Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party and known colloquially as the Tories or the Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it holds an overall majority in the House of Commons with 365 Members of Parliament, it has 245 members of the House of Lords, 8 members of the London Assembly, 31 members of the Scottish Parliament, 11 members of the Welsh Assembly and 7,437 local councillors. The Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is Tories—and was one of two dominant political parties in the 19th century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli, it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers, most notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher, led governments for 57 years of the 20th century.

Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including one nation conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. On social policy, it has taken a more conservative approach, though this has receded over recent decades. In foreign policy, it favours a strong military capability, being supportive of British participation in NATO; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the European Conservatives and Reformists Party.

The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltarian branches of the party are semi-autonomous. Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world; the Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearers of'true Toryism'".

The term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830; the name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the 19th century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade.

Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party. Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation; the high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as follows: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied, he was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December.

The two main parties were now dead equal in seats. The Unionists had more popul

1951–52 elections in India

The Election Commission of India held the first presidential elections of India on May 2, 1952. Dr. Rajendra Prasad won his first election with 507,400 votes over his nearest rival K. T. Shah who got 92,827 votes. General elections to the first Lok Sabha since independence were held in India between 25 October 1951 and 21 February 1952; the Indian National Congress stormed into power. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. *: On 1 November 1956, Ajmer State was merged into Rajasthan under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. *: On 1 November 1956, Bhopal State was merged into Madhya Pradesh under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Bhopal states 1955 *: Bihar was reduced by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal in 1956 under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. *: On 1 November 1956, under States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Bombay state was re-organized by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Hyderabad.

The state's southernmost districts of Bombay were transferred to Mysore State while Abu Road taluka of the Banaskantha district was transferred to Rajasthan. *: On 1 November 1956, Coorg State was merged into Mysore State as per the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. *: On 1 November 1956, under States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Delhi was made a Union Territory under the direct administration of the President of India and the Delhi Legislative Assembly was abolished simultaneously. Next legislative assembly elections in Delhi were held in 1993, when Union Territory of Delhi was formally declared as National Capital Territory of Delhi by the Sixty-ninth Amendment to the Indian constitution. *: Under States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Himachal Pradesh became a Union Territory on 1 November 1956, under the direct administration of the President of India and the Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly was abolished simultaneously. Under Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966, it became a state and the next legislative elections were held in 1967.

*: On 1 November 1956, Hyderabad State, except the districts of Raichur, Gulbarga and Marathwada, was merged into Andhra State to form a single state, Andhra Pradesh, under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The districts of Raichur and Gulbarga were transferred to the Mysore State, while the Marathwada districts was merged with the Bombay State. *: On 1 November 1956, under States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh and the Sunel enclave of the Mandsaur district of Madhya Bharat was merged in Rajasthan. *: On 1 November 1956, under States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, Bhopal state and the Sironj sub-division of the Kota district of Rajasthan were merged into Madhya Pradesh while the Nagpur Division was transferred to Bombay State. *: On 1 November 1956, the southern part of Travancore-Cochin was added to the Madras State while the Malabar district of the state was transferred to the new state of Kerala, a new union territory, Laccadive and Amindivi Islands, was created.

*: On 1 November 1956, Mysore state was enlarged by the addition of Coorg State, the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district and the South Kanara district of Madras State, the Kannada speaking districts from southern Bombay state and western Hyderabad State under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The Siruguppa taluk, the Bellary taluk, the Hospet taluk and a small area of the Mallapuram sub-taluk were detached from the Mysore State. *: Punjab was enlarged by the addition of Patiala & East Punjab States Union in 1956 under States Reorganisation Act of 1956. *: On 1 November 1956, under States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the Ajmer State, the Abu Road taluk of the Banaskantha district of Bombay State, the Sunel enclave of the Mandsaur district and the Lohara sub-tehsil of the Hissar district of the Punjab was merged with Rajasthan while the Sironj sub-division of the Kota district of Rajasthan was transferred to Madhya Pradesh. *: On 1 November 1956, Saurashtra State was merged into Bombay State as per the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.

$: In 1952 elections of legislative assembly, no party found the majority. Indian National Congress formed a coalition government with the help of Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress, Kerala Socialist Party and a nominated member. *: On 1 November 1956, Vindhya Pradesh was merged into Madhya Pradesh under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. *: West Bengal was enlarged by the transfer of minor territories from Bihar in 1956 under States Reorganisation Act, 1956. 1954 elections in India 1955 elections in India 1957 elections in India Election Commission of India

Kantilal Vyas

Kantilal Baldevram Vyas is a Gujarati linguist and editor from Gujarat, India. He published several works in the field of linguistics including Bhasha Vijnan, Vrutt ane Kavyalankar, Gujarati Bhashano Udgam and Swaroop and Bhasha Sanshodhan. Kantilal Vyas was born on 21 November 1910 at Hampura, a village in the Surendranagar district of Gujarat in India. After finishing his schooling in 1926, he studied Bachelor of Arts and received a degree in History and Economics in the year 1930 from Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, he further studied Master of Arts and received a degree in Gujarati and Sanskrit in the year 1933 from M. T. B College, Surat, he received the degree of D. Lit. in 1968 from Gujarat University for his research in linguistics and old Gujarati. Vyas was a scholar of linguistics and old and medieval Gujarati literature, he edited several medieval Gujarati manuscripts. He edited an old Gujarati fagu poem, in English and Gujarati, he edited Kanhadade Prabandha of Padmanābha (Vol. I, in English and Gujarati]], Char Gujarati Phagu Kavyo, Ranmall Chhand, Apabharmsha of Hemchandra and Mamerun of Premanand.

He was appointed as the Fellow of Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland in 1948 and as the President of Professor Association of Gujarati in 1963. He was the head of Gujarati Department at Elphinstone College, Mumbai from 1937 to 1959 and thereafter became the principal of various governments college including M. N. College, Dharmendrasinh College, Shamaldas College, Mithibai College, Mumbai, C. M. College and Shoorji Vallabhdas Arts and Commerce College, Mandvi, he retired in 1975. List of Gujarati-language writers Works by or about Kantilal Vyas at Internet Archive Works by Kāntilāla Baḷadevarāma Vyāsa at Google Books