Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslavs Christian name was George after Saint George, a son of the Varangian Grand Prince Vladimir the Great, he was vice-regent of Novgorod at the time of his fathers death in 1015. Subsequently, his eldest surviving brother, Sviatopolk I of Kiev, with the active support of the Novgorodians and the help of Varangian mercenaries, defeated Svyatopolk and became the Grand Prince of Kiev in 1019. Under Yaroslav the codification of customs and princely enactments was begun. During his lengthy reign, Kievan Rus reached the zenith of its cultural flowering, the early years of Yaroslavs life are shrouded in mystery. He was one of the sons of Vladimir the Great, presumably his second by Rogneda of Polotsk. It has been suggested that he was a child out of wedlock after Vladimirs divorce from Rogneda and marriage to Anna Porphyrogenita.
Yaroslav figures prominently in the Norse sagas under the name Jarisleif the Lame, in his youth, Yaroslav was sent by his father to rule the northern lands around Rostov but was transferred to Veliky Novgorod, as befitted a senior heir to the throne, in 1010. While living there, he founded the town of Yaroslavl on the Volga River and his relations with his father were apparently strained, and grew only worse on the news that Vladimir bequeathed the Kievan throne to his younger son, Boris. In 1014 Yaroslav refused to pay tribute to Kiev and only Vladimirs death, in July 1015, during the course of this struggle, several other brothers were brutally murdered. However, the name is given there as Burizaf, which is a name of Boleslaus I in the Scandinavian sources. It is thus possible that the Saga tells the story of Yaroslavs struggle against Svyatopolk, Yaroslav defeated Svyatopolk in their first battle, in 1016, and Svyatopolk fled to Poland. But Svyatopolk returned in 1018 with Polish troops furnished by his father-in-law, seized Kiev, Yaroslav at last prevailed over Svyatopolk, and in 1019 firmly established his rule over Kiev.
One of his first actions as a prince was to confer on the loyal Novgorodians, numerous freedoms. Thus, the foundation of the Novgorod Republic was laid, for their part, the Novgorodians respected Yaroslav more than they did other Kievan princes, and the princely residence in their city, next to the marketplace was named Yaroslavs Court after him. It probably was during this period that Yaroslav promulgated the first code of laws in the lands of the East Slavs, a less appealing side of his personality is revealed by his having imprisoned his youngest brother Sudislav for life. Yaroslav and Mstislav divided Kievan Rus between them, the area stretching left from the Dnieper River, with the capital at Chernihiv, was ceded to Mstislav until his death in 1036. In his foreign policy, Yaroslav relied on the Scandinavian alliance, in 1030, he reconquered Red Ruthenia from the Poles and concluded an alliance with King Casimir I the Restorer, sealed by the latters marriage to Yaroslavs sister, Maria
Alice of Normandy
Alice or Adeliza, Adelaide or Aelis was a countess consort of Burgundy, the daughter of Richard II, Duke of Normandy and Judith of Brittany. He had to leave his county of Brionne and Vernon in Normandy, after being at the head of the coalition of the barons of Normandy, guy found refuge with his uncle Geoffrey II, Count of Anjou. He attempted to take over the county of Burgundy from his brother William, Viscount of Lons-le-Saunier, sire Montmorot and Scey married to Aldeberge Scey. They had a son Montmorot Thibert, founder of the house Montmorot, alberada of Buonalbergo was Robert Guiscards first wife
Dirk III, Count of Holland
Dirk III was Count of Holland from 993 to 27 May 1039, until 1005 under regency of his mother. It is thought that Dirk III went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land around 1030, the area over which Dirk ruled was called Holland for the first time only in 1101 and was known as West Friesland at this time. The actual title of Count Dirk III was Count in Friesland, western Frisia was very different from the area of today. Most of the territory was boggy and subject to constant flooding, the main areas of habitation were in the dunes at the coast and on heightened areas near the rivers. Count Dirk was a member of the house of Holland, an important family within Germany at that time and his mother, Luitgard of Luxemburg, was regent in the county while Dirk was still a minor, from 993-1005. She was the sister-in-law of Emperor Henry II, and with his help, after Dirk assumed the government of the county, she still used her family connections to acquire imperial assistance, in one instance an imperial army helped Dirk suppress a Frisian revolt.
Prior to 1018, Count Dirk III was a vassal of Henry II, but the bishops of Trier and Cologne all contested the ownership of Dirks fiefdom, the German kings and emperors were frequently resident in Utrecht and the nearby estate of Nijmegen. Another trade route ran through Dirks territory was from the city of Tiel to England. It was along this route that Count Dirk built a stronghold at Vlaardingen. He was not permitted to levy tolls or hinder trade in any way, working together with the Frisians now living in the area, he stopped passing ships, demanding payment of tolls. Merchants from the town of Tiel sent alarmed messages to the king, Emperor Henry decided to end Dirk IIIs reign and awarded his lands to Bishop Adelbold. A large imperial army, made up of troops supplied by the bishops of region, under the command of Godfrey II, Duke of Lower Lorraine. The ensuing Battle of Vlaardingen was a disaster for the imperial army, following this victory, Dirk III was permitted to keep his lands and he continued levying tolls.
Later on, Dirk managed to acquire more lands east of his previous domains at the expense of the Bishop of Utrecht, after the death of Emperor Henry II in 1024, Dirk supported Conrad II for the succession to the kingship. After Count Dirk IIIs death in 1039, imperial armies were sent on a few more occasions seeking to reclaim the lands held by the Frisian counts. The powerful Robert I, Count of Flanders helped Dirk V, grandson of Dirk III and his own stepson, Dirk III married Othelindis, perhaps daughter of Bernard, Margrave of the Nordmark. After Dirks death on 27 May 1039, his widow went back to Saxony, Dirk was buried at Egmond Abbey
Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin, Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent, following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwins wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071, Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort. He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092, in 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time, after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.
In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his fathers, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals, in 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in 1100, he took control of Bourges. It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched, Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philips brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant, Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, according to Abbot Suger, Philip‘s children with Bertha were, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne, was the eldest son of King Stephen of England and Countess Matilda I of Boulogne. When his father seized the English throne on Henry Is death in 1135 and he was first mentioned in one of his parents charters dated no than August 1131. In 1137, he did homage for Normandy to Louis VII of France, whose sister, Eustace was knighted in 1147, at which date he was probably from sixteen to eighteen years of age. In 1151 he joined Louis in a raid upon Normandy, which had accepted the title of the Empress Matilda. Eustace died suddenly the year, in early August 1153. The death of Eustace was hailed with general satisfaction as opening the possibility of a settlement between Stephen and his rival, the young Henry of Anjou. The Peterborough Chronicle, not content with voicing this sentiment, gives Eustace a bad character and he was an evil man and did more harm than good wherever he went, he spoiled the lands and laid thereon heavy taxes. He had used threats against the recalcitrant bishops, and in the war against the Angevin party had demanded contributions from religious houses and he was buried in Faversham Abbey in Kent, which was founded by his parents.
They too were buried in Faversham Abbey, all three tombs are now lost, as a consequence of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Adelaide of Susa
Adelaide of Susa or Adelaide of Turin was the Marchioness of Turin from 1034 to her death. She was the last of the Arduinici, born in Turin to Ulric Manfred II and Bertha around 1014/1020, Adelaides early life is not well known. Adelaide had two sisters and Bertha. She may have had a brother, whose name is not known, thus, on Ulric Manfreds death, the great margraviate was divided between his three daughters, though the greatest part by far went to Adelaide. She received the property in the counties of Turin, especially in the Susa Valley, Adelaide inherited property, but probably not comital authority, in Albenga, Alba and Ventimiglia. It is likely that Adelaides mother, briefly acted as regent for Adelaide after Ulric Manfreds death, since the margravial title primarily had a military purpose at the time, it was thus was not considered suitable for a woman. Emperor Conrad II therefore arranged a marriage between Adelaide and his stepson, Herman IV, in January 1037, Herman was invested as margrave of Turin.
Herman died of the plague while fighting for Conrad II at Naples in July 1038, Adelaide remarried in order to secure her vast march. Probably in 1041, and certainly before 19 January 1042, Adelaide married Henry, Henry died c.1045 and left Adelaide a widow for the second time. Immediately, a marriage was undertaken, this time to Otto of Savoy. With Otto she had three sons, Peter I, Amadeus II, and Otto, the couple had two daughters, who married Henry IV of Germany, and Adelaide, who married Rudolf of Rheinfelden. After the death of her husband Otto, c. 1057/60, Adelaide ruled the march of Turin and it is sometimes said that Adelaide abandoned Turin as a capital and began to reside permanently at Susa. Adelaide is documented far more frequently at the palace in Turin than anywhere else. In 1070 Adelaide captured and burned the city of Asti, which had rebelled against her, in 1069 Henry IV tried to repudiate Adelaides daughter, which caused Adelaides relationship with the imperial family to cool.
However, through the intervention of Bertha, Henry received Adelaides support when he came to Italy to submit to Pope Gregory VII, in return for allowing him to travel through her lands, Henry gave Bugey to Adelaide. Adelaide and her son Amadeus accompanied Henry IV and Bertha to Canossa, bishop Benzo of Alba sent several letters to Adelaide between 1080 and 1082, encouraging her to support Henry IV in the Italian wars which formed part of the Investiture Controversy. Adelaides dealings with Henry IV became closer after this and she offered to mediate between him and Matilda and Tuscany, and may even have joined him on campaign. Adelaide made many donations to monasteries in the march of Turin, in 1064 she founded the monastery of Santa Maria at Pinerolo
Constance of Arles
Constance of Arles, known as Constance of Provence, was a queen consort of France as the third spouse of King Robert II of France. Born c. 986 Constance was the daughter of William I, count of Provence and Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou and she was the half-sister of Count William II of Provence. Constance was married to King Robert, after his divorce from his second wife, the marriage was stormy, Berthas family opposed her, and Constance was despised for importing her Provençal kinfolk and customs. Roberts friend, Hugh of Beauvais, tried to convince the king to repudiate her in 1007, possibly at her request twelve knights of her kinsman, Fulk Nerra, murdered Beauvais. In 1010 Robert went to Rome, followed by his former wife Bertha, to seek permission to divorce Constance, Pope Sergius IV was not about to allow a consanguineous marriage which had been formally condemned by Pope Gregory V and Robert had already repudiated two wives. After his return according to one source Robert loved his wife more, however, as the condemned clerics left the trial the queen struck out the eye of Stephen.
With the staff which she carried and this was seen as Constance venting her frustration at anyone subverting the prestige of the crown. At Constances urging, her eldest son Hugh Magnus was crowned co-king alongside his father in 1017, but Hugh demanded his parents share power with him, and rebelled against his father in 1025. Constance, however, on learning of her sons rebellion was furious with him, at some point Hugh was reconciled with his parents but shortly thereafter died, probably about age eighteen. Robert and Constance quarrelled over which of their sons should inherit the throne, Robert favored their second son Henry, while Constance favored their third son. Despite his mothers protests and her support by several bishops, Henry was crowned in 1027, however, was not graceful when she didnt get her way. The ailing Fulbert, bishop of Chartres told a colleague that he could attend the ceremony if he traveled slowly to Reims—but he was too frightened of the queen to go at all. Constance encouraged her sons to rebel, and they began attacking and pillaging the towns, son Robert attacked Burgundy, the duchy he had been promised but had never received, and Henry seized Dreux.
At last King Robert agreed to their demands and peace was made which lasted until the kings death, King Robert died on 20 July 1031. Soon afterwards Constance was at odds with both her surviving sons, Constance seized her dower lands and refused to surrender them. Henry fled to Normandy, where he received aid, weapons and he returned to besiege his mother at Poissy but Constance escaped to Pontoise. She only surrendered when Henry began the siege of Le Puiset, Constance died 28 July 1032. and was buried beside her husband Robert at Saint-Denis Basilica. A missing Capetian princess, daughter of King Robert II of France,1990 Moore, the Birth of Popular Heresy,1975
Azalais of Toulouse
Azalaís of Toulouse was the daughter of count Raymond V of Toulouse and Constance of France. Her maternal grandparents were Louis VI of France and his second wife Adélaide de Maurienne and she was born at the castle of Burlats and is therefore called contessa de Burlatz in the vida of Arnaut de Mareuil. She was married to Roger II Trencavel, count of Béziers and Carcassonne, in 1171, she was the mother of Raimond Roger Trencavel, Azalais of Toulouse is named in the poems of several troubadours, including Pons de la Gardia, Giraut de Salignac. It is said that the poems of Arnaut de Mareuil form a sequence telling of his love for her, alfonso II of Aragon was his rival, and according to the razó to one of Arnauts poems, the king jealously persuaded her to break off her friendship with Arnaut. Alfonsos own dealings with Azalais were fiercely criticized in a sirventès by Guillem de Berguedà, she gave you her love, and you took two cities and a hundred castles from her
Bernard II, Duke of Saxony
Bernard II was the Duke of Saxony between 1011 and 1059, the third of the Billung dynasty as a son of Bernard I and Hildegard. Besides his position in Saxony, he had the rights of a count in Frisia, Bernard expanded the powers of the duke in Saxony and is regarded as the greatest of the Billungers. He was originally a supporter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, in 1019–1020, however, he revolted against Henry and gained the recognition of the tribal laws of Saxony, something his father had failed to do. He returned to war with the Obodrites and Lutici and drew them into his sphere of influence through their leader Gottschalk. Although he was an ally of the Danes, who provided fundamental support for Henrys wars in the Low Countries. The remainder of his reign, was quiet, in 1045, he erected the Alsterburg in Hamburg. He died in 1059 and was succeeded without incident by his son Ordulf and he is buried in the Church of Saint Michael in Lüneburg. Bernard II, Duke of Saxony married to Eilika of Schweinfurt, daughter of Henry of Schweinfurt
Adelaide of Maurienne
Adelaide of Savoy was the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France. Adelaide was the daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II and she became the second wife of Louis VI of France, whom she married on 3 August 1113/14 in Paris, France. They had eight children, the second of whom became Louis VII of France, adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens. Her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI, during her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king. Among many other religious benefactions and Louis founded the monastery of St Peters at Montmartre, after Louis VIs death, Adélaide did not immediately retire to conventual life, as did most widowed queens of the time. Instead she married Matthieu I of Montmorency, with whom she had one child and she remained active in the French court and in religious activities. Adélaide is one of two queens in a legend related by William Dugdale, as the story goes, Queen Adélaide of France became enamoured of a young knight, William dAlbini, at a joust.
But he was engaged to Adeliza of Louvain and refused to become her lover. The jealous Adélaide lured him into the clutches of a hungry lion and this story is almost without a doubt apocryphal. In 1153 she retired to the abbey of Montmartre, which she had founded with Louis VII and she died there on 18 November 1154. She was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Pierre at Montmartre, not to be confused with his elder brother. Peter, married Elizabeth, Lady of Courtenay Nolan, Kathleen D. Capetian Women Facinger, a Study of Medieval Queenship, Capetian France, 987–1237 Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 5 (1968, 3–48
Henry I of France
Henry I was King of the Franks from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign and this is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy. A member of the House of Capet, Henry was born in Reims and he was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on 14 May 1027, in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his fathers death, the reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert, with the support of their mother and his mother, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032, he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had him in 1016. In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, in 1051, William married Matilda, the daughter of the count of Flanders, which Henry saw as a threat to his throne.
In 1054, and again in 1057, Henry invaded Normandy, Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor—all at Ivois. In early 1043, he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou, in October 1048, the two Henries met again and signed a treaty of friendship. The final meeting place in May 1056 and concerned disputes over Theobald III. The debate over the duchy became so heated that Henry accused the emperor of breach of contract, in 1058, Henry was selling bishoprics and abbacies, ignoring the accusations of simony and tyranny by the Papal legate Cardinal Humbert. Despite his efforts, Henry Is twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle, King Henry I died on 4 August 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie and was interred in Basilica of St Denis. He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France, at the time of his death, he was besieging Thimert, which had been occupied by the Normans since 1058. He was Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032, when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert, Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, but she died prematurely in 1034.
Henry married Matilda of Frisia, but she died in 1044, casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry married Anne of Kiev on 19 May 1051. They had four children, Philip I, vajay, S. Mathilde, reine de France inconnue,1971