Isaac II Angelos
Isaac II Angelos was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, again from 1203 to 1204. His father Andronikos Doukas Angelos was a military leader in Asia Minor who married Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa. Andronikos Doukas Angelos was the son of Constantine Angelos and Theodora Komnene, the youngest daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina, thus Isaac was a member of the extended imperial clan of the Komnenoi. Niketas Choniates described Isaac's physical appearance: "His face was florid. During the brief reign of Andronikos I Komnenos, Isaac was involved in the revolt of Nicaea and Prousa. Atypically, the Emperor did not punish him for this disloyalty, Isaac remained at Constantinople. On 11 September 1185, while Andronikos was absent from the capital, his lieutenant Stephen Hagiochristophorites moved to arrest Isaac. Isaac took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia. Andronikos was a capable ruler in some ways but was hated for his cruelty and his efforts to keep the aristocracy obedient.
Isaac appealed to the populace, a tumult arose that spread over the whole city. When Andronikos returned he found that he had lost popular support, that Isaac had been proclaimed emperor. Andronikos was apprehended. Isaac handed him over to the people of the City, he was killed on 12 September 1185. Isaac II Angelos strengthened his position as emperor with dynastic marriages in 1185 and 1186, his niece Eudokia Angelina was married to son of Stefan Nemanja of Serbia. Isaac's sister Theodora was married to the Italian marquis Conrad of Montferrat. In January 1186 Isaac himself married Margaret of Hungary, daughter of King Béla III. Hungary was one of the Empire's largest and most powerful neighbours, Margaret had the benefit of high aristocratic descent, being related to the royal families of Kiev, the Holy Roman Empire, Italy and earlier Byzantine dynasties. Isaac inaugurated his reign with a decisive victory over the Norman King of Sicily, William II, at the Battle of Demetritzes on 7 November 1185.
William had invaded the Balkans with 80,000 men and 200 ships towards the end of Andronikos I's reign. Elsewhere Isaac's policy was less successful. In late 1185, he sent a fleet of 80 galleys to liberate his brother Alexius III from Acre, but the fleet was destroyed by the Normans of Sicily, he sent a fleet of 70 ships, but it failed to recover Cyprus from the rebellious noble Isaac Komnenos, thanks to Norman interference. This fleet was misinterpreted by many in the Holy Land as naval support for the Muslim offensive in accordance with Isaac's alliance with Saladin. Isaac's administration was dominated by two figures: his maternal uncle Theodore Kastamonites, who became a co-emperor and handled all civil government until his death in 1193; the oppressiveness of his taxes, increased to pay his armies and finance his marriage, resulted in a Vlach-Bulgarian uprising late in 1185. The rebellion led to the establishment of the Vlach-Bulgarian Empire under the Asen dynasty. In 1187 Alexios Branas, the victor over the Normans, was sent against the Bulgarians but turned his arms against his master and attempted to seize Constantinople, only to be defeated and slain by Isaac's brother-in-law Conrad of Montferrat.
In 1187 an agreement was made with Venice, in which the Venetian Republic would provide between 40 and 100 galleys at six months' notice in exchange for favorable trading concessions. Because each Venetian galley was manned by 140 oarsmen, there were about 18,000 Venetians still in the Empire after Manuel I's arrests; the Emperor's attention was next demanded in the east, where several claimants to the throne successively rose and fell. In 1189 the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa sought and obtained permission to lead his troops on the Third Crusade through the Byzantine Empire, he had no sooner crossed the border than Isaac, who had meanwhile sought an alliance with Saladin, threw every impediment in his way. In retaliation Barbarossa's army occupied the city of Philippopolis and defeated a Byzantine army of 3,000 men that attempted to recapture the city, thus compelled by force of arms, Isaac II was forced to fulfill his engagements in 1190. By 1196 Isaac II had allowed the once powerful Byzantine navy to decline to only 30 galleys.
The next five years were disturbed by continued warfare with Bulgaria, against which Isaac led several expeditions in person. In spite of their promising start these ventures had little effect, on one occasion in 1190 Isaac escaped with his life; the Byzantines suffered yet another major defeat in the battle of Arcadiopolis in 1194. While preparing for yet another offensive against Bulgaria in 1195, Alexios Angelos, the Emperor's older brother, taking advantage of Isaac's absence from camp on a hunting expedition, proclaimed himself emperor and was recognised by the soldiers as Emperor Alexios III. Isaac was imprisoned in Constantinople. After eight years of captivity, Isaac II was raised from the dungeon to the throne once more after the arrival of the Fourth Crusade and the flight of Alexios III from the capital. Both his mind and body had been enfeebled by confinement, his son Alexios IV Angelos was associated on the throne as the effective monarch. Beholden to the crusaders, Alexios IV was unable to meet his obligations and his vacillation caused him to lose the support of both his crusader allies and his subjects.
Political mutilation in Byzantine culture
Mutilation in the Byzantine Empire was a common method of punishment for criminals of the era but it had a role in the empire's political life. Some disfigurements practised bore a secondary practical rationale as well. By blinding a rival, one would not only restrict their mobility but make it impossible for them to lead an army into battle an important part of taking control of the empire. Castration was used to eliminate potential opponents. In the Byzantine Empire, for a man to be castrated meant that he was no longer a man—half-dead, "life, half death". Castration eliminated any chance of heirs being born to threaten either the emperor or the emperor's children's place at the throne. Other mutilations were the amputating of limbs; the mutilation of political rivals by the emperor was deemed an effective way of side-lining from the line of succession a person, seen as a threat. Castrated men were not seen as a threat, as no matter how much power they gained they could never take the throne, numerous eunuchs were entrusted with high and confidential offices in the Byzantine court and administration.
In Byzantine culture, the emperor was a reflection of heavenly authority. Since God was perfect, the emperor had to be unblemished. An exception was Justinian II, who had his nose cut off when he was overthrown in 695 but was able to become emperor again, in 705. Blinding as a punishment for political rivals and a recognized penalty for treachery was established in 705, although Emperor Phocas used it earlier during his rule as well, becoming common practice from Heraclius onwards. Castration as a punishment for political rivals did not come into use until much becoming popular in the 10th and 11th centuries. An example is that of Basil Lekapenos, the illegitimate son of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, castrated when young, he gained enough power to become parakoimomenos and effective prime minister for three successive emperors, but could not assume the throne himself. The last to use this method voluntarily was Michael VIII Palaiologos, although some of his successors were forced to use it again by the Ottoman Sultans
Constantine Lascaris was a Greek scholar and grammarian, one of the promoters of the revival of Greek learning in Italy during the Renaissance, born in Constantinople. Constantine Lascaris was born in Byzantium, where was educated by the scholar John Argyropoulos, Gemistus Pletho's friend and pupil. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, he took refuge in Rhodes and in Italy, where Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, appointed him Greek tutor to his daughter Hippolyta. Here was published his Grammatica Graeca, sive compendium octo orationis partium, remarkable as being the first book in Greek issued from the printing press, in 1476. After leaving Milan in 1465, Lascaris taught in Rome and in Naples, to which he had been summoned by Ferdinand I to deliver a course of lectures on Greece. In the following year, on the invitation of the inhabitants, of Ludovico Saccano, he settled in Messina, Sicily. On the recommendation of Cardinal Bessarion, he was appointed to succeed Andronikos Galaziotes to teach Greek to the Basilian monks of the island.
He continued to work in Messina until his death, teaching to many pupils who came in Sicily from all over Italy. Among his numerous pupils in Milan was Giorgio Valla and, in Messina, Pietro Bembo, Angelo Gabrieli, Urbano Valeriani, Cola Bruno, Bernardino Rizzo, Francesco Faraone, Antonio Maurolico, Francesco Giannelli and Cristóbal Escobar. Lascaris bequeathed his library of valuable manuscripts of philosophy and magic to the Senate of Messina. In the second half of the sixteenth century his tomb in Messina was destroyed during the repression of the Counter-Reformation, he was a typical Renaissance humanist, with polymathic interests, but in Neoplatonism combined with Pythagoreanism. Through his pupils Antonio Maurolico, Francesco Faraone and Giacomo Notese-Genovese his knowledge reached to the scientist Francesco Maurolico. Lascaris died at Messina in 1501; the Grammatica, reprinted, is the most valuable work produced by Lascaris. In 1499 at Messina he published the Vitae illustrium philosophorum siculorum et calabrorum, with the first Renaissance biography of Pythagoras.
Some of his letters are given by Johannes Iriarte in the Regiae Bibliothecae Matritensis codices Graeci manuscripti. His name was known to readers in the romance of Abel-Francois Villemain, Lascaris, ou les Grecs du quinzieme siècle. See John Edwin Sandys, Hist. Class. Schol. Ed. 2, vol. ii, pp. 76 foll. Byzantine scholars in Renaissance Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lascaris, Constantine". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Lejay, Paul. "Constantine Lascaris". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Fernandez Pomar, J. M.. La coleccion de Uceda y los manuscritos griegos de Constantino Lascaris, "Emerita", 34, 1966, 211-88. Harris, Jonathan. Greek Émigrés in the West, 1400-1520, Camberley UK: Porphyrogenitus, 1995. ISBN 1-871328-11-X Martínez Manzano, Teresa. Konstantinos Laskaris. Humanist, Lehrer, Hamburg, 1994. Russo, Attilio. Costantino Lascaris tra fama e oblio nel Cinquecento messinese, vol.
LXXXIV-LXXXV, Messina 2003-2004, 5-87. ISSN 0392-0240 Fotis Vassileiou & Barbara Saribalidou, Short Biographical Lexicon of Byzantine Academics Immigrants in Western Europe, 2007. Wilson, N. G.. From Byzantium to Italy. Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance, London, 1992. ISBN 0-7156-2418-0 Excerpt from one of his works - on Diodorus Siculus
Hagia Sophia is the former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal cathedral an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. Built in 537 AD at the beginning of the Middle Ages, it was famous in particular for its massive dome, it was an engineering marvel of its time. It is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have "changed the history of architecture"; the Hagia Sophia construction consists of masonry. The structure is composed of mortar joints that are 1.5 times the width of the bricks. The mortar joints are composed of a combination of sand and minute ceramic pieces displaced evenly throughout the mortar joints; this combination of sand and ceramic pieces could be considered to be the equivalent of modern concrete at the time. From the date of its construction's completion in 537 until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire.
The building was converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931. It was secularized and opened as a museum on 1 February 1935, it remained the world's largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. The current building was constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the prior one having been destroyed by rioters in the Nika Revolt, it was designed by the Greek geometers Isidore of Anthemius of Tralles. The church was dedicated to the Wisdom of God, the Logos, the second person of the Trinity, its patronal feast taking place on 25 December, the commemoration of the birth of the incarnation of the Logos in Christ. Although sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia, sophia being the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom, its full name in Greek is Ναός της Αγίας του Θεού Σοφίας, Naos tēs Hagias tou Theou Sophias, "Shrine of the Holy Wisdom of God".
The church contained a large collection of relics and featured, among other things, a 15-metre silver iconostasis. The focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius communicated by Humbert of Silva Candida, the papal envoy of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act, considered the start of the East–West Schism. In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed the Conqueror, who ordered this main church of Orthodox Christianity converted into a mosque. Although some parts of the city of Constantinople were falling into disrepair, the cathedral was maintained with an amount of money set aside for this purpose; the Christian cathedral made a strong impression on the new Ottoman rulers and they decided to convert it into a mosque. The bells, altar and other relics were destroyed and the mosaics depicting Jesus, his Mother Mary, Christian saints, angels were destroyed or plastered over.
Islamic features – such as the mihrab and four minarets – were added. It remained a mosque until 1931, it was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the Republic of Turkey. Hagia Sophia was, as of 2014, the second-most visited museum in Turkey, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. According to data released by the Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry, Hagia Sophia was Turkey's most visited tourist attraction in 2015. From its initial conversion until the construction of the nearby Sultan Ahmed Mosque in 1616, it was the principal mosque of Istanbul; the Byzantine architecture of the Hagia Sophia served as inspiration for many other Ottoman mosques, such as the aforementioned mosque, the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque and the Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex. On 24 March 2019, the President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said that the Hagia Sophia is to be reverted to a mosque; the first church on the site was known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία, or in Latin Magna Ecclesia, because of its larger dimensions in comparison to the contemporary churches in the City.
Inaugurated on 15 February 360 by the Arian bishop Eudoxius of Antioch, it was built next to the area where the imperial palace was being developed. The nearby Hagia Eirene church was completed earlier and served as cathedral until the Great Church was completed. Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire. Writing in 440, Socrates of Constantinople claimed that the church was built by Constantius II, working on it in 346. A tradition, not older than the 7th or 8th century, reports that the edifice was built by Constantine the Great. Zonaras reconciles the two opinions, writing that Constantius had repaired the edifice consecrated by Eusebius of Nicomedia, after it had collapsed. Since Eusebius was bishop of Constantinople from 339 to 341, Constantine died in 337, it seems possible that the first church was erected by the latter; the edifice was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with a wooden roof. It was preceded by an atrium, it was claimed to be one of the world's most outstanding monuments at the time.
The Patriarch of Constantinople John
Theodore I Laskaris
Theodoros I Komnenos Laskaris was the first Emperor of Nicaea. Theodore Laskaris was born. 1174, to the Laskaris, a noble but not renowned Byzantine family of Constantinople. He was the son of wife Ioanna Karatzaina, he had four older brothers: Manuel Laskaris, Michael Laskaris, Georgios Laskaris and Constantine Laskaris, Emperor of Byzantium. William Miller identified the wife of Marco I Sanudo as the sister of Theodore, based on his interpretation of the Italian sources. However, Mihail-Dimitri Sturdza rejected this identification in his Dictionnaire historique et Généalogique des grandes familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople, based on the silence of Byzantine primary sources; the historian George Akropolites left a description of Theodore: "In body he was small, moderately dark, with a long beard, divided at the ends", "His eyes differed from one another". In 1198/9, Theodore married Anna Angelina, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera.
Soon after this, he was raised to the rank of despotēs. Theodore distinguished himself during the sieges of Constantinople by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade, he remained in Constantinople until the Latins penetrated into the city, at which point he fled across Bosphorus together with his wife. At about the same time his brother Constantine Laskaris was unsuccessfully proclaimed emperor by some of the defenders of Constantinople. In Bithynia Theodore established himself in Nicaea, which became the chief rallying-point for his countrymen. At first Theodore did not claim the imperial title because his father-in-law and his brother were both still living because of the imminent Latin invasion, or because there was no Patriarch of Constantinople to crown him Emperor. In addition, his own control over the Anatolian domains of the Byzantine Empire was challenged, by David Komnenos in Paphlagonia and Manuel Maurozomes in Phrygia, it was only after defeating the latter two in 1205 that he was proclaimed Emperor and invited Patriarch John X Kamateros to Nicaea.
But John died in 1206 before crowning Theodore. Theodore appointed Michael IV Autoreianos as the new Patriarch and was crowned by him in March 1208. In the meantime, Theodore had been defeated by the Latins at Adramyttion, but soon afterwards the Latins were themselves defeated by Kaloyan of Bulgaria at the Battle of Adrianople; this temporarily stalled the Latin advance, but it was renewed by Emperor Henry of Flanders in 1206. Theodore entered into an alliance with Kaloyan and took the offensive in 1209; the situation was complicated by the invasion of Sultan Kaykhusraw I of Rum at the instigation of the deposed Alexios III in 1211. Although the danger from Rum and Alexios III was thus neutralized, Emperor Henry defeated Theodore in October of the same year, established his control over the southern shores of the Sea of Marmara. In spite of this defeat, Theodore was able to take advantage of the death of David Megas Komnenos, the brother of Emperor Alexios I of Trebizond in 1212 and to extend his own control over Paphlagonia.
In 1214 Theodore concluded a peace treaty with the Latin Empire at Nymphaion, in 1219 he married Marie de Courtenay, a niece of now deceased Emperor Henry and daughter of the current regent, Yolanda of Flanders. In spite of predominantly peaceful relations, Theodore attacked the Latin Empire again in 1220, but peace was restored. Theodore was succeeded by his son-in-law John III Doukas Vatatzes, he was buried in the Monastery of Hyakinthos in Nicaea. At the end of his reign he ruled over a territory coterminous with the old Roman provinces of Asia and Bithynia. Though there is no proof of higher qualities of statesmanship in him, by his courage and military skill he enabled the Byzantine nation not to survive, but to beat back the Latin invasion. Theodore married three times, his first wife was Anna Komnene Angelina, whom he married in 1199. With Anna, Theodore had three daughters and two sons who died young: Nicholas Laskaris John Laskaris Irene Laskarina, who married first the general Andronikos Palaiologos and John III Doukas Vatatzes Maria Laskarina, who married King Béla IV of Hungary Sophia Eudokia Laskarina, engaged to Robert of Courtenay, married firstly and divorced Frederick II, Duke of Austria, secondly Anseau de Cayeux, Governor of Asia MinorAfter Anna Angelina died in 1212, Theodore took Philippa of Armenia as his second wife.
She was a niece of King of Armenia. Gardiner mentions the theory that Leo wanted to marry his daughter to another, sent his niece in her place. Theodore's third wife was Maria of Courtenay, whom he married in 1219, she was the daughter of Emperor Peter II of Courtenay and Empress Yolanda of Flanders, but they had no children
Constantine XI Palaiologos
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus was the last reigning Roman and Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Serving as regent for his brother John VIII 1437–1439, Constantine succeeded his brother, who died in Constantinople of natural causes in 1448, as Emperor following a short dispute with his younger brother Demetrios. Despite the mounting difficulties of his reign, contemporary sources speak respectfully of Constantine. Constantine would rule for just over 4 years, his reign culminating in the Ottoman siege and conquest of Constantinople, the imperial capital, under Sultan Mehmed II. Constantine did what he could to organize the defenses of the city, stockpiling food and repairing the old Theodosian walls, but the reduced domain of the Empire and the poor economy meant that organizing a force large enough for the defense of the city was impossible. Constantine led the defending forces, numbering 7,000, against an Ottoman army numbering around 10 times that and died in the ensuing fighting.
Following his death, he became a legendary figure in Greek folklore as the "Marble Emperor" who would awaken and recover the Empire and Constantinople from the Ottomans. His death marked the end of the Roman Empire, it had continued in the East as the Byzantine Empire for 977 years after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476. The Empire had begun with the reign of Augustus in 27 BC, 1,479 years prior. Constantine was born in Constantinople, as the eighth of ten children to Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian magnate Constantine Dragaš, he was fond of his mother and added her surname next to his own dynastic one when he ascended the imperial throne. He spent most of his childhood in Constantinople under the supervision of his parents. Nothing is known of his physical appearance or his character; the surviving contemporary images are stylized and include a seal now in Vienna, a few coins, his portrait among the other Byzantine emperors in the Biblioteca Estense copy of the history of Zonaras.
In the latter he is shown with a rounded beard, in noted contrast to his forked-bearded relatives, but it is unclear whether that reflects his actual appearance. His character, the image he is known with to posterity, are skewed by the accounts composed after his death, he was governor of Selymbria for a time, until surrendering the role to his brother Theodore in 1443. During the absence of his older brother John at the Council of Florence in Italy, Constantine served as his regent in Constantinople. Constantine became the ruler of the Despotate of the Morea in October 1443, he ruled from the fortress and palace in Mistra, a fortified town called Sparta or Lacedaemon due to its proximity to the ancient city. Mistra was a center of culture rivalling Constantinople. Twenty years before, Constantine had aided his brother John in consolidating Byzantine control over the Morea, campaigning against the Latin princes of the Principality of Achaea who still held parts of it, except for the Venetian possessions of Modon and Nauplion, the entire peninsula came under Byzantine control.
After establishing himself as Despot, Constantine strengthened the defences of the Morea by reconstructing a wall across the Isthmus of Corinth called the "Hexamilion", on the suggestion of Constantine's famous teacher, Plethon. In summer 1444, Constantine marched out of the Morea, he swiftly conquered Thebes and Athens, forcing its Florentine duke, Nerio II Acciaioli, a vassal of the Ottoman Sultan, to pay him tribute. The Turkish response was inevitable. Two years the Sultan Murad II, who had come out of retirement, led an army of 50,000–60,000 soldiers into Greece to put an end to the pretensions of Constantine, his purpose was not to conquer Morea but rather to teach the Greeks and their Despots a punitive lesson. The Ottoman army reached the Hexamilion on 27 November 1446. Constantine attempted to parlay with the Sultan, according to the historian Laonikos Chalkokondyles, his terms "were not moderate, for he demanded that the Isthmos be allowed to stand as it was for him and that he get to keep all the sultan's lands beyond it that he had subjected".
Constantine and his brother Thomas braced for the attack at the Hexamilion. While the wall could hold against medieval attacks, Sultan Murad used bombards to supplement the usual siege engines and scaling ladders. Murad's janissaries poured through the opening, the defenders panicked and fled. Constantine and Thomas attempted to rally their soldiers, failing escaped to Mistra. Murad split his forces, giving one part to his advisor Turahan while leading the other part along the southern shore of the Gulf of Corinth and destroying as his troops advanced. While neither Patras or Mistra fell to the Ottoman troops, the province was devastated. Constantine and his brother Thomas were forced to make themselves vassals of the Ottoman sultan and pay tribute. Constantine XI married twice; the first time was on 1 July 1428 to niece of Carlo I Tocco of Epirus. She died
Niketas or Nicetas Choniates, whose real surname was Akominatos, was a Greek Byzantine government official and historian – like his brother Michael Akominatos, whom he accompanied to Constantinople from their birthplace Chonae. Nicetas wrote a history of the Eastern Roman Empire from 1118 to 1207. Niketas Akominatos was born to wealthy parents around or after 1150 in Phrygia in the city of Chonae. Bishop Nicetas of Chonae named the infant; when he was nine, his father dispatched him with his brother Michael to Constantinople to receive an education. Niketas' older brother influenced him during the early stages of his life, he secured a post in the civil service, held important appointments under the Angelos emperors and was governor of the theme of Philippopolis at a critical period. After the sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, he fled to Nicaea, where he settled at the court of the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris, devoted himself to literature, he died c. 1215–16. His chief work is his History, in twenty-one books, of the period from 1118 to 1207.
In spite of its florid style, it is of value as a record of events to which he was either an eyewitness or which he had heard of first hand. Its most interesting portion is the description of the occupation of Constantinople in 1204, which may be read with Geoffroi de Villehardouin's and Paolo Rannusio's works on the same subject, his little treatise On the Statues destroyed by the Latins is of special interest to the archaeologist and art historian. His theological work, although extant in a complete form in manuscripts, has been published only in part, it is one of heretical writers of the 12th century. Umberto Eco's novel Baudolino is set at Constantinople during the Crusader conquest; the imaginary hero, saves Niketas during the sacking of Constantinople, proceeds to confide his life story to him. Niketas is a major character in Alan Gordon's murder mystery A Death in the Venetian Quarter. Imperii Graeci Historia, ed. Hieronymus Wolf, 1557, in Greek with parallel Latin translation. Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, ed.
J. P. Migne reproduces Wolf's translation. Nicetae Choniatae Historia, ed. Immanuel Bekker, Bonn, 1835, with Wolf's translation at the bottom of the page. Nicetae Choniatae Historia, ed. Jan Louis van Dieten, Berlin, 1975. O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniates, trans. Harry J. Magoulias, 1984. Βασιλικοπούλου, Ἁγνή. «Ἀνδρόνικος ὁ Κομνηνὸς καὶ Ὀδυσσεύς», Ἐπετηρὶς Ἑταιρείας Βυζαντινῶν Σπουδῶν 37 251–259. A seminal work on Choniates' use of Homer. Brand, Charles M. Byzantium Confronts the West, 1968. Harris, Jonathan and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed. 2014. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0 Harris, Jonathan.'Distortion, divine providence and genre in Nicetas Choniates' account of the collapse of Byzantium 1180–1204', Journal of Medieval History, vol. 26 19–31. Simpson & Efthymiadis. Niketas Choniates: A Historian and a Writer, 2009, ISBN 978-954-8446-05-1 Excerpt in English on the Sack of Constantinople in 1204. A longer excerpt on the same; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Acominatus, Michael". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press