Second Council of Nicaea
The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. In addition, it is recognized as such by the Old Catholics, the Anglican Communion and others. Protestant opinions on it are varied, it met in AD 787 in Nicaea to restore the use and veneration of icons, suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Leo III. His son, Constantine V, had held the Council of Hieria to make the suppression official; the veneration of icons had been banned by Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and supported by his Council of Hieria, which had described itself as the seventh ecumenical council. The Council of Hieria was overturned by the Second Council of Nicaea only 33 years and has been rejected by Catholic and Orthodox churches, since none of the five major patriarchs were represented; the emperor's vigorous enforcement of the ban included persecution of those who venerated icons and of monks in general.
There were political overtones to the persecution—images of emperors were still allowed by Constantine, which some opponents saw as an attempt to give wider authority to imperial power than to the saints and bishops. Constantine's iconoclastic tendencies were shared by Constantine's son, Leo IV. After the latter's early death, his widow, Irene of Athens, as regent for her son, began its restoration for personal inclination and political considerations. In 784 the imperial secretary Patriarch Tarasius was appointed successor to the Patriarch Paul IV—he accepted on the condition that intercommunion with the other churches should be reestablished. However, a council, claiming to be ecumenical, had abolished the veneration of icons, so psychologically another ecumenical council was necessary for its restoration. Pope Adrian I was invited to participate, gladly accepted, sending an archbishop and an abbot as his legates. In 786, the council met in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.
However, soldiers in collusion with the opposition entered the church, broke up the assembly. As a result, the government resorted to a stratagem. Under the pretext of a campaign, the iconoclastic bodyguard was sent away from the capital – disarmed and disbanded; the council was again summoned to meet, this time in Nicaea, since Constantinople was still distrusted. The council assembled on September 787 at the church of Hagia Sophia, it numbered about 350 members. Tarasius presided, seven sessions were held in Nicaea; the clear distinction between the adoration offered to God and that accorded to the images may well be looked upon as a result of the iconoclastic reform. The twenty-two canons drawn up in Constantinople served ecclesiastical reform. Careful maintenance of the ordinances of the earlier councils, knowledge of the scriptures on the part of the clergy, care for Christian conduct are required, the desire for a renewal of ecclesiastical life is awakened; the council decreed that every altar should contain a relic, which remains the case in modern Catholic and Orthodox regulations, made a number of decrees on clerical discipline for monks when mixing with women.
The papal legates voiced their approval of the restoration of the veneration of icons in no uncertain terms, the patriarch sent a full account of the proceedings of the council to Pope Hadrian I, who had it translated. In the West, the Frankish clergy rejected the Council at a synod in 794, Charlemagne King of the Franks, supported the composition of the Libri Carolini in response, which repudiated the teachings of both the Council and the iconoclasts. A copy of the Libri was sent to Pope Hadrian, who responded with a refutation of the Frankish arguments; the Libri would thereafter remain unpublished until the Reformation, the Council is accepted as the Seventh Ecumenical Council by the Roman Catholic Church. This council is celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine Rite as "The Sunday of the Triumph of Orthodoxy" each year on the first Sunday of Great Lent—the fast that leads up to Pascha —and again on the Sunday closest to October 11; the former celebration commemorates the council as the culmination of the Church's battles against heresy, while the latter commemorates the council itself.
Many Protestants follow the French reformer John Calvin in rejecting the canons of the council for what they believe was the promotion of idolatry. He rejected the distinction between veneration and adoration as unbiblical "sophistry" and condemned the decorative use of images. In subsequent editions of the Institutes he cites an influential Carolingian source, now ascribed to Theodulf of Orleans, which reacts negatively to a poor Latin translation of the council's acts. Calvin does not engage the apologetic arguments of John of Damascus or Theodore the Studite because he is unaware of them. There are only a few translations of the above Acts in the modern languages: English translation made in 1850 by an Anglican priest, John Mendham; the Canons and excerpts of the Acts in The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, translated by Henry R. Percival and edited by Philip Schaff. Translation made by Kazan Theological Academy – a s
Caligula was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41. The son of the popular Roman general Germanicus and Augustus' granddaughter Agrippina the Elder, Caligula was born into the first ruling family of the Roman Empire, conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Germanicus' uncle and adoptive father, succeeded Augustus as emperor of Rome in AD 14. Although he was born Gaius Caesar, after Julius Caesar, he acquired the nickname "Caligula" from his father's soldiers during their campaign in Germania; when Germanicus died at Antioch in AD 19, Agrippina returned with her six children to Rome, where she became entangled in a bitter feud with Tiberius. The conflict led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Untouched by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted an invitation in AD 31 to join the emperor on the island of Capri, where Tiberius had withdrawn five years earlier. Following the death of Tiberius, Caligula succeeded his adoptive grandfather as emperor in AD 37.
There are few surviving sources about the reign of Caligula, although he is described as a noble and moderate emperor during the first six months of his rule. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism and sexual perversion, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources is questionable, it is known that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor, as opposed to countervailing powers within the principate, he directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and luxurious dwellings for himself, initiated the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the client kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard and courtiers; the conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, however.
On the day of the assassination of Caligula, the Praetorians declared Caligula's uncle, the next Roman emperor. Although the Julio-Claudian dynasty continued to rule the empire until the fall of his nephew Nero in AD 68, Caligula's death marked the official end of the Julii Caesares in the male line. See Julio-Claudian family tree. Gaius Julius Caesar was born in Antium on 31 August 12 AD, the third of six surviving children born to Germanicus and his second cousin Agrippina the Elder. Gaius had two older brothers and Drusus, as well as three younger sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla, he was a nephew of Claudius, Germanicus' younger brother and the future emperor. Agrippina the Elder was the daughter of Julia the Elder, she was a granddaughter of Scribonia on her mother's side. Through Agrippina, Augustus was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius; as a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus, on campaigns in the north of Germania. The soldiers were amused that Gaius was dressed in a miniature soldier's outfit, including boots and armour.
He was soon given his nickname Caligula, meaning "little boot" in Latin, after the small boots he wore. Gaius, though grew to dislike this nickname. Suetonius claims that Germanicus was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius, who viewed Germanicus as a political rival. After the death of his father, Caligula lived with his mother until her relations with Tiberius deteriorated. Tiberius would not allow Agrippina to remarry for fear her husband would be a rival. Agrippina and Caligula's brother, were banished in 29 AD on charges of treason; the adolescent Caligula was sent to live with his great-grandmother Livia. After her death, he was sent to live with his grandmother Antonia Minor. In 30 AD, his brother, Drusus Caesar, was imprisoned on charges of treason and his brother Nero died in exile from either starvation or suicide. Suetonius writes that after the banishment of his mother and brothers and his sisters were nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius under the close watch of soldiers. In 31 AD, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri, where he lived for six years.
To the surprise of many, Caligula was spared by Tiberius. According to historians, Caligula was an excellent natural actor and, recognizing danger, hid all his resentment towards Tiberius. An observer said of Caligula, "Never was there a better servant or a worse master!"Caligula claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother: however, having brought the weapon into Tiberius's bedroom he did not kill the Emperor but instead threw the dagger down on the floor. Tiberius knew of this but never dared to do anything about it. Suetonius claims that Caligula was cruel and vicious: he writes that, when Tiberius brought Caligula to Capri, his purpose was to allow Caligula to live in order that he "... prove the ruin of himself and of all men, that he was rearing a viper for the Roman people and a Phaethon for the world."In 33 AD, Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship, a position he held until his rise to emperor. Meanwhile, both Caligula's mother and his brother Drusus died in prison.
Caligula was married to Junia Claudilla, in 33, though she died in childbirth the following year. Caligula spent time befriending Naevius Sutorius Macro, an important ally. Macro spoke well of Caligula to Tiberius, attempting to quell any
To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. In Roman law, exsilium denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a capital punishment alternative to death. Deportation was forced exile, entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property. Relegation was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's property; the terms diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice. A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport, the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.
S. citizenship before his company's IPO. The dual Brazilian/U. S. Citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U. S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom. Examples include: Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 Jews who fled persecution from Nazi Germany People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, it is an alternative theory developed by a young anthropologist, Balan in 2018.
According to him, comfortable exile is a “social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society. Such people are considered “aliens” or internal “others” on the grounds of their religious, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation and civil rights in their own country and capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture.” When a large group, or a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to the Jewish homeland. After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, following the uprisings against the partitioning powers, many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas in France and the United States.
The entire population of Crimean Tatars that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK. Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature, it is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children consider themselves to be Cuban exiles, it is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens. During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.
One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Other examples include the Free French Forces government of Charles De Gaulle of the same time, the Central Tibetan A
Michael II, surnamed the Amorian or the Stammerer, reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 25 December 820 to his death on 2 October 829, the first ruler of the Phrygian or Amorian dynasty. Born in Amorium, Michael was a soldier, rising to high rank along with his colleague Leo V the Armenian, he helped Leo take the place of Emperor Michael I Rangabe. However, after they fell out Leo sentenced Michael to death. Michael masterminded a conspiracy which resulted in Leo's assassination at Christmas in 820, he faced the long revolt of Thomas the Slav, which cost him his throne and was not quelled until spring 824. The years of his reign were marked by two major military disasters that had long-term effects: the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily, the loss of Crete to the Saracens. Domestically, he supported and strengthened the resumption of official iconoclasm, which had begun again under Leo V. Michael was born in 770 in Amorium, in Phrygia, into a family of professional peasant-soldiers who received land from the government for their military service.
His family belonged to the Judeo-Christian sect of the Athinganoi, whose members were Cappadocians and had adopted the Jewish faith and rituals. The Athinganoi were numerous in Anatolia and together with the Greeks and Armenians formed the backbone of the Byzantine army of that era. Michael first rose to prominence as a close aide to the general Bardanes Tourkos, alongside his future antagonists Leo the Armenian and Thomas the Slav, he married Bardanes' daughter Thekla. Michael and Leo abandoned Bardanes shortly after he rebelled against Emperor Nikephoros I in 803, they were rewarded with higher military commands: Michael was named the Emperor's Count of the Tent. Michael was instrumental in Leo's overthrow of Michael I Rangabe in 813, after Rangabe’s repeated military defeats against the Bulgarians. Under Leo V, Michael was appointed to command the elite tagma of the Excubitors, he became disgruntled with Leo V, when the Emperor divorced Michael's sister-in-law. On Christmas Eve 820, Leo V accused him of conspiracy, jailed him, sentenced him to death, although he postponed the execution until after Christmas.
Michael sent messages to his co-conspirators threatening to reveal their identity, whereupon his partisans freed him and murdered Leo V during the Christmas mass in the palace chapel of St. Stephen. Michael was proclaimed Emperor, while still wearing prison chains on his legs; the same day, he was crowned by Patriarch Theodotos I of Constantinople. In his internal policy, Michael II supported iconoclasm, but he tacitly encouraged reconciliation with the iconodules, whom he stopped persecuting and allowed to return from exile; these included the former Patriarch Nikephoros and Theodore of Stoudios, who failed, however, to persuade the emperor to abandon iconoclasm. One of the few victims of the Emperor's policy was the future patriarch Methodios I. Michael's accession whetted the appetite of his former comrade-in-arms Thomas the Slav, who set himself up as rival emperor in Anatolia and transferred his forces into Thrace besieging the capital in December 821. Although Thomas did not win over all the Anatolian themes, he secured the support of the naval theme and their ships, allowing him to tighten his grip on Constantinople.
In his quest for support, Thomas presented himself as a champion of the poor, reduced taxation, concluded an alliance with Al-Ma'mun of the Abbasid Caliphate, having himself crowned Emperor by the Patriarch of Antioch Job. With the support of Omurtag of Bulgaria, Michael II forced Thomas to lift his siege of Constantinople in the spring of 823. Michael forced his surrender in October. Michael inherited a weakened military and was unable to prevent the conquest of Crete in 824 by 10,000 Arabs, or to recover the island with an expedition in 826. In 827 the Arabs invaded Sicily, taking advantage of local infighting, besieged Syracuse. Thekla and Michael had only one known the Emperor Theophilos; the existence of a daughter called Helena is possible but there is a contradiction between different sources. Helena is known as the wife of Theophobos, a patrician executed in 842 for conspiring to gain the throne for himself. George Hamartolus and Theophanes report him marrying the sister of the Empress Theodora.
Joseph Genesius records Theophobos marrying the sister of the Emperor Theophilos. Whether Helena was sister or sister-in-law to Theophilos is thus unclear. After the death of Thekla, in c. 823, Michael II married Euphrosyne, a daughter of Constantine VI and Maria of Amnia. This marriage was intended to strengthen Michael's position as Emperor, but it incurred the opposition of the clergy, as Euphrosyne had become a nun. Michael II died on October 2, 829; because of his Judeo-Christian origin and iconoclasm, Michael II was not popular among Orthodox clergy, who depicted him as an ignorant and poorly educated peasant, but Michael II was a competent statesman and administrator. Though the civil war his accession precipitated gravely weakened the imperial government, by the end of his reign he had begun a restoration of the Byzantine military; the system of government and military built by Michael II enabled the Empire under his grandson Michael III to gain the ascendancy in their struggles with the Abbasids and to withstand all the vicissitudes of Byzantine palace life.
Michael II's direct descendants, the Amorian dynasty followed by the so-called Macedonian dynasty, ruled the Empire for more than two centurie
Krum was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime between 796 and 803 until his death in 814. During his reign the Bulgarian territory doubled in size, spreading from the middle Danube to the Dnieper and from Odrin to the Tatra Mountains, his able and energetic rule brought law and order to Bulgaria and developed the rudiments of state organization. Krum was a Bulgar chieftain from Pannonia, his background and the surroundings of his accession are unknown. It has been speculated that Krum might have been a descendant of the old Bulgar royal house of Kubrat; the name Krum is of Iranian origin. Around 805, Krum defeated the Avar Khaganate to destroy the remainder of the Avars and to restore Bulgar authority in Ongal again, the traditional Bulgar name for the area north of the Danube across the Carpathians covering Transylvania and along the Danube into eastern Pannonia; this resulted in the establishment of a common border between the Frankish Empire and Bulgaria, which would have important repercussions for the policy of Krum's successors.
Krum engaged in a policy of territorial expansion. In 807 Bulgarian forces defeated the Byzantine army in the Struma valley. In 809 Krum besieged and forced the surrender of Serdica, slaughtering the garrison of 6,000 despite a guarantee of safe conduct; this victory provoked Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I to settle Anatolian populations along the frontier to protect it and to attempt to retake and refortify Serdica, although this enterprise failed. In early 811, Nikephoros I undertook a massive expedition against Bulgaria. Here Krum attempted to negotiate on July 11, 811, but Nikephoros was determined to continue with his plunder, his army somehow made its way into Moesia. They managed to take over Pliska on July 20, as only a small, hastily assembled army was in their way. Here Nikephoros helped himself to the treasures of the Bulgarians while setting the city afire and turning his army on the population. A new diplomatic tentative from Krum was rebuffed; the Chronicle of 12th-century patriarch of the Syrian Jacobites, Michael the Syrian, describes the brutalities and atrocities of Nikephoros: "Nikephoros, emperor of the Byzantine empire, walked into the Bulgarians' land: he was victorious and killed great number of them.
He seized it and devastated it. His savagery went to the point that he ordered to bring their small children, got them tied down on earth and made thresh grain stones to smash them." While Nikephoros I and his army pillaged and plundered the Bulgarian capital, Krum mobilized as many soldiers as possible, giving weapons to peasants and women. This army was assembled in the mountain passes to intercept the Byzantines as they returned to Constantinople. At dawn on July 26, the Bulgarians managed to trap the retreating Nikephoros in the Vărbica pass; the Byzantine army was wiped out in the ensuing battle and Nikephoros was killed, while his son Staurakios was carried to safety by the imperial bodyguard after receiving a paralyzing wound to the neck. It is said that Krum used it as a drinking cup. Staurakios was forced to abdicate after a brief reign, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law Michael I Rangabe. In 812 Krum invaded Byzantine Thrace, taking Develt and scaring the population of nearby fortresses to flee towards Constantinople.
From this position of strength, Krum offered a return to the peace treaty of 716. Unwilling to compromise his regime by weakness, the new Emperor Michael I refused to accept the proposal, ostensibly opposing the clause for exchange of deserters. To apply more pressure on the Emperor, Krum besieged and captured Mesembria in the autumn of 812. In February 813 the Bulgarians were repelled by the Emperor's forces. Encouraged by this success, Michael I summoned troops from the entire Byzantine Empire and headed north, hoping for a decisive victory. Krum pitched camp near Versinikia. Michael I lined up his army against the Bulgarians, but neither side initiated an attack for two weeks. On June 22, 813, the Byzantines attacked but were turned to flight. With Krum's cavalry in pursuit, the rout of Michael I was complete, Krum advanced on Constantinople, which he besieged by land. Discredited, Michael was forced to abdicate and become a monk — the third Byzantine Emperor forced to give up the throne by Krum in as many years.
The new emperor, Leo V the Armenian, arranged for a meeting with Krum. As Krum arrived, he was wounded as he made his escape. Furious, Krum ravaged the environs of Constantinople and headed home, capturing Adrianople en route, transplanting its inhabitants across the Danube. In spite of the approach of winter, Krum took advantage of good weather to send a force of 30,000 into Thrace, capturing Arkadioupolis and carrying off 50,000 captives in the Bulgarian lands across the Danube; the loot from Thrace was used to enrich Krum and his nobility and included architectural elements utilized in the reconstruction of Pliska largely by captured Byzantine artisans. Krum spent the winter preparing for a major attack on Constantinople, where rumor reported the assemblage of an extensive siege park to be transported on 5,000 carts, he died before he set out, however, on April 13, 814, he was succeeded by his son Omurtag. Krum was remembered for instituting the first known written Bulgarian law code, which ensured subsidies to beggars and state protection to all poor Bulgarians.
Drinking and robbery were severely