Craiova, Romania's 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, is located at equal distances from the Southern Carpathians and the River Danube. Craiova is the most important city of Oltenia; the city prospered as a regional trading centre despite an earthquake in 1790, a plague in 1795, a Turkish assault in 1802 during which it was burned. Eight villages are administered by the city: Făcăi, Popoveni, Șimnicu de Jos, Cernelele de Sus, Izvoru Rece and Rovine; the last four were a separate commune called Cernele until 1996, when they were merged into the city. There are two possible etymologies for Craiova: Old Slavonic kral, borrowed in Romania as crai and Slavonic krajina. Since no source prior to 1475 mentions the city, it is impossible to tell which of the two words is the real etymology; the name is of Bulgarian or Serbian origin, due to historical autochthonous minorities in the area.
Craiova, which occupied the site of the Dacian and Roman city Pelendava, was the capital of Oltenia. Its ancient bans, the highest ranking boyars of the Wallachian state, were those of the Craioveşti family; the bans had the right of minting coins stamped with their own effigies – the origin of the Romanian word ban as used for coins. The economic power of the Craioveşti family at the end of the 16th century was about 100 villages; this power gave them a statute of political autonomy so big, that the hospodars ruling at that time were not able to keep in power without an alliance with this powerful dynasty. From the Craiovești family there were chosen a lot of hospodars to rule the country: Neagoe Basarab, Radu de la Afumați, Radu Șerban, Matei Basarab, Constantin Șerban, Șerban Cantacuzino, Constantin Brâncoveanu. In 1395 Craiova was the scene of a victory won by the Wallachian Prince Mircea I of Wallachia over Bayezid I, Sultan of the Ottomans. Referred to as "a city" after the first half of the 16th century, the Craiova area was always regarded as an important economic region of Wallachia and Romania at large.
During the 1718–1739 Habsburg occupation of Oltenia, Craiova's status declined due to economic pressures and increased centralism leading to an increase in hajduk actions, in parallel with protests of Craiovan boyars. In 1761, under Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos, the bans relocated to Bucharest, leaving behind kaymakams to represent them in Craiova. Under Prince Emanuel Giani Ruset, Wallachia's seat was moved to Craiova, viewed as a place of refuge during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. A large part of the city was burned down by the rebel pasha Osman Pazvantoğlu in 1800. During the Wallachian uprising of 1821, inhabitants of the present-day Dolj County joined Tudor Vladimirescu's Pandurs in great numbers, contributing to the expedition on Bucharest. During the first two decades of the 19th century, Craiova witnessed economic prosperity, centered on handicraft trades and public services. During Imperial Russian occupation and the early stages of Organic Statute rules, the city increased its economic output.
At the time, Craiova exported wheat, leather, live animals and other products into the Austrian and Ottoman Empires. Costache Romanescu, a citizen of Craiova, was among the leaders of the Provisional Government during the 1848 Wallachian revolution. Wallachia's last two rulers, Gheorghe Bibescu and Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei, came from an important boyar family residing in Craiova – the Bibescu family. Around 1860, there were 4,633 buildings in Craiova, which were 3,220 houses, 26 churches, 11 schools and 60 factories and workshops. In all, the city housed about 90 industrial establishments, of which 12 were mills, 3 breweries, 2 gas and oil factories, 4 tanning yards and 2 printing presses; the period following the Independence War was a time of cultural progress. As a result, at the end of the 19th century, the city of Craiova, with its 40,000 inhabitants, had developed small factories and textile factories. On October 26, 1896, the Craiova power station entered service. In 1900, Craiova had 43.1% of the industrial units of Oltenia.
The number of large industrial establishments rose to 40 by 1925. Banking developed at the beginning of the 20th century. In the interwar period, Craiova, as the centre of an agricultural region, experienced little further industrialization. In 1939, Craiova had 7 industrial units with over 100 workers: the clothing industry companies Oltenia and Scrisul Românesc were well-known all over the country and abroad. In the early 1960s, under the Communist regime, the city became a noted centre for the automotive and engine building industries, as well as for aerospace manufacturing, chemical industry, food industry, electrical engineering and the
Nicolae Bălcescu was a Romanian Wallachian soldier, historian and leader of the 1848 Wallachian Revolution. Born in Bucharest to a family of low-ranking nobility, he used his mother's maiden name, in place of his father's name, Petrescu, his siblings were Costache, Barbu and Marghioala, his father died in 1824. As a boy, Bălcescu studied at the Saint Sava College, was a passionate student of history. At the age of 19, he joined the Wallachian Army, and, in 1840, took part, alongside Eftimie Murgu and Cezar Bolliac, in Mitică Filipescu's conspiracy against Prince Alexandru II Ghica; the plot was uncovered, Bălcescu was imprisoned in Mărgineni Monastery, where he remained for the following two years. The rough imprisonment conditions left irreversible marks on Bălcescu's health. Upon his release, he took part in forming a secret society drawn up from the Freemasonry and named Frăția, which he led together with Ion Ghica and Christian Tell in resistance against Prince Bibescu. In order to further his history studies, Bălcescu went to France and Italy, was, together with August Treboniu Laurian, the editor of a magazine entitled Magazin istoric pentru Dacia, first published in 1844.
While in Paris, he became leader of the Romantic nationalists and liberal-radical group Societatea studenților români, which reunited Wallachians and Moldavians — it included Ion Brătianu, Alexandru C. Golescu, Ion Ionescu de la Brad, C. A. Rosetti, Mihail Kogălniceanu. Magazin istoric went on to publish the first collection of internal sources on the history of Wallachia and Moldavia - medieval chronicles which were afterwards published as a single volume. One of his contributions to the magazine singles him out as a radical liberal: Despre starea socială a muncitorilor plugari în Principatele Române în deosebite timpuri argues for a land reform, aimed at dispossessing the boyars of large plots of land. In 1848, after taking part in the uprising in France, Bălcescu returned to Bucharest in order to take part in the 11 June revolution, he was, for just two days, both Minister and Secretary of State of the provisional government put in place by the revolutionaries. His advocacy of universal suffrage and land reform was not shared by many revolutionaries, his group came into conflict with the traditional figures of authority - the Orthodox Metropolitan Neofit II, although head of the revolutionary government, opposed the reforms and conspired against the Revolution itself.
Bălcescu was arrested on 13 September that year by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire who had put an end to the Revolution. Bălcescu made his way to Transylvania, but was expelled by Habsburg authorities, who considered him a threat and an agitator of Romanian sentiment in that region. In early 1849, Bălcescu was in Istanbul when the Hungarian revolutionary armies under Józef Bem mounted a successful offensive against Habsburg forces and their Transylvanian Romanian allies; the Hungarian government of Lajos Kossuth entered a debilitating war with Avram Iancu's Romanian guerilla force, the former members of the Wallachian government were approached by the Polish revolutionaries in exile, such as Henryk Dembiński, to mediate a peace between the two sides. Bălcescu left for Debrecen in May, met with Kossuth to register the latter's offer to Iancu. Marxist-inspired historiography has celebrated this as an agreement; the final offer from the Budapest leadership to Bălcescu and Iancu called for the Romanians to withdraw from Transylvania, as the region was turning into a battleground between Russia and the Hungarians.
When this latter conflict drew to a close, the Romanians in Transylvania, although never welcoming of the Russian presence, surrendered their weapons to the reinstated Habsburgs. Bălcescu's most important work is Românii supt Mihai-Voievod Viteazul, which he wrote in exile in 1849 - first published posthumously by Alexandru Odobescu in 1860; the volume is history of Michael's campaigns, as the first moment when Wallachia, M
Mişu Popp was a Romanian painter and muralist. Born in Braşov, he was the eighth child of Ioan Popp Moldovan de Galaţi and Elena, born Ivan, a family from the Făgăraş region, his father was a church muralist and sculptor. Mişu Popp finished his art studies in 1848, at the Academy of Fine Arts from Vienna, where he developed a serious academic style, he carried on the work of his father by painting several churches from Bucharest, Braşov, Araci, Râşnov, Satulung, Târgu-Jiu, Câmpulung, Urlaţi, etc. Between 1847 and 1853 he painted with Constantin Lecca the church of Curtea Veche from Bucharest, but his main art legacy resides in creating many portraits of the personalities of his time and of some famous historical figures, such as Michael the Brave, inspired from a contemporary engraving of the voivode. His paintings can be admired in Bucharest at the Romanian Literature Museum and the National Art Museum, as well as in museums in Arad, Braşov, Ploieşti, Sibiu. Click on an image to view it enlarged.
Art Museum from Braşov – Mişu Popp Compendium – Mişu Popp Art gallery – Mişu Popp Famous people from Braşov – Mişu Popp Elena Popescu – The portraits of Mişu Popp in the art collection of Brukental Art Museum from Sibiu Exhibition "Princes of the Romanian Principalities"
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Vlad the Impaler
Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler or Vlad Dracula, was voivode of Wallachia three times between 1448 and his death. He is considered one of the most important rulers Wallachia had and a national hero of Romania, he was the second son of Vlad Dracul, who became the ruler of Wallachia in 1436. Vlad and his younger brother, were held as hostages in the Ottoman Empire in 1442 to secure their father's loyalty. Vlad's father and eldest brother, were murdered after John Hunyadi, regent-governor of Hungary, invaded Wallachia in 1447. Hunyadi installed Vladislav II, as the new voivode. Hunyadi launched a military campaign against the Ottomans in the autumn of 1448, Vladislav accompanied him. Vlad broke into Wallachia with Ottoman support in October, but Vladislav returned and Vlad sought refuge in the Ottoman Empire before the end of the year. Vlad went to Moldavia in 1449 or 1450, to Hungary. Relations between Hungary and Vladislav deteriorated, in 1456 Vlad invaded Wallachia with Hungarian support. Vladislav died fighting against him.
Vlad began a purge among the Wallachian boyars to strengthen his position. He came into conflict with the Transylvanian Saxons, who supported his opponents and Basarab Laiotă, Vlad's illegitimate half-brother, Vlad the Monk. Vlad plundered the Saxon villages, taking the captured people to Wallachia where he had them impaled. Peace was restored in 1460; the Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed II, ordered Vlad to pay homage to him but Vlad had the Sultan's two envoys captured and impaled. In February 1462, he attacked Ottoman territory, massacring tens of thousands of Turks and Bulgarians. Mehmed launched a campaign against Wallachia to replace Vlad with Radu. Vlad attempted to capture the sultan at Târgoviște during the night of 16–17 June 1462; the sultan and the main Ottoman army left Wallachia. Vlad went to Transylvania to seek assistance from Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, in late 1462, but Corvinus had him imprisoned. Vlad was held in captivity in Visegrád from 1463 to 1475. During this period, anecdotes about his cruelty started to spread in Italy.
He was released at the request of Stephen III of Moldavia in the summer of 1475. He fought in Corvinus's army against the Ottomans in Bosnia in early 1476. Hungarian and Moldavian troops helped him to force Basarab Laiotă to flee from Wallachia in November. Basarab returned with Ottoman support before the end of the year. Vlad was killed in battle before 10 January 1477. Books describing Vlad's cruel acts were among the first bestsellers in the German-speaking territories. In Russia, popular stories suggested that Vlad was able to strengthen central government only through applying brutal punishments, a similar view was adopted by most Romanian historians in the 19th century. Vlad's reputation for cruelty and his patronymic inspired the name of the vampire Count Dracula in Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula; the expression Dracula, now known as the name of a fictional vampire, was for centuries known as the sobriquet of Vlad III. Diplomatic reports and popular stories referred to him as Dracula, Dracuglia, or Drakula in the 15th century.
He himself signed his two letters as "Dragulya" or "Drakulya" in the late 1470s. His name had its origin in the sobriquet of his father, Vlad Dracul, who received it after he became a member of the Order of the Dragon. Dracula is the Slavonic genitive form of Dracul, meaning " of Dracul". In modern Romanian, dracul means "the devil". Vlad III is known as Vlad Țepeș in Romanian historiography; this sobriquet is connected to the impalement, his favorite method of execution. The Ottoman writer Tursun Beg referred to him as Kazıklı Voyvoda around 1500. Mircea the Shepherd, Voivode of Wallachia, used this sobriquet when referring to Vlad III in a letter of grant on 1 April 1551. Vlad was the second legitimate son of Vlad II Dracul, an illegitimate son of Mircea I of Wallachia. Vlad II had won the moniker "Dracul" for his membership in the Order of the Dragon, a militant fraternity founded by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund; the Order of the Dragon was dedicated to halting the Ottoman advance into Europe.
As he was old enough to be a candidate to the throne of Wallachia in 1448, his time of birth would have been between 1428 and 1431. Vlad was most born after his father settled in Transylvania in 1429. Historian Radu Florescu writes that Vlad was born in the Transylvanian Saxon town of Sighișoara, where his father lived in a three-storey stone house from 1431 to 1435. Modern historians identify Vlad's mother either as a daughter or a kinswoman of Alexander I of Moldavia, or as his father's unknown first wife. Vlad II Dracul seized Wallachia after the death of his half-brother Alexander I Aldea in 1436. One of his charters preserved the first reference to Vlad III and his elder brother, mentioning them as their father's "first born sons", they were mentioned in four further documents between 1437 and 1439. The last of the four charters referred to their younger brother, Radu. After a meeting with John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, Vlad II Dracul did not support an Ottoman invasion of Transylvania in March 1442.
The Ottoman Sultan, Murad II, ordered him to come