History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The region, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo was first settled about 80,000 years ago. The Kingdom of Congo remained present in the region between the early 19th centuries. Belgian colonization began when King Leopold II founded the Congo Free State, a corporate state run by King Leopold. Reports of widespread murder and torture in the rubber plantations led the Belgian government to seize the Congo from Leopold II and establish the Belgian Congo. Under Belgian rule numerous Christian organizations attempted to Westernize the Congolese people. After an uprising by the Congolese people, Belgium surrendered to the independence of the Congo in 1960. However, the Congo remained unstable because tribal leaders had more power than the central government. Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba tried to restore order with the aid of the Soviet Union as part of the Cold War, causing the United States to support a coup led by Colonel Joseph Mobutu in 1965. Mobutu seized complete power of the Congo and renamed the country Zaire.
He sought to Africanize the country, changing his own name to Mobutu Sese Seko, demanded that African citizens change their Western names to traditional African names. Mobutu sought to repress any opposition to his rule, which he did throughout the 1980s. However, with his regime weakened in the 1990s, Mobutu was forced to agree to a power-sharing government with the opposition party. Mobutu remained the head of state and promised elections within the next two years that never took place. In the First Congo War, Rwanda invaded Zaire. Laurent-Desire Kabila renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After a disappointing rule under Kabila, the Second Congo War broke out, resulting in a regional war in which different African nations took part. Kabila was assassinated by his bodyguard in 2001, his son, succeeded him and was elected president by the Congolese government in 2006. Kabila sought peace. Foreign soldiers remained in the Congo for a few years and a power-sharing government between Kabila and the opposition party was set up.
Kabila resumed complete control over the Congo and was re-elected in a disputed election in 2011. Today, the Congo remains dangerously unstable; the area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 80,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons found, believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish. During its recorded history, the area has been known as Congo, Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Zaire; the Kingdom of Kongo existed from the 14th to the early 19th century. Until the arrival of the Portuguese it was the dominant force in the region along with the Kingdom of Luba, the Kingdom of Lunda, the Mongo people and the Anziku Kingdom; the Congo Free State was a corporate state controlled by Leopold II of Belgium through the Association internationale africaine, a non-governmental organization. Leopold was chairman; the state included the entire area of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Under Leopold II, the Congo Free State became one of the most infamous international scandals of the turn of the twentieth century. The report of the British Consul Roger Casement led to the arrest and punishment of white officials, responsible for cold-blooded killings during a rubber-collecting expedition in 1900, including a Belgian national who caused the shooting of at least 122 Congolese natives. Estimates of the total death toll vary considerably; the first census was only done in 1924, so it is more difficult to quantify the population loss of the period. Roger Casement's famous 1904 report estimated ten million people. According to Casement's report, indiscriminate "war", reduction of births and tropical diseases caused the country's depopulation. European and U. S. press agencies exposed the conditions in the Congo Free State to the public in 1900. By 1908 public and diplomatic pressure had led Leopold II to annex the Congo as the Belgian Congo colony. On 15 November 1908 King Leopold II of Belgium formally relinquished personal control of the Congo Free State.
The renamed Belgian Congo was put under the direct administration of the Belgian government and its Ministry of Colonies. Belgian rule in the Congo was based around the "colonial trinity" of state and private company interests; the privileging of Belgian commercial interests meant that large amounts of capital flowed into the Congo and that individual regions became specialised. The interests of the government and private enterprise became tied; the country was split into nesting, hierarchically organised administrative subdivisions, run uniformly according to a set "native policy" —in contrast to the British and the French, who favoured the system of indirect rule whereby traditional leaders were retained in positions of authority under colonial oversight. There was a high degree of racial segregation. Large numbers of white immigrants who moved to the Congo after the end of World War II came from across the social spectrum, but were nonetheless always treated as superior to blacks. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Congo experienced an unprecedented level of urbanisation and the colonial administration began various development programmes aimed at making the territory into a "model colony".
Notable advances were made in treating diseases such as African trypanosomiasis. One of the results of these measures was the development of a new middle class of Europe
2011 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election
Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in Democratic Republic of the Congo on 28 November 2011. The government passed laws to abolish the second round of the presidential election and tried to change the legislative electoral system from proportional to majority representation, criticized by the opposition. International organizations such as the United Nations and the European Union raised concerns about the transparency of the elections. On 8 November 2011 opposition leader Étienne Tshisekedi declared himself president saying the majority of people turned against President Kabila. On 28 November 2011 elections were held under difficult conditions. Voting was characterized by incidents of violence throughout the country; because of violence and delays in the delivery of ballot boxes elections were extended by a second day. Jean Andeka Adam Bombolé Joseph Kabila François Nicéphore Kakese Vital Kamerhe Oscar Kashala Léon Kengo Antipas Mbusa Nzanga Mobutu Josué Alex Mukendi Étienne Tshisekedi DR Congo's National Independent Electoral Commission has registered 32 million voters for the November elections.
First results released on 2 December 2011, with 15% of the vote counted, gave Kabila only a narrow lead of 940,000 votes against 912,000 votes for UPDS leader Tshisekedi. With half the precincts counted, President Joseph Kabila was leading with 4.9 million votes, or nearly 49%. His opponent Etienne Tshisekedi was trailing with 3.4 million votes, about 34%. However, this count did not include much of Kinshasa, where Tshisekedi was expected to have strong results. Kabila ceased all email and SMS services nationwide, it is said that over 5,000,000 of pre ticked ballot papers for the number 3 candidate, However no formal actions were taken by the CENI, which led to the population to act as they burned pre ticked ballot papers that were found. The announcement of final results was postponed to 8 December 2011; the Independent National Electoral Commission declared Kabila as the winner on December 9. The result was put into question by the Carter Center as well as the archbishop of Kinshasa, Cardinal Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya, claiming too many irregularities occurred to assure that the results reflected the will of the people.
The Carter Center indicated that ballots had been missing in some areas while in others Kabila achieved unrealistic results. Observers from the Carter Center noted that in some districts voter participation was reported to be 100 percent, a most unlikely possibility. MONUSCO, the peacekeeping mission of the United Nations voiced concern about the results. While Kabila admitted that some mistakes had been made in the process, he rejected concerns about the outcome; the result was confirmed by the Supreme Court of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Jerome Kitoko, President of the Supreme Court, announcing the official results proclaimed Kabila to be the winner of the Presidential election. In the parliamentary election, with 432 of 500 seats declared, Kabila's People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy had 58 seats and Tshisekedi's Union for Democracy and Social Progress 34 seats. Allies of the PPRD gained 106 seats, with other new parties known to support Kabila, he will have 200 seats supporting him.
100 parties are expected to be represented in the parliament. Most of the undeclared seats are in Kinshasa and are to go to the opposition; the rebels in the 2012 East D. R. Congo conflict must resign. Democratic Republic of the Congo general election, 2006
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo known as DR Congo, the DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes anachronistically referred to by its former name of Zaire, its official name between 1971 and 1997, it is, by area, the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated Francophone country, the fourth-most-populated country in Africa, the 16th-most-populated country in the world. Eastern DR Congo is the scene of ongoing military conflict in Kivu, since 2015. Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90,000 years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber, from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became the Belgian Congo; the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo. Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory; the provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, South Kasai attempted to secede.
After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis, the U. S. and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko came into power through a coup d'état. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire; the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. On 17 May 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President after Mobutu fled to Morocco, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days as President by his son Joseph; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. In 2016, DR Congo's level of human development was ranked 176th out of 187 countries by the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, around 600,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries from conflicts in the centre and east of the DRC. Two million children risk starvation, the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, COMESA; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River, which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's second largest river by discharge; the Comité d'études du haut Congo, established by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1876, the International Association of the Congo, established by him in 1879, were named after the river. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people, when they encountered them in the 16th century; the word Kongo comes from the Kongo language. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson "It is probable that the word'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga,'to gather'."
The modern name of the Kongo people, Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, the Repub
Constitution of Belgium
The Constitution of Belgium dates back to 1831. Since Belgium has been a parliamentary monarchy that applies the principles of ministerial responsibility for the government policy and the Trias Politica; the Constitution established Belgium as a centralised unitary state. However, since 1970, through successive state reforms, Belgium has evolved into a federal state; the last radical change of the constitution was carried out in 1993 after which it was published in a renewed version in the Belgian Official Journal. One of the most important changes was the introduction of the Court of Arbitration whose competencies were expanded by a special law of 2003, to include Title II, the Articles 170, 172 and 191 of the Constitution; the Court therefore developed into a constitutional court and in May 2007 it was formally redesignated Constitutional Court. This court has the authority to examine whether a law or a decree is in compliance with Title II and Articles 170, 172 and 191. In 1831 Belgium was a unitary state organised at three levels: the national level and municipalities.
State reform in Belgium added a devolved level to the existing structure. Since 1993, the first article of the Constitution stipulates that Belgium is a federal state composed of Communities and Regions; this means that there are two types of devolved entities at the same level, with neither taking precedence over the other. Article 2 divides Belgium into three communities: the Flemish Community, the French Community and the German-speaking Community, whereas Article 3 divides Belgium into three regions: the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region and the Brussels Region. Article 4 divides Belgium into four language areas: The Dutch language area, the French language area, the bilingual area of Brussels-Capital and the German language area; each municipality of the Kingdom is part of one of these four language areas only. The borders of the language areas can be changed or corrected only by a law supported by specific majorities of each language group of each Chamber. Article 5 divides the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region into five provinces each and foresees possible future provincial redivisions of the Belgian territory.
Article 6 determines. The borders of the State and municipalities can be changed or corrected only by Law. In 2007, a Title 1bis was inserted in the Belgian Constitution, titled "General policy objectives of the federal Belgium, the communities and the regions", which to date comprises only one article: Article 7bis; this article states the following: "In the exercise of their respective competences, the federal State, the communities and the regions shall strive for the objectives of a sustainable development in its social and environmental dimensions, taking into account the solidarity between the generations." The act inserting this article was published in the Belgian Official Journal on 26 April 2007. Title II of the Belgian Constitution is titled their rights. In this title a number of rights and freedoms are enumerated. Although the Constitution speaks of the rights of the Belgians, in principle they apply to all persons on Belgian soil. In addition to the rights enumerated in Title II of the Constitution, the Belgians enjoy the rights enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights.
Articles 8 and 9 determine. Article 8 stipulates that the law can grant the right to vote in elections to citizens of the European Union who don't have the Belgian nationality, in accordance with Belgium's international and supranational obligations, to non-EU citizens. Article 9 stipulates that naturalisation can only be granted by the federal legislative power, Article 74 of the Constitution stipulates that only the Chamber of Representatives, not the Senate, can grant naturalisation. Article 10 determines. Article 11 determines that all freedoms must be guaranteed without discrimination. Article 12 guarantees the liberty of the person and stipulates that no one can be prosecuted except in the cases determined by the law and in accordance with the procedures established by law. Article 13 determines. Article 14 guarantees the application of the principle of nulla poena sine lege. There is an Article 14bis, inserted in the Belgian Constitution in 2005, that states as follows: "The death penalty is abolished".
Articles 15 of the Constitution guard against unreasonable searches. It determines that the domicile is inviolable and that searches can only take place in the cases and the manner the law prescribes. Article 16 stipulates that no one can be deprived of his or her property except when it's in the public interest, in the cases and the manner the law prescribes, that fair and prior compensation must be made. Article 17 of the Constitution stipulates that the penalty of forfeiture of assets cannot be instituted. Article 18 further stipulates that the penalty of civil death is abolished, that it cannot be brought back into force. Civil death was a penalty in Belgium in the Ancien Régime. Articles 19 to 21 guarantee the freedom of religion. Article 19 protects the right to exercise it publicly, it guarantees the freedom of speech by stipulating that everyone has the right to express his or her opinion freely. However, Article 19 determines that abuses of these freedoms can be punished, a principle, controversially applied in the Belgian Holocaust denial law, which made it an offence to publicly "deny, justify or approve of the genocide committed by the German N
Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965 to 1997. He served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity in 1967–1968. During the Congo Crisis, serving as Chief of Staff of the Army and supported by Belgium and the United States, deposed the nationalist democratically elected government of Patrice Lumumba in 1960. Mobutu installed a government that arranged for Lumumba's execution in 1961. Mobutu continued to lead the country's armed forces until he took power directly in a second coup in 1965; as part of his program of "national authenticity", he changed the Congo's name to Zaire in 1971, his own name to Mobutu Sese Seko in 1972. Mobutu developed a totalitarian regime, amassed vast personal wealth, attempted to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence. At the same time, he was given considerable support by the West and China, owing to his strong anti-Soviet stance, he was the object of a pervasive cult of personality.
During his reign, Mobutu amassed a large personal fortune through economic exploitation and corruption, leading some to call his rule a "kleptocracy". The nation suffered from uncontrolled inflation, a large debt, massive currency devaluations. By 1991, economic deterioration and unrest led him to agree to share power with opposition leaders, but he used the army to thwart change until May 1997, when rebel forces led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila expelled him from the country. Suffering from advanced prostate cancer, he died three months in Morocco. Marshal Mobutu became notorious for corruption and the embezzlement of between US$4 billion and $15 billion during his reign, he was known for extravagances such as shopping trips to Paris via the supersonic and expensive Concorde. He presided over the country for more than three decades, a period of widespread human rights violations. Mobutu, a member of the Ngbandi ethnic group, was born in 1930 in Lisala, Belgian Congo. Mobutu's mother, Marie Madeleine Yemo, was a hotel maid who fled to Lisala to escape the harem of a local village chief.
There she married Albéric Gbemani, a cook for a Belgian judge. Shortly afterward she gave birth to Mobutu; the name "Mobutu" was selected by an uncle. Gbemani died. Thereafter he was raised by a grandfather; the wife of the Belgian judge took a liking to Mobutu and taught him to speak and write fluently in the French language. Yemo relied on the help of relatives to support her four children, the family moved often. Mobutu's earliest education took place in Léopoldville, but his mother sent him to an uncle in Coquilhatville, where he attended the Christian Brothers School, a Catholic-mission boarding school. A physically imposing figure, Mobutu dominated school sports, he excelled in academic subjects and ran the class newspaper. He was known for his impish sense of humor. A classmate recalled that when the Belgian priests, whose first language was Dutch, made an error in French, Mobutu would leap to his feet in class and point out the mistake. Mobutu stowed away aboard a boat to Léopoldville in 1949.
The priests found him several weeks later. At the end of the school year, in lieu of being sent to prison, he was ordered to serve seven years in the colonial army, the Force Publique; this was the usual punishment for rebellious students. Mobutu found discipline in army life, as well as a father figure in Sergeant Louis Bobozo. Mobutu kept up his studies by borrowing European newspapers from the Belgian officers and books from wherever he could find them, reading them on sentry duty and whenever he had a spare moment, his favourites were the writings of French president Charles de Gaulle, British prime minister Winston Churchill, Italian Renaissance philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli. After passing a course in accounting, Mobutu began to dabble professionally in journalism. Still angry after his clashes with the school priests, he did not marry in a church, his contribution to the wedding festivities was a crate of beer, all his army salary could afford. As a soldier, Mobutu wrote pseudonymously on contemporary politics for Actualités Africaines, a magazine set up by a Belgian colonial.
In 1956, he quit the army and became a full-time journalist, writing for the Léopoldville daily L'Avenir. Two years he went to Belgium to cover the 1958 World Exposition and stayed to receive training in journalism. By this time, Mobutu had met many of the young Congolese intellectuals who were challenging colonial rule, he joined Lumumba's Mouvement National Congolais. Mobutu became Lumumba's personal aide. Several contemporaries indicate that Belgian intelligence had recruited Mobutu to be an informer to the government. During the 1960 talks in Brussels on Congolese independence, the US embassy held a reception for the Congolese delegation. Embassy staff were each assigned a list of delegation members to meet, discussed their impressions afterward; the ambassador noted, "One name kept coming up. But it wasn't on anyone's list because he wasn't an official delegation member, he was Lumumba's secretary, but everyone agreed that this was an intelligent man young immature, but a man with great potential."Following the general election, Lumumba was tasked with creating a government.
He gave Mobutu the office of Secretary of State to the Presidency. Mobutu held much influence in the final determination of the rest of the government. On 5 July soldiers of the Force Publique stationed at Camp Léopold II in Léopoldville, dissatisfied with their all-white lea
Belgian Congo in World War II
The involvement of the Belgian Congo in World War II began with the German invasion of Belgium in May 1940. Despite Belgium's surrender, the Congo remained in the conflict on the Allied side, administered by the Belgian government in exile, provided much-needed raw materials, most notably gold and uranium, to Britain and the United States. Congolese troops of the Force Publique fought alongside British forces in the East African Campaign, a Congolese medical unit served in Madagascar and in the Burma Campaign. Congolese formations acted as garrisons in Egypt and Palestine; the increasing demands placed on the Congolese population by the colonial authorities during the war, provoked strikes and other forms of resistance from the indigenous Congolese. These were repressed violently, by the Belgian colonial authorities; the Congo's comparative prosperity during the conflict led to a wave of post-war immigration from Belgium, bringing the white population to 100,000 by 1950, as well as a period of industrialisation that continued throughout the 1950s.
The role played by Congolese uranium during the hostilities caused the country to be of interest to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Following World War I, Belgium possessed two colonies in Africa—the Belgian Congo, which it had controlled since its annexation of the Congo Free State in 1908, Ruanda-Urundi, a former German colony, mandated to Belgium in 1924 by the League of Nations; the Belgian colonial military numbered 18,000 soldiers, making it one of the largest standing colonial armies in Africa at the time. The Congo underwent an economic boom in the 1920s and mines and transportation networks were developed; the Great Depression led to a collapse of commodity prices, undermining the colony's export-based economy and leading to a large reduction in income and employment. The only industry that expanded during the time period was centered around cotton production; the Belgian government followed a policy of neutrality during the interwar years. Nazi Germany invaded on 10 May 1940 and, after 18 days of fighting, Belgium surrendered on 28 May and was occupied by German forces.
King Leopold III, who had surrendered to the Germans, was kept a prisoner for the rest of the war. Just before the fall of Belgium, its government, including the Minister of the Colonies Albert de Vleeschauwer, fled first to Bordeaux in France to London, where it formed an official Belgian government in exile in October 1940; the Governor-General of the Congo, Pierre Ryckmans, decided on the day of the Belgian Army's surrender that the colony would remain loyal to the Allies, in stark contrast to the French colonies that pledged allegiance to the pro-German Vichy government. The Congo was therefore administered from London by the Belgian government in exile during the war. Despite this assurance, disruption broke out in the city of Stanleyville among the white population panicking about the future of the colony and the threat of an Italian invasion. Soon after the arrival of the Belgian government in exile in London, negotiations began between the Belgians and the British about the role which the Congo would play in the Allied war effort.
The British were determined that the Congo should not fall into Axis hands, planned to invade and occupy the colony if the Belgians did not come to an arrangement. This was because, after the fall of Dutch and British colonies in the Far East to Japan, the Allies were desperate for raw materials like rubber which the Congo could produce in abundance; the two parties came to an arrangement in which all the British demands were accepted, including a 30 percent devaluation of the Congolese franc. With the official agreement and the Congolese declaration of support for the Allies, the economy of the Congo and in particular its production of important raw materials, was placed at the disposal of Belgium's Allies Britain and the United States; the Congo had become centralised economically during the Great Depression of the 1930s, as the Belgian government encouraged the production there of cotton, which had value on the international market. The greatest economic demands on the Congo were related to raw materials.
Between 1938 and 1944, the number of workers employed in the mines of the Union Minière du Haut Katanga rose from 25,000 to 49,000 to cope with the increased demand. In order to increase production for the war effort, the colonial authorities increased the hours and the speed at which workers, both European and African, were expected to work; this led to increasing labour unrest across the colony. Discontent among the white population was increased by the raising of a 40 percent "war tax". High taxes and price controls were enforced from 1941, limiting the amount of profit that could be made and curbing profiteering; the vast majority of the Congolese-produced raw resources were exported to other Allied countries. By 1942, the entire colony's output of copper, palm oil and industrial diamonds were being exported to the United Kingdom, while all the colony's lumber was sent to South Africa. Exports to the United States rose from $600,000 in early 1940 to $2,700,000 by 1942. Tax revenue from the Belgian Congo enabled the Belgian government in exile and Free Belgian Forces to fund themselves, unlike most other states in exile, which operated through subsidies and donations from sympathetic governments.
It meant that the Belgian gold reserves, moved to London in 1940, were not needed to fund the war effort, therefore were still available at the end of the war. The Congo possessed major uranium deposits and was one of the few sources of the mat
Joseph Kabila Kabange is a Congolese politician who served as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between January 2001 and January 2019. He took office ten days after the assassination of President Laurent-Désiré Kabila, he was re-elected in 2011 for a second term. Since stepping down after the 2018 election, Kabila, as a former president, will be a senator for life, according to the Constitution of the DRC. Kabila's term was due to expire on 20 December 2016 per the constitution, adopted in 2006. Officials suggested that elections would be held in November 2016. However, on 29 September 2016, the nation's electoral authority announced that the election would not be held until early 2018. Talk has focused on the need for a census before holding elections. In August 2018, Kabila announced that he would step down and not seek reelection in the December 2018 general election. Since coming to power, Joseph Kabila has faced continuous wars in eastern Congo and internal rebel forces supported by neighboring governments of Uganda and Rwanda.
Joseph Kabila Kabange and his twin sister Jaynet Kabila were born on 4 June 1971. According to official accounts, the twins were born at Hewabora, a small village in the Fizi territory of the South Kivu province, in eastern Congo. Rumors have abounded that Kabila was born in Tanzania, which would make him a citizen of that country, he is the son of long time rebel, former AFDL leader and president of the Congo Laurent-Désiré Kabila and Sifa Mahanya. Kabila's childhood coincided with the low point of his father's military career, he was raised with few records of his early days. Kabila attended a primary school organized by his father's rebel forces, before moving to Tanzania where he completed primary and secondary school. Due to his father's status as an enemy of Zairean strongman Mobutu Sese Seko, Kabila posed as a Tanzanian in his school years to avoid detection by Zairean intelligence agents. Following high school, Kabila followed a military curriculum in Tanzania at Makerere University in Uganda.
In October 1996, Laurent-Désiré Kabila launched the campaign in Zaire to oust the Mobutu regime with his newly formed army, the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire. Joseph Kabila became the commander of an AFDL unit that included "kadogos" and played a key role in major battles on the road to Kinshasa, but his exact whereabouts during the war have been difficult to establish. Joseph Kabila appears to have been present at the liberation of Kisangani where media reports identified him as commander of the rebel force that took the city after four days of intense fighting. Following the AFDL's victory, Laurent-Désiré Kabila's rise to the presidency, Joseph Kabila went on to get further training at the PLA National Defense University, in Beijing, China; when he returned from China, Kabila was awarded the rank of major-general, appointed Deputy Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1998. He was in 2000, appointed Chief of Staff of the Land Forces, a position he held until the elder President Kabila's assassination in January 2001.
As chief of staff, he was one of the main military leaders in charge of government troops during the time of the Second Congo War. Kabila rose to the presidency on 26 January 2001 after the assassination of Laurent-Désiré Kabila, becoming the world's first head of government born in the 1970s. Aged 29, he was considered inexperienced, he subsequently attempted to end the ongoing civil war by negotiating peace agreements with rebel groups backed by Rwanda and Uganda, the same regional armies who had brought Laurent-Désiré Kabila's rebel group to power three years before. The 2002 peace agreement signed at the Inter-Congolese Dialogue in Sun City, South Africa, which nominally ended the Second Congo War, maintained Joseph Kabila as President and head of state of the Congo. An interim administration was set up under him, including the leaders of the country's two main rebel groups as vice-presidents. On 28 March 2004, an apparent coup attempt or mutiny around the capital Kinshasa by members of the former guard of former president Mobutu Sese Seko, failed.
On 11 June 2004, coup plotters led by Major Eric Lenge attempted to take power and announced on state radio that the transitional government was suspended, but were defeated by loyalist troops. In December 2005, a partial referendum approved a new constitution, a presidential election was held on 30 July 2006, having been delayed from an earlier date in June; the new constitution lowered the minimum age of presidential candidates from 35 to 30. In March 2006, he registered as a candidate. Although Kabila registered as an independent, he is the "initiator" of the People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy, which chose him as their candidate in the election. Although the new constitution stipulates that a debate be held between the two remaining candidates for the presidency, no debates took place and many declared this unconstitutional. According to disputed provisional results announced on 20 August, Kabila won 45% of the vote; the irregularities surrounding the elections results prompted a run-off vote between Kabila and Bemba, held on 29 October.
On 15 November, the electoral commission announced the official results and Kabila was dec