The Mall, London
The Mall is a road in the City of Westminster, central London, between Buckingham Palace at its western end and Trafalgar Square via Admiralty Arch to the east. Near the east end at Trafalgar Square/Whitehall it is met by Horse Guards Road and Spring Gardens where the Metropolitan Board of Works and London County Council were once based, it is closed to traffic on Saturdays, public holidays and on ceremonial occasions. The Mall began as a field for playing pall-mall. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was a fashionable promenade, bordered by trees; the Mall was envisioned as a ceremonial route in the early 20th century, matching the creation of similar ceremonial routes in other cities such as Berlin, Mexico City, Paris, Saint Petersburg and Washington, D. C; these routes were intended to be used for major national ceremonies. As part of the development – designed by Aston Webb – a new façade was constructed for Buckingham Palace, the Victoria Memorial was erected; the Victoria Memorial is before the gates of the Palace, whilst Admiralty Arch at the far end leads into Trafalgar Square.
The length of The Mall from where it joins Constitution Hill at the Victoria Memorial end to Admiralty Arch is 0.5 nautical miles. St. James's Park is on the south side of The Mall, opposite Green Park and St James's Palace, on the north side. Running off The Mall at its eastern end is Horse Guards Parade, where the Trooping the Colour ceremony is held; the surface of The Mall is coloured red to give the effect of a giant red carpet leading up to Buckingham Palace. This colour was obtained using synthetic iron oxide pigment from Deanshanger Oxide Works, created using the Deanox Process devised by chemist Ernest Lovell, it was David Eccles' decision, as Minister of Works from 1951 to 1954. On VE Day, the Palace was the centre of British celebrations, with the King and Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret appearing on the balcony, with the Palace's blacked-out windows behind them, to the cheers from a vast crowd on The Mall. During state visits, the monarch and the visiting head of state are escorted in a state carriage up The Mall and the street is decorated with Union Flags and the flags of the visiting head of state's country.
During the Golden Jubilee celebrations of Queen Elizabeth II in 2002, over one million people packed The Mall to watch the public displays and the appearance of the Royal Family on the palace balcony. These scenes were repeated in 2011 for the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, again in 2012 for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee, the Jubilee concert. Scheduled buses are not allowed to use the Mall and go past Buckingham Palace except by permission of the monarch; this has only happened twice in history. The annual London Marathon finishes on The Mall, it was the start and finish line for the marathon course, the road race, the race walks of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The women's marathon took place on the men's Olympic marathon on 12 August; the men's 20 km walk took place on 4 August, with the men's 50 km walk and women's 20 km walk took place on 11 August. The Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September. In recent years the Mall has been used as the finishing line for UK cycling events, including the 2012 Olympics Road Races, the Ride London Prudential Classic in 2013, stage 3 of the 2014 Tour de France.
The Race Walk events of the 2017 World Championships in Athletics will take place in the Mall on 13 August. It will be the first time, it has been called Festival of Race Walks. The Opening Ceremony for the 2019 Cricket World Cup will be held on The Mall. Media related to The Mall, London at Wikimedia Commons
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality, it has been a focal point for the British people at times of national mourning. Known as Buckingham House, the building at the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 on a site, in private ownership for at least 150 years, it was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte and became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837; the last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East Front, which contains the well-known balcony on which the royal family traditionally congregates to greet crowds.
The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II. The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House; the palace has 775 rooms, the garden is the largest private garden in London. The state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring. In the Middle Ages, the site of the future palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury; the marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which still flows below the courtyard and south wing of the palace. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew.
Ownership of the site changed hands many times. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey. In 1531, Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James, which became St James's Palace, from Eton College, in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey; these transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away 500 years earlier. Various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century. By the old village of Eye Cross had long since fallen into decay, the area was wasteland. Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold but retained part of the site on which he established a 4-acre mulberry garden for the production of silk. Clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana refers to "new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. James's". In the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies.
The first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624. The next owner was Lord Goring, who from 1633 extended Blake's house and developed much of today's garden known as Goring Great Garden, he did not, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document "failed to pass the Great Seal before King Charles I fled London, which it needed to do for legal execution", it was this critical omission that helped the British royal family regain the freehold under King George III. The improvident Goring defaulted on his rents. Arlington House rose on the site—the location of the southern wing of today's palace—the next year. In 1698, John Sheffield the first Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, acquired the lease; the house which forms the architectural core of the palace was built for the first Duke of Buckingham and Normanby in 1703 to the design of William Winde. The style chosen was of a large, three-floored central block with two smaller flanking service wings.
Buckingham House was sold by Buckingham's natural son, Sir Charles Sheffield, in 1761 to George III for £21,000. Sheffield's leasehold on the mulberry garden site, the freehold of, still owned by the royal family, was due to expire in 1774. Under the new Crown ownership, the building was intended as a private retreat for King George III's wife, Queen Charlotte, was accordingly known as The Queen's House. Remodelling of the structure began in 1762. In 1775, an Act of Parliament settled the property on Queen Charlotte, in exchange for her rights to Somerset House, 14 of her 15 children were born there; some furnishings were transferred from Carlton House, others had been bought in France after the French Revolution of 1789. While St James's Palace remained the official and ceremonial royal residence, the name "Buckingham-palace" was used from at least 1791. After his accession to the throne in 1820, King George IV continued the renovation with the idea in mind of a small, comfort
The Green Park known without the article as Green Park, is one of the Royal Parks of London. It is located in the City of Westminster, central London. First enclosed in 16th century, it was landscaped in 1820 and is notable among central London parks for having no lakes or buildings, only minimal flower planting in the form of naturalised narcissus. Green Park covers just over 40 acres between St. James's Park. Together with Kensington Gardens and the gardens of Buckingham Palace, these parks form an unbroken stretch of open land reaching from Whitehall and Victoria station to Kensington and Notting Hill. In contrast with its neighbouring parks, Green Park has no lakes, no buildings, no playgrounds, few monuments, having only the Canada Memorial by Pierre Granche, the Diana Fountain, the RAF Bomber Command Memorial; the park consists entirely of mature trees rising out of turf. The park is bounded on the south by Constitution Hill, on the east by the pedestrian Queen's Walk, on the north by Piccadilly.
It meets St. James's Park at Queen's Gardens with the Victoria Memorial at its centre, opposite the entrance to Buckingham Palace. To the south is the ceremonial avenue of the Mall, the buildings of St James's Palace and Clarence House overlook the park to the east. Green Park Underground station is a major interchange located on Piccadilly and Jubilee lines near the north end of Queen's Walk. Tyburn stream runs beneath Green Park; the park is said to have been swampy burial ground for lepers from the nearby hospital at St James's. It was first enclosed in 16th century. In 1668, an area of the Poulteney estate known as Sandpit Field was surrendered to Charles II, who made the bulk of the land into a Royal Park as "Upper St James's Park" and enclosed it with a brick wall, he laid out the park's main walks and built an icehouse there to supply him with ice for cooling drinks in summer. The Queen's Walk was laid out for George II's queen Caroline. At the time, the park was on the outskirts of London and remained an isolated area well into the 18th century, when it was known as a haunt of highwaymen and thieves.
Prime Minister Horace Walpole was one of many to be robbed there. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it was a popular place for ballooning attempts and public firework displays; the park was known as a duelling ground. In 1820, John Nash landscaped the park, as an adjunct to St. James's Park. On 10 June 1840, it was the scene of Edward Oxford's assassination attempt on Queen Victoria, on Constitution Hill; the Royal Parks website: The Green Park Virtual journey into Green Park
Garden at Buckingham Palace
The Garden at Buckingham Palace is a large private park attached to the London residence of the monarch. It is situated at the rear of Buckingham Palace, occupying a 42 acres site in the City of Westminster, has two-and-a-half miles of gravel paths, its area is bounded by Constitution Hill to the north, Hyde Park Corner to the west, Grosvenor Place to the south-west, the Royal Mews, Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace itself to the south and east. The gardens are Grade II* listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the planting is varied and exotic, with a mulberry tree dating back to the time of James I of England. The garden covers much of the area of the former Goring Great Garden, named after Lord Goring, occupant of one of the earliest grand houses on the site, it was laid out by Henry Wise and subsequently redesigned by William Townsend Aiton for George IV. Notable features include a large 19th-century lake, once graced by a flock of flamingoes, the Waterloo Vase. In the garden there is a summerhouse, a helicopter pad, a tennis court.
Unlike the nearby Royal Parks of London, Buckingham Palace Garden is not open to the public. However, when the palace is open during August and September, visitors have access to part of the garden, which forms the exit, via a gift shop in a marguee, at the end of the tour; the garden is. In June 2002 she invited the public into the garden for entertainment for the first time during her reign; as part of her Golden Jubilee Weekend thousands of Britons were invited to apply for tickets to Party at the Palace where the guitarist Brian May of the band Queen performed his God Save the Queen guitar solo on top of Buckingham Palace. This concert was preceded the previous evening by a Prom at the Palace. During the Queen's 80th birthday celebrations in 2006 the garden was the scene of Children's Party at the Palace; the landscape design was by Capability Brown but the garden was redesigned at the time of the palace rebuilding by William Townsend Aiton of Kew Gardens and John Nash. The great manmade lake was completed in 1828 and is supplied with water by the Serpentine Lake in Hyde Park.
According to Palace tourist guides, the garden is maintained by eight full-time gardeners, with two or three part-timers. The trees include plane, Indian chestnut, silver maple, a swamp cypress. In the south-west corner, there is a single surviving mulberry tree from the plantation installed by King James I of England when he unsuccessfully attempted to breed silkworms in the Mulberry Garden on the Buckingham Palace site. Like the palace, the garden is rich in works of art. One of the most notable is the Waterloo Vase, the great urn commissioned by Napoleon to commemorate his expected victories, which in 1815 was presented unfinished to the Prince Regent. After the King had had the base completed by sculptor Richard Westmacott, intending it to be the focal point of the new Waterloo chamber at Windsor Castle, it was adjudged to be too heavy for any floor; the National Gallery, to whom it was presented returned it in 1906 to the sovereign, Edward VII. King Edward solved the problem by placing the vase outside in the garden where it now remains.
In the garden is a small summerhouse attributed to William Kent, a helicopter landing pad, a tennis court where Björn Borg, John McEnroe and Steffi Graf have played. The garden is surveyed for its moths by staff from the Natural History Museum, visited by the Queen's swans; the garden is the setting for the many Royal garden parties held by the Queen each summer. However, while numerous and from all stations in life, are those who hold a public position, or are in some way of national interest. In 2008, three parties were for nominated members of the public; the guests take. As a military band plays the National Anthem, the Queen emerges from the Bow Room and processes through the ranks of assembled guests towards her own private tea tent, greeting those selected for the honour. Buckingham Palace garden was one of three royal sites excavated over 25–28 August 2006 by the Time Team of archaeologists led by Tony Robinson; the results were televised, with some live streaming. Timed to help celebrate the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth II, this marked Time Team's 150th dig.
For the first time, the Queen gave permission for trenches to be dug in the grounds of Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh. The Big Royal Dig is an example of the Queen opening up her homes for greater access to the public, as she did during her Golden Jubilee Weekend in 2002 and throughout 2006 for her 80th birthday; the archaeologists had an unprecedented opportunity to probe the geophysics and history of three royal residences over a four-day period, with teams working concurrently in the three locations. Buckingham House, a precursor of the palace, was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham; the archaeologists managed to uncover the original ornamental canal constructed by Henry Wise which ran westwards from the West Front of Buckingham House. The ornamental canal was the highlight of the garden, running straight down it, bordered by rows of trees; the parterre clos
Memorial Gates, London
The Memorial Gates are a war memorial located at the Hyde Park Corner end of Constitution Hill in London. Known as the Commonwealth Memorial Gates, they commemorate the armed forces of the British Empire from five regions of the Indian subcontinent, as well as Africa and the Caribbean, who served for Britain in the First and Second World Wars; the memorial was inaugurated in 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II. The main inscription reads: In memory of the five million volunteers from the Indian sub-continent and the Caribbean who fought with Britain in the two World Wars. A shorter inscription quotes the words of the Nigerian author and poet Ben Okri: On the Green Park side of the Gates there are two stone slabs, either side of the pavilion, commemorating by name several of the campaigns in which forces from the British Empire fought. World War I West Africa Egypt East Africa France Belgium Gallipoli Russia World War II India Burma Malaya Singapore Persia Hong Kong Dutch East Indies The memorial pavilion on the Green Park side of Constitution Hill has a list of those from the named regions who were awarded the George Cross or Victoria Cross in the two World Wars.
The 74 names are listed on the ceiling of the small domed pavilion. There are 23 VC recipients from World War I listed, 12 GC recipients from World War II, 39 VC recipients from World War II; the plans for the memorial were made by the Memorial Gates Trust. As inscribed on the memorial, the inaugural patron of the Trust was Prince Charles, the inaugural trustees were Lord Inge, Lord Sandberg, Viscount Slim, Neil Thorne, Lord Weatherill, Baroness Flather, Khalid Aziz, Lakshmi Niwas Mittal, Harpinder Singh Narula, Gulam Noon, Anwar Pervez; the architects were Planning Consultants. Funding came provided by the Millennium Commission. Construction of the Memorial Gates began on 1 August 2001, with an inscription commemorating this event on the first stone to be laid; the company contracted to build the memorial was Geoffrey Osborne Ltd and the stonemasons were CWO Ltd. The Memorial Gates were inaugurated on 6 November 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II with an inscription stating that this took place in the Golden Jubilee year of her reign.
Memorial Gates Website Memorial Gates Trust World War I campaigns World War II campaigns List of Trustees and Vice-Patrons Report on the inauguration ceremony Additional information on the Memorial Gates Memorial Gates entry Images showing the George Cross and Victoria Cross recipients: 1, 2
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Wellington Arch known as Constitution Arch or as the Green Park Arch, is a Grade I-listed triumphal arch by Decimus Burton that forms a centrepiece of Hyde Park Corner in central London, between corners of Hyde Park and Green Park. From its construction in 1826 until 1830 the arch stood in a different location nearby, it supported a colossal equestrian statue of the 1st Duke of Wellington by the sculptor Matthew Cotes Wyatt, as a result of which it has acquired the name "the Wellington Arch" in the vernacular. A bronze quadriga by Adrian Jones has surmounted it since 1912. Both the Wellington Arch and Marble Arch were planned in 1825 by George IV to commemorate Britain's victories in the Napoleonic Wars. During the second half of the 1820s, the Commissioners of Woods and Forests and the King resolved that Hyde Park, the area around it, should be renovated to match the splendour of rival European capital cities, that the essence of the new arrangement would be a triumphal approach to the completed Buckingham Palace.
The committee of the project, led by the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, advised by Charles Arbuthnot, President of the Board of Commissioners of Woods and Forests, selected Decimus Burton as the project's architect. In 1828, when giving evidence to a Parliamentary Select Committee on the Government's spending on public works, Arbuthnot explained that he had nominated Burton "having seen in the Regent's Park, elsewhere, works which pleased my eye, from their architectural beauty and correctness". Burton intended to create an urban space dedicated to the celebration of the House of Hanover, national pride, the nation's heroes; the renovation of Hyde Park, Green Park, St James's Park began in 1825, with the demarcation of new drives and pathways, subsequent to which Burton designed new lodges and gates, viz. Cumberland Gate, Stanhope Gate, Grosvenor Gate, the Hyde Park Gate/Screen at Hyde Park Corner, the Prince of Wales's Gate, Knightsbridge, in the classical style. There were no authoritative precedents for such buildings, which required windows and chimney stacks, in the classical style, and, in the words of Guy Williams, "Burton's reticent treatment of the supernumerary features" and of the cast iron gates and railings was "greatly admired".
At Hyde Park Corner, the King required "some great ceremonial outwork that would be worthy of the new palace that lay to its rear", accepted Burton's consequent proposal for a sequence comprising a gateway and a classical screen, a triumphal arch, which would enable those approaching Buckingham Palace from the north to ride or drive first through the screen and through the arch, before turning left to descend Constitution Hill and enter the forecourt of Buckingham Palace through Nash's Marble Arch. The screen became the neoclassical Hyde Park Gate/Screen at Hyde Park Corner, which delighted the King and his Committee, which the architectural historian Guy Williams describes as "one of the most pleasing architectural works that have survived from the neo-classical age"; the triumphal arch became the Wellington Arch at Constitution Hill into Green Park, described as "one of London's best loved landmarks". Burton's original design for the triumphal arch, modelled on the Arch of Titus at Rome, on which the central and side blocks of the Screen had been modelled, was more technically perfect, coherent with the Screen, than that of the arch, subsequently built: this original design, was rejected by the Committee – who had envisaged a design based on the Arch of Constantine, on which Nash's Marble Arch had been modelled – because it was not sufficiently ostentatious.
Burton created a new design, "to pander to the majestic ego", much larger and modelled on a fragment found in the Roman Forum, accepted on 14 January 1826, subsequently built as the present Wellington Arch. The arch has a single opening, uses the Corinthian order. Much of the intended exterior ornamentation was omitted as a cost-saving exercise necessitated by the King's overspending on the refurbishment of Buckingham Palace, underway at the same time. A contemporary account, written in anticipation of its completion to its original plan, describes what was intended:The entabulature is loft and elegant with a richly sculptured frieze, a row of boldly projecting lions' heads on the cymatium, marking the centres of columns and other sub-divisions of the order. Above the entablature, on a lofty blocking course, is raised an attic, the body of, embellished with a sculptural representation of an ancient triumph. On each of the columns is a statue of a warrior, on the summit of the acroterium which surmounts the attic is a figure in a quadriga or ancient four horse chariot.
The arch at Constitution Hill was left devoid of decorative sculpture as a result of the moratorium in 1828 on public building work, instead, despite the absolute objection of Burton, was mounted with an ungainly equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, the son of the recently deceased James Wyatt, selected by statue's commissioner, one of its few subsequent advocates, Sir Frederick Trench. The bronze by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, which crowned the arch, was, at 40 tons and 28 feet high, the largest equestrian figure made. Matthew Cotes Wyatt was not competent: Guy Williams contends that he were "not noticeably talented", the Dictionary of National Biography that "thanks to royal and other influential patronage, Wyatt enjoyed a reputati