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Constance of Austria, Margravine of Meissen

Constance of Babenberg, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Margravine of Meissen from 1234 until her death, by her marriage with Margrave Henry the Illustrious. Constance was a younger daughter of Duke Leopold VI of Austria and his wife, the Byzantine princess Theodora Angelina, daughter of Emperor Isaac II Angelos. In 1225 her elder sister Margaret married the 14-year-old Henry, King-elect of Germany and eldest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II. Upon her father's death in 1230, the Babenberg duchies of Austria and Styria passed to her brother Frederick the Quarrelsome. On 1 May 1234 Constance married the Wettin margrave Henry the Illustrious; the wedding took place in an open field near Vienna rather than in the newly erected Hofburg residence of the Babenbergs. It is believed that the conversion of the castle had not been completed, or it was too small. There are three sources for information about the wedding itself. Two of them report that the wedding happened in other words, in Stadlau.

The third source reports that the wedding took place in aput Ringlense, a name which has fallen into disuse and was used instead of today's Floridsdorf. The two sources reporting the location as Stadlau published a list of wedding guests. Present at the wedding were King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia and Prince Béla IV of Hungary, the Archbishop of Salzburg as well as the bishops of Passau, Bamberg and Seckau; the secular princes were represented by Margrave Přemysl of Moravia, Duke Albert of Saxony, Duke Carinthia, the Carinthian duke Bernhard von Spanheim, the Landgrave of Thuringia. This guest list suggests the importance of the Babenberg dukes within the Holy Roman Empire. Constance bequeathed a True Cross relic to the Dresden parish, housed by a chapel which became known as the Kreuzkirche, her husband, who had inherited both the Margraviate of Meissen and the March of Lusatia from his father, the late Margrave Theodoric I, participated in a Prussian Crusade of the Teutonic Order soon after their wedding.

In 1239 he entered into the Magdeburg Wars with the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg. He remained a loyal supporter of Emperor Frederick II, who betrothed his daughter Margaret of Sicily with Henry's and Constance's first-born son Albert. After Constance's death in 1243, Margrave Henry secondly married Agnes of Bohemia, a daughter of King Wenceslaus I; when Constance's brother Duke Frederick was killed in the 1246 Battle of the Leitha River, he claimed the Austrian duchy for himself. Henry and Constance had two sons: Margrave of Meissen Theodoric of Landsberg. In 1910, a street in Donaustadt, was named after her: Konstanziagasse


Denbighshire is a county in north-east Wales, whose borders differ from the historic county of the same name. It is the part of Wales known to have been inhabited longest – Pontnewydd Palaeolithic site has Neanderthal remains of 225,000 years ago, its several castles include Denbigh, Ruthin, Castell Dinas Bran and Bodelwyddan. St Asaph, one of Britain's smallest cities, has one of its smallest Anglican cathedrals. Denbighshire has coastline to the north and hills to the east and west; the River Clwyd creates a broad fertile valley down the centre of a rural county with little industry. Crops are grown in cattle and sheep reared in the uplands; the coast attracts tourists. Llangollen hosts the Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod each July; the present main area was formed on 1 April 1996 under the Local Government Act 1994, from various parts of the county of Clwyd. It includes the district of Rhuddlan, the communities of Trefnant and Cefn Meiriadog from the district of Colwyn and most of the Glyndŵr district.

The part of the Glyndŵr district includes the entirety of the former Edeyrnion Rural District, part of the administrative county of Merionethshire before 1974, which covered the parishes of Betws Gwerfil Goch, Gwyddelwern, Llandrillo yn Edeirnion and Llansanffraid. Other principal areas including part of historic Denbighshire are Conwy, which picked up the remainder of 1974–1996 Colwyn, the Denbighshire parts of 1974–1996 Aberconwy, Wrexham, which corresponds to the pre-1974 borough of Wrexham along with most of the Wrexham Rural District and several parishes from Glyndŵr. Post-1996 Powys includes the historic Denbighshire parishes of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant and Llangedwyn, which formed part of Glyndŵr district. Researchers have found evidence. Bontnewydd Palaeolithic site is one of the most significant in Great Britain. Hominid remains of probable Neanderthals have been found, along with stone tools from the Middle Pleistocene. See List of places in Denbighshire; the eastern border of Denbighshire follows the ridge of the Clwydian Range, with a steep escarpment to the west, a high point at Moel Famau.

The Clwydian Range is, with the upper Dee Valley, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty – one of just five in the whole of Wales. The Denbigh Moors are in the west of the county and the Berwyn Range adjacent to the southern boundary; the River Clwyd in its broad, fertile Vale runs from south to north in the centre of the county. There is a narrow coastal plain in the north where there is much residential and tourist development; the highest point in the county is Cadair Berwyn. Denbighshire borders the counties of Conwy, Flintshire and Powys. Denbighshire's total population at the United Kingdom Census 2001 was 93,065, which increased to 93,734 at the 2011 census; the largest towns on the coast are Prestatyn. According to the 2011 Census returns, 24.6 per cent of the population stated they are able to speak Welsh. In 2019, research carried out by UnHerd in association with pollster FocalData showed that most people across the county support the British monarchy. Since the 20th-century demise of the coal and steel industries in the Wrexham area, there are no heavy industrial sites in the county.

Although most towns have small industrial parks or estates for light industry, the economy is based on agriculture and tourism. A high proportion of the working population is employed in the service sector; the uplands support sheep and beef cattle rearing, while in the Vale of Clwyd dairy farming and wheat and barley crops predominate. Many towns have livestock markets and the farming supports farm machinery merchants, feed merchants and other ancillary trades. With their incomes on the decline, farmers have found opportunities in tourism, rural crafts, specialist food shops, farmers' markets and value-added food products. Tourism is nowadays the main source of income; the upland areas with their sheep farms and small, stone-walled fields are attractive to visitors. Redundant farm buildings are converted into self-catering accommodation, while many farmhouses supply bed and breakfast; the travel trade began with the arrival of the railway on the coast in the mid-19th century, opening up the area from Merseyside.

This led to a boom in seaside guest houses. More caravan sites and holiday villages have thrived and there has been an increase in ownership of holiday homes. Various initiatives to boost the economy of North Wales are in progress in 2016, including a redevelopment project for the former Rhyl seafront and funfair; the North Wales Coast Line running from Crewe to Holyhead is served by Transport for Wales and Avanti West Coast services. Trains leaving Crewe pass through Chester, cross the River Dee into Wales, continue through Flint, Holywell junction, Prestatyn and stations to Bangor and Holyhead, from where there is a ferry service to Ireland. There are no motorways in Denbighshire; the A55 dual carriageway passes from Chester through St Asaph to the North Wales coast at Abergele, after which it runs parallel to the railway through Conwy and Bangor to Holyhead. The A548 passes from Chester to Abergele through Deeside and along the coast, before leaving the coast and terminating at Llanrwst; the main road from London is the A5 which passes north-westwards

Gerhard Grimmer

Gerhard Grimmer was an East German cross-country skier who competed during the 1960s and 1970s. He won several medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, including golds in the 50 km and the 4 x 10 km relay. Grimmer won the Holmenkollen ski festival at 50 km twice, he competed at three Olympics and his best Olympic finish was 5th at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck in the 50 km. In 1975, he was awarded the Holmenkollen medal. Gerhard Grimmer at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen medalists at the Wayback Machine – click Holmenkollmedaljen for downloadable pdf file Holmenkollen winners since 1892 at the Wayback Machine – click Vinnere for downloadable pdf file

Monotone likelihood ratio

In statistics, the monotone likelihood ratio property is a property of the ratio of two probability density functions. Formally, distributions ƒ and g bear the property if for every x 1 > x 0, f g ≥ f g that is, if the ratio is nondecreasing in the argument x. If the functions are first-differentiable, the property may sometimes be stated ∂ ∂ x ≥ 0 For two distributions that satisfy the definition with respect to some argument x, we say they "have the MLRP in x." For a family of distributions that all satisfy the definition with respect to some statistic T, we say they "have the MLR in T." The MLRP is used to represent a data-generating process that enjoys a straightforward relationship between the magnitude of some observed variable and the distribution it draws from. If f satisfies the MLRP with respect to g, the higher the observed value x, the more it was drawn from distribution f rather than g; as usual for monotonic relationships, the likelihood ratio's monotonicity comes in handy in statistics when using maximum-likelihood estimation.

Distribution families with MLR have a number of well-behaved stochastic properties, such as first-order stochastic dominance and increasing hazard ratios. As is usual, the strength of this assumption comes at the price of realism. Many processes in the world do not exhibit a monotonic correspondence between output. Suppose you are working on a project, you can either work hard or slack off. Call your choice of effort e and the quality of the resulting project q. If the MLRP holds for the distribution of q conditional on your effort e, the higher the quality the more you worked hard. Conversely, the lower the quality the more you slacked off. Choose effort e ∈ where H means high, L means low Observe q drawn from f. By Bayes' law with a uniform prior, Pr = f f + f Suppose f satisfies the MLRP. Rearranging, the probability the worker worked hard is 1 1 + f / f which, thanks to the MLRP, is monotonically increasing in q. Hence if some employer is doing a "performance review" he can infer his employee's behavior from the merits of his work.

Statistical models assume that data are generated by a distribution from some family of distributions and seek to determine that distribution. This task is simplified. A family of density functions θ ∈ Θ indexed by a parameter θ taking values in an ordered set Θ is said to have a monotone likelihood ratio in the statistic T if for any θ 1 < θ 2, f θ 2 f θ

Maurice Bidermann

Maurice Bidermann, real name Maurice Zylberberg, is an industrialist in the textile sector, descended from Polish Jews. He is a Knight of the French National Order of Merit in 1991. Being Jewish, he lived along with his sister Evelyne from 1941 to 1943 with a Christian family in Aix-en-Provence. In 1943, the German police detain he is sent to a clinic in Bandol due to health problems. In 1946, Maurice Zylberberg arrived in Paris. In 1948 he left Paris to Israel and joined the Israel Defense Forces for 18 months but returned to France to work in a food factory. In April 1950, he entered the business of textiles and clothing from his uncle George Bidermann. Bidermann introduced new technical manufacturing processes and personnel management revolutionizing the textile industry; these innovations allow the company Bidermann to reach a production level unrivaled in Europe, paving the way for export. During that time he was signing an agreement with the Soviet Union in 1966 on 310,000 menswear. In France, the Group Bidermann has the licensing models menswear brands Yves Saint Laurent, Daniel Hechter, Daniel Cremieux or André Courrèges.

In the United States, Bidermann Group acquired the brand Calvin Klein sportswear men, Ralph Lauren women's wear. The family business that employed 60 people in 1950 became twenty-five years an industry group of some thirty factories producing live and employing about 18,000 people across the world; the Iraq War and new competition disrupt the growth of Bidermann Group experiencing difficulties that require it to restructure its production, both French and American. Maurice Bidermann preferred to save jobs and tries to revive the group through acquisitions in the 1990s including the farms brands Burberry and Gold Toe licenses. However, Maurice Bidermann was forced to cede part of its French group Deveaux Group in 1995. Bidermann was sentenced to three years in prison, two suspended, fined one million euros for the leaders of "abuse of corporate assets, the misuse of corporate assets to expense Elf, presenting false accounts "and" spreading false information "on the consolidated statements of Bidermann group" in 1992.

Maurice Bidermann has contributed to the development of the spirit of cooperation between the Israeli and Palestinian peoples such as supporting to NGOs like Action against Hunger, or the Museum of Warsaw in Poland, the country of origin of his parents. In 1974 he created the Association of Friends of French university AFBGU, the development of a program between Jewish and Muslim students at the University of Haifa and training of mediators and a training school for teachers at the University of Tel Aviv, the creation of the Lycée Franco-Israeli Raymond Leven in Tel Aviv or the granting of micro-credits for projects involving Israelis and Palestinians. Maurice Bidermann is married to Danielle Bibas, born 11 December 1940 in Morocco, they have two daughters

Georgetown railway station (Scotland)

Georgetown railway station was a railway station serving the village of Houston, Scotland as part of the Glasgow and Greenock Railway and owned by the Caledonian Railway. The station opened by the Glasgow and Greenock Railway on 29 March 1841, as Houston station, it was located just from Houston, on the Houston Road. On 1 May 1926 it was renamed Georgetown by the London and Scottish Railway who, as a result of the 1923 Grouping, took over ownership of the line from the Caledonian Railway. There appears to have been another station of the same name located some 0.75 miles apart from the main station. The northern-most station existed for the duration of World War I, only, it was a private station built in 1915 to serve the Government-owned explosive Filling Factory, the Scottish Filling Factory, National Filling Factory, Georgetown. The factory employed over 4,600 employees in July 1916; this station was linked by a covered walkway directly into the factory. The factory was renamed the National Filling Factory, Georgetown to mark the visit on Christmas Eve 1915 of David Lloyd George, the first Minister of Munitions.

The factory had a township of wooden houses adjacent to both the public railway station. The factory closed on 11 November 1918, after the end of World War I; the private station, along with the contents of the factory, was sold in 1920. The township of Georgetown survived the closure of the National Filling Factory, although the sub-post office was closed and much of the population removed in November 1939; the last of the wooden houses became uninhabitable in the 1970s and were demolished. Georgetown station was closed permanently by the British Transport Commission on 2 February 1959. Nothing remains of the public railway station. A fragment of the concrete western platform and adjoining steps survive from the private World War I station. A number of earthworks are visible from the train, representing the embankments of the World War I interchange sidings, they appear to have been used by the World War II ROF Bishopton. The track and the connection to the main line appears to have been lifted during the 1967 electrification of the Inverclyde Line.

Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Holland, Wilson. Kilmacolm, Bridge of Weir and Houston in old picture postcards. European Library - Zaltbommel, Netherlands. ISBN 90-288-4559-3 Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137