles of Scilly, 16 km2, the largest is the Cotswolds, 2,038 km2. The AONBs of England and Wales together cover around 18% of the countryside in the two countries; the AONBs of Northern Ireland together cover about 70% of Northern Ireland's coastline. AONBs in England and Wales were created under the same legislation as the national parks, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Unlike AONBs, national parks have special legal powers to prevent unsympathetic development. AONBs in general remain the responsibility of their local authorities by means of special committees which include members appointed by the minister and by parishes, only limited statutory duties were imposed on local authorities within an AONB by the original 1949 Act.
However, further regulation and protection of AONBs in England and Wales was added by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, under which new designations are now made, the Government has in the National Planning Policy Framework stated that AONBs and national parks have equal status when it comes to planning decisions on landscape issues. Two of the AONBs, which extend into a large number of local authority areas, have their own statutory bodies, known as conservation boards. All English and Welsh AONBs have other staff; as required by the CRoW Act, each AONB has a management plan that sets out the characteristics and special qualities of the landscape and how they will be conserved and enhanced. The AONBs are collectively represented by the National Association for AONBs, an independent organization acting on behalf of AONBs and their partners. AONBs in Northern Ireland was designated under the Amenity Lands Act 1965. There are growing concerns among environmental and countryside groups that AONB status is under threat from development.
The Campaign to Protect Rural England said in July 2006 that many AONBs were under greater threat than before. Three particular sites were cited: the Dorset AONB threatened by a road plan, the threat of a football stadium in the Sussex Downs AONB, larger than any other, a £1 billion plan by Imperial College London to build thousands of houses and offices on hundreds of acres of AONB land on the Kent Downs at Wye. In September 2007 government approval was given for the development of a new football ground for Brighton and Hove Albion within the boundaries of the Sussex Downs AONB, after a fierce fight by conservationists; the subsequent development, known as Falmer Stadium, was opened in July 2011. The Weymouth Relief Road in Dorset was constructed between 2008 and 2011, after environmental groups lost a High Court challenge to prevent its construction. Writing in 2006, Professor Adrian Phillips listed threats facing AONBs, he wrote that the apparent big threats were uncertainty over future support for lan
National nature reserve (United Kingdom)
Some statutory nature reserves are designated by national bodies in the United Kingdom, are known as national nature reserves. In Great Britain, nature reserves designed under Part III of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 that are deemed to be of national importance may be designated as statutory'national nature reserves' by the relevant national nature conservation body using section 35 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. If a nature reserve is designated by a local authority in Great Britain the resulting statutory nature reserve will be referred to as a local nature reserve. In England, 224 national nature reserves have been designated by Natural England. In Scotland, the 43 national nature reserves are designated by Scottish Natural Heritage. In Wales, 67 national nature reserves have been designated by Natural Resources Wales. In Northern Ireland, statutory nature reserves are designated by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency under the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
There are 47 NNRs in Northern Ireland. Nature reserve National nature reserve Local nature reserve