Intrepid is a 12-metre class yacht which won the America's Cup in 1967 and again in 1970. Intrepid was designed by Olin Stephens, was built of double-planked mahogany on white oak frames, she featured important innovations both below the waterline. The rudder was separated from the keel and a trim tab was added; this new general underbody type, with minor refinements, was used on every subsequent Cup boat until the 12-metre Australia II's winged keel of 1983. Above decks, Intrepid featured a low boom, made possible by locating the winches below decks; the low boom caused an "end-plate effect", which allows a smaller amount of air to circulate around the boom and making the lower part of mainsail more efficient. The success of Intrepid was the cause of some new technical features such as separate keel and a rudder to become popular in many production yachts such as Swan 36. In 1967 Intrepid was skippered by Emil "Bus" Mosbacher, defeated Australian challenger Dame Pattie. Redesigned in 1970 by Britton Chance, Jr. and skippered by Bill Ficker that year, she defeated another Australian challenger, Gretel II.
Intrepid remained competitive against aluminum 12-metre yachts. Redesigned again, this time by her original designer Olin Stephens, Intrepid was back again for a third time in 1974, skippered by Gerry Driscoll. Intrepid came within one race of becoming the only three-time America's Cup defender in history, but lost the final race of the defender trials to Courageous, which would go on to win the Cup that year with Ted Hood at the helm. Ted Hood sold Courageous to Ted Turner. Intrepid underwent a two-year structural restoration, the bustle area was reframed, the bottom replanked for several feet up from the keel, the deck and deck beams were replaced. Today Intrepid is available for charter out of Newport, Rhode Island along with fellow America's Cup winner Freedom and challenger boat Weatherly. "America's Cup's Ac-clopaedia – Intrepid". Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Design Firm: Sparkman & Stephens Current owners and charters
Thistle was the unsuccessful Scottish challenger of the seventh America's Cup in 1887 against American defender Volunteer. The cutter Thistle was designed by George Lennox Watson, with interiors by his brother Thomas Lennox Watson, built at the D&W Henderson shipyard in Partick on the River Clyde and launched on 26 April 1887, for a syndicate of owners that included William Clark, John Clark, Andrew Coates, William Coates, James Coates, George Coates, J. Hilliard Bell, William Bell of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club, headed by James Bell, she was built with a teak deck. Thistle was skippered by John Barr. Thistle was built under conditions of great secrecy during the winter of 1886-7 and launched with her hull covered by a huge canvas. After winning or placing second in 13 of 15 Scottish regattas in her first year afloat, Thistle sailed to New York as the challenger in the 1887 America's Cup against the US defender, Volunteer. Skippered by John Barr, she lost both Cup races, returned to Scotland in September 1887.
John Barr's younger brother Charlie Barr was a crew member who, after emigrating to the United States, went on to achieve success skippering three consecutive successful America's Cup defenders. Following a few successful years racing in Britain, Thistle was sold to the German emperor Wilhelm II in 1891 for 90,000 gold marks and renamed Meteor. Between 1892 and 1895 Wilhelm II raced against the Britannia owned by his uncle the Prince of Wales King Edward VII each year at the Cowes Week. Being a more experienced yachtsmen and having the faster ship Edward won all the races comfortably. In 1895, Meteor was handed over to the German Navy in Wilhelmshaven as a school yacht and renamed Comet. In 1921, the vessel was broken up. G. L. Watson & Co. Ltd America's Cup's Ac-clopaedia The 19th-Century Yacht Photography of J. S. Johnston
Livonia was the second, challenger attempting to lift the America's Cup from the New York Yacht Club. Having unsuccessfully challenged for the America's Cup in Cambria in 1868, James Lloyd Ashbury again commissioned Michael Ratsey of Cowes to build a new yacht. Livonia was based on the lines of Sappho, was launched on 6 April 1871. Ashbury took his new yacht across the Atlantic to once again challenge for the America's Cup, this time on behalf of the Royal Harwich Yacht Club; the 1871 America's Cup race was involved in controversy. There was disagreement over the format of the competition, with Ashbury seeking legal advice, it was agreed that the first yacht to win four races would be the victor. Livonia was opposed by Franklin Osgood's Columbia. Columbia won the first two races. Livonia won the third race with the Columbia being damaged. Sappho was chosen to replace the Columbia to continue the challenge and subsequently won the next two races and thus defended the cup for the New York Club. Ashbury refused to accept the decision, claiming to have won two races to the Americans' three and declared that he would continue racing.
As no challengers appeared he demanded the cup. He returned to the United Kingdom without the trophy accusing the New York Yacht Club of engaging in "unfair and unsportsmanlike proceedings"; the club responded by returning a number of trophies he had donated in the previous year
Cambria was the first, though unsuccessful, challenger attempting to lift the America's Cup from the New York Yacht Club. In 1868, James Lloyd Ashbury commissioned Michael Ratsey of Cowes to build a 188-ton schooner, Cambria. Cambria had a successful racing season in 1869, winning the Round the Isle of Wight Race. Ashbury was encouraged by Cambria's success in the Isle of Wight race because the champion American schooner Sappho had finished last. In October 1868 Ashbury wrote to the New York Yacht Club offering to be the first challenger for the America's Cup, he subsequently exchanged letters with Gordon Bennett and owner of the New York Herald, challenging him to a trans-Atlantic race, prior to competing for the cup on behalf of the Royal Thames Yacht Club. In July 1870 Ashbury raced Cambria across the Atlantic Ocean from Ireland to New York in challenge against Bennett's yacht, Dauntless. Cambria won the race by arriving first off 17 minutes; the race for the America's Cup was held on 8 August, with Cambria facing 14 yachts of the New York Yacht Club.
The race was won by Magic, with Cambria finishing eighth
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen; the members have contributed to the sport of yacht design. As of 2001, the organization was reported to have about 3,000 members. Membership in the club is by invitation only, its officers include a Commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore and treasurer. The America's Cup trophy was won by members in 1851 and held by the NYYC until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports; the NYYC has entered 2021 America's Cup under the syndicate name American Magic, In 1845, the club's first clubhouse was established — a modest, Gothic-revival building in Hoboken, New Jersey, on land donated by Commodore John Cox Stevens. After outgrowing its cramped quarters, the club moved to several other locations, including Staten Island, Glen Cove, New York and Mystic, Connecticut.
Its primary clubhouse is a six-storied Beaux-Arts landmark with a nautical-themed limestone facade, located at 37 West 44th Street in midtown Manhattan. Opened in 1901, the clubhouse was designed by Warren and Wetmore, architects of the exterior of Grand Central Terminal; the centerpiece of the clubhouse is the "Model Room", which contains a notable collection of full and half hull models including a scale model history of all New York Yacht Club America's Cup challenges. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987. In addition to its Manhattan headquarters, located inland, the club maintains "Harbour Court", a clubhouse opened in 1988 on the water in Newport; the New York Yacht Club was founded on July 1844, by nine gentlemen. John Cox Stevens, the leader of this group, a prominent citizen of New York with a passion for sports, was elected commodore. John Clarkson Jay of Rye, one of the nine founders, was a grandson of Founding Father John Jay and served as the first Secretary of the board.
George L. Schuyler and Hamilton Wilkes were NYYC founders who, together with Stevens and two others, created the syndicate that built and raced the great schooner-yacht, America. Wilkes served as the club's first vice-commodore. Schuyler played a key role in the founding of the America's Cup regatta, served as its unofficial consultant until his death in 1890. In 1845, the club's burgee was designed; the waters off Newport have been a key sailing venue for the NYYC since the beginning of its history. Indeed, the day the club was founded in 1844, its members resolved to sail from the Battery to Newport. Two days they did, with several stops on the way, trials of speed. During the first decades of the club's history, racing for prize money was the objective among most members. In 1851, a syndicate of NYYC enthusiasts built and raced America, capturing the "One Hundred Sovereign Cup" at the annual regatta of the Royal Yacht Squadron. On July 8, 1857, the coveted trophy was donated to the NYYC, to serve as a challenge cup for sportsmanlike competition between nations.
The "America's Cup Race", named for its first winner, played a central role in the history of the club until this day. In 1865, the Club was incorporated, adopting the Latin motto: "Nos agimur tumidis velis" -- "We go with swelling sails". During this time, membership transitioned from the "old guard" to a new generation of yachtsmen, who built large schooner yachts captained by professionals. Marking this evolution was the 1866 resignation of Commodore Edwin Augustus Stevens, brother of founder John Cox Stevens and member of the America syndicate; the year 1866 is remembered in club annals for the legendary "Transatlantic Race". In December, the NYYC schooners Henrietta and Vesta raced from Sandy Hook to The Needles, Isle of Wight for a $90,000 winner-take-all prize; the Henrietta, owned by 21-year-old James Gordon Bennett, Jr. and skippered by Captain Samuel S. Samuels, a professional, won the race in 13 days, 21 hours and 55 minutes. Bennett would be elected commodore in 1871. In 1876, the Mohawk, a large centerboard schooner, capsized due to its sheets being "made fast" when a freak squall struck.
Vice-Commodore William T. Garner, his wife and crew died in the accident, it is believed. The Mohawk was sold to the U. S. Navy and recommissioned as the U. S. Eagre. By 1894, the New York Yacht Club had a number of Clubhouses: Station 1 in Bay Ridge. In 1868, the club bought a big mansion used as Station 2 at Staten Island; this building still is known as the Macfarlane Bredt House. In 1895, Richard H. Barker composed'The yacht club march: march and two-step: for piano' in honour of the New York Yacht Club. In 1994, as part of the Club's 150th celebrations, Melissa H. Harrington wrote'The New York Yacht Club, 1844-1994,' Following the disastrous Bay of Quinte America's Cup challenge in 1881, the Club's committee voted a new rule to govern its races: Rating = 2 ⋅ Load Waterline Length + Sail Area 3 The America's Cup challenges of 1885, 1886 and 1887 used this rule
Shamrock V was the first British yacht to be built to the new J-Class rule. She was commissioned by Sir Thomas Lipton for his fifth America's Cup challenge. Although refitted several times, Shamrock is the only J-class never to have fallen into dereliction; the services of Charles Ernest Nicholson were once again employed to design the challenger and she was constructed at the Camper and Nicholsons yard in Gosport. Shamrock V was built from wood, with mahogany planking over steel frames and, most a hollow spruce mast; as a result of rule changes, she was the first British contender for the America's Cup to carry the Bermuda rig. Following her launch on 14 April 1930 she showed early promise on the British Regatta circuit winning 15 of 22 races, she underwent continuous upgrading with changes to her hull shape and modifications to the rig to create a more effective racing sail plan before departing to America in time for the 15th America's Cup. Four New York syndicates responded to Lipton's challenge each creating a J-Class, Yankee and Enterprise.
This was a remarkable response during depression-hit America with each yacht costing at least half a million dollars, served to highlight that despite the J-Class' immense power and beauty, their Achilles heel would be the exorbitant cost to construct and race them. Winthrop Aldrick's syndicate, emerged from the competitive round-robins as the eventual defender. Enterprise was the smallest J-Class to be built, her size being an early indication of the ruthless efficiency, employed by the renowned naval architect Starling Burgess; the efficiency of design was coupled to a number of pioneering features such as the Park Avenue Boom, hidden lightweight winches and the world’s first duralumin mast. The first of the best-of-seven races was a convincing victory for Enterprise winning by nearly three minutes. Shamrock V was to fare worse in the second race losing by nearly 10 minutes; the third race provided the assembled thousands on the shore at Newport, the racing they craved. Shamrock V's initial lead at the start was relinquished to Enterprise after a tacking duel.
Following this surrender disaster struck, as Shamrock V's main halyard parted and her sail collapsed to the deck. The fourth race clinched the cup for Enterprise after which Sir Thomas Lipton was heard to utter "I can't win". Shamrock V's challenge was plagued by bad luck and haunted by one of the most ruthless skippers in America's Cup history, Harold Vanderbilt. Sir Thomas Lipton, after endearing himself to the American public during 31 years and five attempts, would die the following year never fulfilling his ambition to win the cup; the British aviation industrialist Sir Thomas Sopwith was to be the next custodian of Shamrock V. A keen yachtsman, Sopwith bought her in 1931 as a trial horse to gain J-Class racing experience, he would add to Nicholson's skills with his own aeronautical expertise and material knowledge to build and perfect his challenger for the 16th America's cup, Endeavour. Shamrock V was sold to Sopwith's aviation friend, fellow yachtsman, Sir Richard Fairey of Fairey Aviation who continued to incorporate aerodynamic and hydrodynamic modifications as well as campaigning her against other J-Class yachts during the 1935 regatta season.
In 1937, Shamrock V was sold to industrialist Mario Crespi. This change in ownership prompted Shamrock V's only name change. Italian Fascist law had banned the use of foreign names in society, accordingly Shamrock V was renamed Quadrifoglio. Crespi was the first owner who modified Shamrock V for comfort by installing her maple interior. A renaissance for Shamrock V began in 1962 with her acquisition by the Italian yachtsman Piero Scanu, he instigated a comprehensive three year overhaul commencing in 1967 with Shamrock V returning to the Camper and Nicholsons yard. The hull and deck received significant attention along with the modernisation of the systems and engines; the effects of this rebuild were to last the next twenty years during which a remarkable repeat of history was enacted when, in 1986, Shamrock V returned to the ownership of the Lipton Tea Company who donated her to the Museum of Yachting at Newport, Rhode Island. Another extensive restoration was instigated by her new owners and undertaken by Elizabeth Meyer in 1989.
Following changes of ownership in the 1990s and another renovation, Shamrock V participated in a reunion in August 2001 with the only two remaining J-Classes and Velsheda, for the America's Cup Jubilee in the Solent. In March 2016 it was reported that Shamrock V had changed ownership and had been listed for sale with an asking price of €6 million. Shamrock V was seen being towed to and moored at Saxon Wharf in the River Itchen, Southampton, on 21st July 2018, she looked like she'd just had a refit as her paint was shiny and new, lots of bits of gear were still wrapped up and her mast was on deck. J Class Management Ranulf Rayner,The Story of the America's Cup 1851-2007 ISBN 978-1-86953-670-1
The yacht Mischief was the victorious American defender of the fourth America's Cup race in 1881 against Canadian challenger Atalanta. The centerboard compromise sloop Mischief was designed by Archibald Cary Smith and built by Harlan & Hollingsworth of Wilmington, Delaware in 1879 for English owner Joseph Richard Busk of the New York Yacht Club, she was built of the second all-metal yacht to be built in the United States. Nicknamed "The Iron Pot", Mischief was the victorious defender of the fourth America's Cup challenge in 1881, she was skippered by Nathanael'Than' Clock during the race. The Mischief was seized in 1904 for suspected smuggling between the United States and Canada, stripped of its yacht registration, she was used as a barge. In 1929 she scuttled. Media related to Mischief at Wikimedia Commons America's Cup's Ac-clopaedia The 19th Century Yacht Photography of J. S. Johnston