Visa policy of Chile
Visitors to Chile must obtain a visa from one of the Chilean diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. Chile maintains a reciprocal visa policy with other countries. Holders of passports of the following 93 jurisdictions can visit Chile without a visa for up to 90 days: ID - May enter with an ID card. 1 - For a stay of up to 30 days. Citizens of Australia can visit Chile without a visa for up to 90 days. Citizens of China can apply for a no-fee tourist or business visa, or visit Chile without a visa for up to 90 days, if they are in possession of any types of entry visa issued by Canada or the United States with a validity of more than six months:Consulted visa process is not required for citizens of Belarus, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Laos, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.
Holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Bangladesh, Botswana, Dominica, Dominican Republic, India, Morocco, Sri Lanka, Tunisia and Vietnam do not require a visa. Holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Fiji, Mauritius, North Macedonia, Saint Lucia, San Marino, South Africa and Tobago and United States require a visa. Agreement with Bolivia was denounced on 4 August 2016 and not applied from 4 February 2017. Chile signed visa waiver agreements for holders of diplomatic and official passports with the following countries which are yet to come into force: Armenia in April 2018, Azerbaijan in September 2018, Kyrgyzstan in November 2016 Holders of passports issued by the following countries who possess an APEC Business Travel Card containing the "CHL" code on the reverse that it is valid for travel to Chile can enter visa-free for business trips for up to 90 days. ABTCs are issued to nationals of: If a holder of a tourist visa wishes to extend their Visa, they can do so at Chile's Extranjería Department and there is a charge of $100 USD.
Another way of extending your tourist visa is to come back in. This can only be done twice in succession. There is no fee to do so. Most visitors arriving to Chile were from the following countries of nationality: Visa requirements for Chilean citizens
2017 Chilean general election
General elections in Chile were held on Sunday November 19, 2017, including presidential and regional elections. Voters went to the polls to elect: A President of the Republic to serve a four-year term. Twenty three of 43 members of the Senate to serve an eight-year term in the National Congress; the full 155 members of the Chamber of Deputies to serve a four-year term in the National Congress. The full 278 members of the regional boards to serve a four-year term. In the presidential election, opposition candidate and former president Sebastián Piñera took a lower than expected 36% of the vote—though nearly 14 points ahead of his closest contender, senator Alejandro Guillier, backed by the sitting administration. In the runoff election, held on December 17, 2017, Piñera beat the lawmaker with a surprising landslide victory taking 54% of the vote, with turnout two points higher than in the first round. In the parliamentary elections, the Chile Vamos coalition won 46% of the Chamber of Deputies and 44% of the Senate, while the governing New Majority alliance, competing without the Christian Democrats for the first time in 28 years, lost its majority in both chambers, taking just 28% and 35% in the lower and upper chambers, respectively.
The fledgling leftist bloc Broad Front gained one senator. The Christian Democratic Party secured 14 % of the Senate. Following an election reform in 2015, the Chamber of Deputies grew in size to 155 members from the previous 120, while the Senate increased its membership from 38 to 43 after this election, will grow to 50 following the election in 2021. Multi-seat constituencies were reestablished, replacing the previous binomial system of two-seat per district, installed by the outgoing Pinochet dictatorship in 1989 in order to secure a conservative minority block with an Open list proportional representation system. For the first time, a 40% gender quota was put in place for candidates of each political party in parliamentary elections. All the newly elected authorities began their terms on March 11, 2018; this was the first non-primary election. According to the Constitution, primaries are voluntary. Two political coalitions decided to participate: Former president Sebastián Piñera won the Chile Vamos primary with 58% of the vote, while radio and television journalist Beatriz Sánchez became the Broad Front nominee with nearly 68%.
These candidates registered their candidacies before the national election authority, either directly, or via a primary election victory. All candidacies were accepted by the Servel on September 1, 2017 and were registered on September 12, 2017, after no legal challenges were raised. Carola Canelo: The lawyer and academic announced on November 16, 2016 her intention to run for president. On August 21, 2017 —the deadline to register candidacies— the press reported that her official website stated that she had only gathered 6,257 out of the 33,493 signatures needed to register an independent candidacy. Tomás Jocelyn-Holt: The 2013 candidate announced on June 7, 2017, during a television interview, that he was willing to run again as president, representing The Other Chile coalition. However, on August 15, 2017 he said he had failed to gather the required number of signatures to register as an independent candidate though he vowed to run in 2022. Nicolás Larraín: On December 12, 2016, the television host announced his presidential candidacy.
In June 19, 2017 he announced he was quitting his candidacy and giving his support to Chile Vamos primary candidate for Evópoli Felipe Kast. Franco Parisi: The former presidential candidate stated on January 17, 2017 he was mulling over the possibility of running again in 2017 after the Regional Democracy party said it would support him. In August 4, 2017, he put an end to his presidential candidacy, opting instead to compete for a seat in the Senate. Luis Riveros: The former rector of the University of Chile said on October 28, 2016 he was willing to run for President. On April 7, 2017, La Tercera daily announced. A Includes electors registered to vote from abroad.b Excludes votes from abroad.c Excludes votes from abroad. Revised provisional results. Revised provisional results. Revised provisional results. Elections in Chile
Chilean Constitution of 1925
The Constitution of 1925 was the constitution in force in Chile between 1925 and 1973 when the Government Junta suspended it. In the 1920s Chile had a severe social and economic crisis that led to the loss of prestige for old ruling class, labeled oligarchy in Chilean historiography, the rise of a more sensibilized populist government led by Arturo Alessandri. In 1924 Alessandri was called back in 1925 to complete his mandate. Alessandri used his presidency to draft a new constitution to replace the Constitution of 1833; the constitution was approved by plebiscite by 134,421 voters on August 30 of 1925. Prominent features of the constitution were: Separation of the church from the state; this was the fulfillment of an old goal among many liberals in Chile. This issue had caused a series of controversies in the 19th century. Legislative initiative powers to the president. Created an electoral tribunal; this reform increased the democratization of elections that were still manipulated in large parts of the country.
1943: Creation of Comptroller General of Chile. 1963: Authorization of the Agrarian Land Reform. 1970: Creation of Constitutional Court. 1970: Democratic Guarantee Statute, to ensure better democratic freedoms. 1971: Expropriation of Great Mining Copper Industry
1980 Chilean constitutional referendum
A constitutional referendum was held in Chile on 11 September 1980. The proposed new constitution would replace the 1925 constitution, was approved by over two-thirds of voters; the new constitution ensured that Augusto Pinochet could remain as President of the Republic for a further eight years with increased powers, after which he would face a re-election referendum. Further reforms, beginning in 1989 and most in 2005, have attempted to make the constitution more democratic. In the election, Chileans older than 18 years of age, as well as foreigners with legal residence in Chile older than 18 years of age who could prove their proper immigration status, were allowed to vote. Participation was obligatory except for those who were physically or mentally impaired or imprisoned. To vote, the only document required was a certificate of identity issued by the Civil and Identification Registry Service. No electoral roll was prepared for the referendum; the proposed new constitution gave the position of President of the Republic significant powers.
It created some new institutions, such as the Constitutional Tribunal and the controversial National Security Council. In its temporary dispositions, the document ordered the transition from the former military government, with Augusto Pinochet as President of the Republic, the Legislative Power of the Government Junta, to a civil one, with a time frame of eight years, during which the legislative power would still be the Military Junta, it set the first eight-year presidential term for Pinochet, with a referendum in the eighth year, in which only one candidate, nominated by the Junta, would be up for acceptance. The candidate, as expected, was Pinochet himself. While the steps to follow in the case of a triumph of the "yes" option, which the document anticipated, were delineated, the steps for the "no" triumph were less clear but still clear enough that no serious doubt emerged when the "no" option was victorious in the 1988 plebiscite; some of the 1980 constitution's original dispositions, such as the presidential power of dissolving the Chamber of Deputies and serving eight-year terms with possibility of re-election, were modified or eliminated after 1990, when the country regained its democracy and the Congress was re-established.
The results supplied by the Colegio Escrutador Nacional were. The results of the referendum approved the Constitution of 1980. However, the given results were objected to by the political opposition, headed by the ex-senator Patricio Aylwin and more than 46 others, arguing that this result did not tally with electoral records. One objection was that voters were only marked by ink on the thumb, which came off making electoral fraud easy; these criticisms were rejected by the Scrutiny Association, the Constitution was promulgated on 21 October 1980. The new constitution took effect on 11 March 1981. On this date a transition period of eight years began, during which General Pinochet, acting as President of the Republic and the Military Regime, exercised constituent and legislative power. Nazer A. Ricardo. Jaime. "Electores, sufragio y democracia en Chile: una mirada histórica". Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Silva Bascuñán, Alejandro. Tratado de Derecho Constitucional. Tomo III: La Constitución de 1980.
Antecedentes y génesis. Santiago de Chile: Ed. Jurídica de Chile. ISBN 956-10-1178-6. Decree 3465 of August 8, 1980, Interior Ministry of Chile. Brief review of Chile's constitutional history - Chile's Library of Congress Official translation of the original 1980 Constitution Text of Chilean constitutions - Library of Congress of Chile
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general and dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981. Pinochet assumed power in Chile following a United States-backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973 that overthrew the democratically elected socialist Unidad Popular government of President Salvador Allende and ended civilian rule. Several academics – including Peter Winn, Peter Kornbluh and Tim Weiner – have stated that the support of the United States was crucial to the coup and the consolidation of power afterward. Pinochet had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army by Allende on 23 August 1973, having been its General Chief of Staff since early 1972. In December 1974, the ruling military junta appointed Pinochet Supreme Head of the nation by joint decree, although without the support of one of the coup's instigators, Air Force General Gustavo Leigh.
Following his rise to power, Pinochet persecuted leftists and political critics, resulting in the executions of from 1,200 to 3,200 people, the internment of as many as 80,000 people and the torture of tens of thousands. According to the Chilean government, the number of executions and forced disappearances was 3,095. Under the influence of the free market-oriented "Chicago Boys", Pinochet's military government implemented economic liberalization, including currency stabilization, removed tariff protections for local industry, banned trade unions and privatized social security and hundreds of state-owned enterprises; these policies produced high economic growth, but critics state that economic inequality increased and attribute the devastating effects of the 1982 monetary crisis on the Chilean economy to these policies. For most of the 1990s, Chile was the best-performing economy in Latin America, though the legacy of Pinochet's reforms continues to be in dispute, his fortune grew during his years in power through dozens of bank accounts secretly held abroad and a fortune in real estate.
He was prosecuted for embezzlement, tax fraud and for possible commissions levied on arms deals. Pinochet's 17-year rule was given a legal framework through a controversial 1980 plebiscite, which approved a new constitution drafted by a government-appointed commission. In a 1988 plebiscite, 56% voted against Pinochet's continuing as President, which led to democratic elections for the presidency and Congress. After stepping down in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 10 March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. However, Pinochet was arrested under an international arrest warrant on a visit to London on 10 October 1998 in connection with numerous human rights violations. Following a legal battle, he was released on grounds of ill-health and returned to Chile on 3 March 2000. In 2004, Chilean Judge Juan Guzmán Tapia ruled that Pinochet was medically fit to stand trial and placed him under house arrest.
By the time of his death on 10 December 2006, about 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year rule and tax evasion and embezzlement during and after his rule. He was accused of having corruptly amassed at least 28 million USD. Pinochet was born in Valparaíso, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera, a descendant of an 18th-century French Breton immigrant from Lamballe, Avelina Ugarte Martínez, a woman whose family had been in Chile since the 17th century and was of partial Basque descent. Pinochet went to primary and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Valparaíso, the Rafael Ariztía Institute in Quillota, the French Fathers' School of Valparaíso, to the Military School in Santiago, which he entered in 1931. In 1935, after four years studying military geography he graduated with the rank of alférez in the infantry. In September 1937, Pinochet was assigned in Concepción. Two years in 1939 with the rank of Sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso.
He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On 30 January 1943, Pinochet married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie, Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio. By late 1945, Pinochet had been assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. Three years he entered the Chilean War Academy but had to postpone his studies because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota; the following year he returned to his studies in the Academy, after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes, he was the editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas. At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the Chilean War Academy, returned to Santiago to take up his new position.
In 1956, Pinochet and a group of young officers were chosen to form a military mission to collaborate in the organization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito. He remained with the Quito mission for four-and-a-half years, during which time he studied geopolitics, military geography and military intelligence. At the end of 1959 he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the 1st Army Division, based in Antofa
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Chile)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, coordinating, executing and informing the foreign policy formulated by the President of Chile. It is located in the "José Miguel Carrera" building at Plaza de la Constitución, in downtown Santiago; the present Minister of Foreign Affairs is Roberto Ampuero. The office was first organized in 1812, during the War of Independence, under the name of Foreign Affairs Secretariat, it was abolished in 1814, after the Battle of Rancagua, when the Spanish government was re-established. In 1818, after independence, the secretariat was re-established, but this time as a dependency of the Ministry of the Interior, which at that time was named "Ministry of Government and Foreign Affairs" or "Ministry of the Interior and Foreign Affairs". In 1871 is established as a separate government entity. Since its current creation in 1871, it has undergone different reorganizations, reflected in its different names: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Colonization 1871-1887 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship 1887-1896 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Colonization 1896-1924 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1924-1929, again since 1941 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Commerce 1930-1941 Foreign relations of Chile List of diplomatic missions in Chile List of diplomatic missions of Chile República de Chile.
"VI. Poder Ejecutivo - Nómina de Gobernantes, Presidentes y Ministros desde la Independencia.". Manual del Senado. 1810-1942. Santiago de Chile: Imprenta Universitaria. Valencia Avaria, Luis. Anales de la República: textos constitucionales de Chile y registro de los ciudadanos que han integrado los poderes ejecutivo y legislativo desde 1810. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello. Official list of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Chile with appointment dates Official Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile
Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile. According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators, chosen by universal popular suffrage vote in 19 senatorial circumscriptions; these serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed secondary school, or its equivalent, be at least 35 years old; the Senate sessions at the new National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago, the nation's capital. Amendments to the Constitution, approved by a joint session of Congress on August 16, 2005, eliminated non-directly elected senators from March 11, 2006, the day 20 newly elected senators were sworn in, leaving the total number of senators at 38, all directly elected. According to the Constitution of 1980, "designated" or "institutional" senators were appointed to the chamber.
Two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet resigned from this position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat; the Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta. Since it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its constitutional powers, its composition and the generation of its members. Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812, it was composed of seven titular members and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were directly nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government, it functioned from November, 1812 to January, 1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the successive military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army.
Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814. As its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director, it functioned from March to July, 1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, putting an end to the Patria Vieja government. Created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818, it was composed of five titular members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director. It was supposed to function only when the lower house was not in function or could not meet, had the power to enact "provisory rules" that had the same effect as laws It functioned from October, 1818 to May, 1822. Key to Senate classes by regions: Class 1 consists of:-the 23 current senators whose seats expire in March 2026. Class 2 consists of:-the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022. Plus 7 new senators, who will be elected in 2022 President of the Senate of Chile National Congress of Chile Chamber of Deputies of Chile Politics of Chile List of legislatures by country Senate of Chile Official web site Article from the Economist dealing with the Senate composition