A state is specifically a political and geopolitical entity, whilst a nation is a cultural and ethnic one. The term nation state implies that the two coincide, in that a state has chosen to adopt and endorse a specific cultural group as associated with it. The concept of a state can be compared and contrasted with that of the multinational state, city state, confederation. The key distinction is the identification of a people with a polity in the nation state, the origins and early history of nation states are disputed. A major theoretical question is, Which came first, the nation or the nation state and it was with these intellectual discoveries and technological advances that the nation state arose. For others, the nation existed first, nationalist movements arose for sovereignty, some modernization theories of nationalism see it as a product of government policies to unify and modernize an already existing state. Most theories see the state as a 19th-century European phenomenon, facilitated by developments such as state-mandated education, mass literacy.
However, historians note the early emergence of a relatively unified state and identity in Portugal. In France, Eric Hobsbawm argues, the French state preceded the formation of the French people, Hobsbawm considers that the state made the French nation, not French nationalism, which emerged at the end of the 19th century, the time of the Dreyfus Affair. At the time of the 1789 French Revolution, only half of the French people spoke some French, during the Italian unification, the number of people speaking the Italian language was even lower. The French state promoted the unification of various dialects and languages into the French language, the introduction of conscription and the Third Republics 1880s laws on public instruction, facilitated the creation of a national identity, under this theory. Some nation states, such as Germany and Italy, came into existence at least partly as a result of campaigns by nationalists. In both cases, the territory was divided among other states, some of them very small.
The sense of identity was at first a cultural movement, such as in the Völkisch movement in German-speaking states. In these cases, the nationalist sentiment and the nationalist movement clearly precede the unification of the German and Italian nation states, some authors deconstruct the distinction between ethnic nationalism and civic nationalism because of the ambiguity of the concepts. They argue that the case of Ernest Renan is an idealisation and it should be interpreted within the German tradition. For example, they argue that the used by Renan at the conference What is a nation. Are not consistent with his thinking and this alleged civic conception of the nation would be determined only by the case of the loss gives Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War
Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai is the current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014. An anthropologist by education, he served as finance minister. Before returning to Afghanistan in 2002, President Ghani worked with the World Bank, as the Finance Minister of Afghanistan between July 2002 and December 2004, he led Afghanistans attempted economic recovery after the collapse of the Taliban government. He is the co-founder of the Institute for State Effectiveness, a set up in 2005 to improve the ability of states to serve their citizens. In 2005 he gave a TED talk, in which he discussed how to rebuild a state such as Afghanistan. President Ghani is a member of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, in 2013 he was ranked 50th in an online poll to name the worlds top 100 intellectuals conducted by Foreign Policy magazine and second in a similar poll run by Prospect magazine. Ghani came in fourth in the 2009 presidential election, behind Hamid Karzai, Abdullah Abdullah, in the first round of the 2014 presidential election, Ghani won 32% of the vote, second to Abdullah who secured 45% of the votes cast.
Both candidates went on to contest an election, which was held on 14 June 2014 with Ghani winning 55. 27% of the votes with a lead of a million votes over Abdullah. Ghani was born on 19 May 1949 in the Logar Province of Afghanistan and he belongs to the Ahmadzai Pashtun tribe. He attended the American University in Beirut, where he earned his bachelors degree in 1973 and he met his future wife, while studying there. He initially wanted to study Law at Columbia University but changed his major to Cultural Anthropology and he was invited to teach at University of California, Berkeley in 1983, and at Johns Hopkins University from 1983 to 1991. He has attended the Harvard-INSEAD and World Bank-Stanford Graduate School of Businesss leadership training program and he served on the faculty of Kabul University, Aarhus University in Denmark, University of California and Johns Hopkins University. His academic research was on state-building and social transformation, in 1985, he completed a year of fieldwork researching on Pakistani madrassas as a Fulbright Scholar.
He joined the World Bank in 1991, working on projects in East, after leaving Kabul University, Ghani co-founded the Institute for State Effectiveness with Clare Lockhart, of which he was Chairman. The Institute put forward a framework proposing that the state should perform ten functions in order to serve its citizens and this framework was discussed by leaders and managers of post-conflict transitions at a meeting sponsored by the UN and World Bank in September 2005. Carlos Pascual of the Brookings Institution was quoted, praising Ghanis tremendous intellect, talent and he contributed to the Financial Times, International Herald Tribune, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Ghani was recognized as the best finance minister of Asia in 2003 by Emerging Markets, poverty eradication through wealth creation and the establishment of citizens rights is the heart of Ghanis development approach. The National Solidarity Program covers 13,000 of the countrys estimated 20,000 villages, in January 2009 an article by Ahmad Majidyar of the American Enterprise Institute included Ghani on a list of fifteen possible candidates in the 2009 Afghan presidential election
Politics of Afghanistan
The nation is currently led by President Ashraf Ghani who is backed by two vice presidents, Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish. In the last decade the politics of Afghanistan have been influenced by NATO countries, particularly the United States, in 2004, the nations new constitution was adopted and an executive president was elected. The following year an election to choose parliamentarians took place. Hamid Karzai was declared the first ever democratically elected head of state in Afghanistan in 2004, the National Assembly is Afghanistans national legislature. It is a body, composed of the House of the People. The first legislature was elected in 2005 and the current one in 2010, members of the Supreme Court were appointed by the president to form the judiciary. Together, this new system is to provide a new set of checks, Government operation in Afghanistan historically has consisted of power struggles and unstable transfers of power. The country has been governed by various systems of government, including a monarchy, theocracy, dictatorship,1709 - Mirwais Hotak establishes the Hotaki dynasty at Kandahar and declares Afghanistan an independent state.
1747 - Ahmad Shah Durrani establishes the Durrani Empire and adds to it new territories,1838 - British India invades the land during the First Anglo-Afghan War and begins to influence the politics of Afghanistan. 1919 - King Amanullah Khan takes the throne after the Third Anglo-Afghan War,1973 - Mohammed Daoud Khan, Prime Minister and a member of the royal family, seizes power while King Mohammad Zahir Shah is visiting Italy. 1978 – Daoud Khan and his family are assassinated during the Saur Revolution,1979 – President Nur Muhammad Taraki, leader of PDPA, is assassinated and replaced by Hafizullah Amin. Amin is assassinated and the Soviet Union invades, babrak Karmal is installed as the new president. 1987 - President Mohammad Najibullah replaces Karmal and the country begins to see some stability,1989 – Soviet army withdraws all troops from the country. 1992 – President Najibullah resigns and Kabul falls to mujahideen factions, Burhanuddin Rabbani becomes leader of the new Islamic State of Afghanistan and a civil war starts.
1996 – Mohammed Omar, founder of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is declared Commander of the Faithful at Kandahar,2001 – United States and coalition forces invade Afghanistan. Hamid Karzai becomes leader of the Afghan Interim Administration at the International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany,2003 - Loya Jirga adopts new constitution, restructuring the government as an Islamic republic. 2004 - Hamid Karzai is elected President of Afghanistan,2014 - Ashraf Ghani is elected President of Afghanistan, Abdullah Abdullah becomes the countrys Chief Executive Officer. Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches of power overseen by checks and balances, the country is led by President Ashraf Ghani, who replaced Hamid Karzai in 2014
President of Afghanistan
The President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is the head of state of Afghanistan. Before the office of the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was created in 2004, before 1973, it was a monarchy. Between 1992 and 2001, during the war, the country was recognized as the Islamic State of Afghanistan. A president can serve up to two five-year terms. Hamid Karzai started his first five-year term in 2004, after his second term ended in 2014, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai was chosen as the next president. List of heads of state of Afghanistan Prime Minister of Afghanistan Chief Executive Officer Presidency of Afghanistan - The official website of the Office of the President of Afghanistan
Vice President of Afghanistan
The Vice President of Afghanistan is the second highest political position obtainable in Afghanistan. Vice Presidents are currently elected on the ticket as the President. A Presidential candidate nominates two candidates for Vice President before the election, the current Vice Presidents are Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish. The deputy head of state was the Vice Chairman of the Revolutionary Council between April 1978 and April 1988, Vice presidents were appointed after the new constitution and elections took place. Four vice presidents were appointed by president and approved by the National Assembly, Vice presidents were appointed by the president. After 2004, Vice Presidents are elected on the ticket as the President. Vice Presidents of Afghanistan List of current Vice Presidents
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i. e. constitute, some constitutions are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from states to companies. A treaty which establishes an international organization is its constitution, within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a states rulers cannot cross, the term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. Later, the term was used in canon law for an important determination, especially a decree issued by the Pope. The Latin term ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials.
Ultra vires gives a justification for the forced cessation of such action. A violation of rights by an official would be ultra vires because a right is a restriction on the powers of government, and therefore that official would be exercising powers they do not have. It was never law, even though, if it had been a statute or statutory provision, in such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions for common law writs, excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877 found evidence of the earliest known code of justice, issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca 2300 BC. Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered, for example, it is known that it relieved tax for widows and orphans, and protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by codes of written laws. The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur, some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law.
In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the cruel oral laws of the city-state of Athens, in 594 BC Solon, the ruler of Athens, created the new Solonian Constitution. It eased the burden of the workers, and determined that membership of the class was to be based on wealth. Cleisthenes again reformed the Athenian constitution and set it on a footing in 508 BC. The most basic definition he used to describe a constitution in general terms was the arrangement of the offices in a state
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī, known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī, was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. After the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Within a few years, he extended his control from Khorasan in the west to Kashmir and North India in the east, Durranis mausoleum is located at Kandahar, adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak in the center of the city. Afghans often refer to him as Ahmad Shāh Bābā, Durrani was born in or about 1722 to Mohammad Zaman Khan, chief of the Abdali tribe and Governor of Herat, and Zarghuna Alakozai. There has been debate about Durranis exact place of birth. Most believe that he was born in Herat, Afghanistan and he was born as Ahmed Khan. Abdalis father suffered Persian captivity for years at Kirman before being released from prison in 1715. As a refugee, he made his way to India and joined his kinsmen at Multan, after he raised his family there, he was recognized as the scion of hereditary Sadozai chiefs.
It is believed that Zaman Khan returned to Afghanistan to fight the Persians and his Afghan rivals, so other sources believe that, Abdali was born at Multan in 1722, after which she returned to Afghanistan to reunite with her husband. He lost his father during his infancy, Durranis forefathers were Sadozais but his mother was from the Alakozai tribe. In June 1729, the Abdali forces under Zulfiqar had surrendered to Nader Shah Afshar, they soon began a rebellion and took over Herat as well as Mashad. In July 1730, he defeated Ibrahim Khan, a commander and brother of Nader Shah. This prompted Nader Shah to retake Mashad and intervene in the struggle of Harat. By July 1731, Zulfiqar returned to his capital Farah where he had been serving as the governor since 1726, a year Nadirs brother Ibrahim Khan took control of Farah. During this time Zulfiqar and the young Durrani fled to Kandahar where they took refuge with the Ghiljis and they were made political prisoners by Hussain Hotak, the Ghilji ruler of the Kandahar region.
Nader Shah had been enlisting the Abdalis in his army since around 1729, after conquering Kandahar in 1738, Durrani and his brother Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shahs administration. Zulfiqar was made Governor of Mazandaran while Durrani remained working as Nader Shahs personal attendant, the Ghiljis, who are originally from the territories east of the Kandahar region, were expelled from Kandahar in order to resettle the Abdalis along with some Qizilbash and other Persians. Durrani proved himself in Nader Shahs service and was promoted from an attendant to command the Abdali Regiment
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. He was the son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan. Abdur Rahman Khan re-established the writ of the Afghan government after the disarray that followed the second Anglo-Afghan war and he became known as The Iron Amir after defeating a number of rebellions by various tribes who were led by his relatives. At first, the new Amir was quietly recognized, but after a few months, Afzal Khan raised an insurrection in the north of the country, where he had been governing when his father died. This began a fierce internecine conflict for power between Dost Mohammads sons, which lasted for five years. The Musahiban are descendants of Dost Mohammad Khans older brother, Sultan Mohammad Khan Telai, Abdur Rahman distinguished himself for his ability and energetic daring. Sher Ali threw Afzal Khan into prison, and a serious revolt followed in southern Afghanistan, after some delay and desultory fighting, he and his uncle, Azam Khan, occupied Kabul in March 1866.
Notwithstanding the new Amirs incapacity, and some jealousy between the leaders, Abdur Rahman and his uncle, they again routed Sher Alis forces. When Afzal Khan died at the end of the year, Azam Khan became the new ruler, with Abdur Rahman installed as Governor in the northern province. But towards the end of 1868 Sher Alis return, and a rising in his favour, resulted in Abdur Rahman. Both sought refuge to the east in Central Asia, whence Abdur Rahman placed himself under Russian protection at Samarkand, Azam died eventually in Kabul in October 1869. Abdur Rahman lived in exile in Tashkent, the governor-general of Tashkent sent for Abdur Rahman and motivated him by bringing up the blessing of Jacob, Abdurs patriarch. He was being told to cross the Oxus and claim throne for Amir, after some negotiations, and an interview with Lepel Griffin, the diplomatic representative at Kabul of the Indian government. Griffin described Abdur Rahman as a man of middle height, with an exceedingly intelligent face and frank and courteous manners, the British evacuation of Afghanistan was settled on the terms proposed, and in 1881, the British troops handed over Kandahar to the new Amir.
However, Ayub Khan, one of Sher Ali Khans sons, marched upon that city from Herat, defeated Abdur Rahmans troops and this serious reverse roused the Amir, who had not at first displayed much activity. He led a force from Kabul, met Ayubs army close to Kandahar, the powerful Ghilzai tribe revolted against the severity of his measures several times. In that same year, Ayub Khan made a fruitless inroad from Persia, Abdur Rahmans attitude at this critical juncture is a good example of his political sagacity. He published his autobiography in 1885, which served more as a guide for princes than anything else