Charter of 1830
The Charter of 1830 instigated the July Monarchy in France. It was considered a compromise between constitutionalists and republicans, charles Xs chosen successor was his young grandson, comte de Chambord, but Henri never received the throne. The line of hereditary succession was abolished and a member of the cadet Orléans line of the Bourbon family was chosen. On August 7 the Charter of 1814 was revised, and its preambule evoking the ancien régime was eliminated, when voted on in the Chamber it was passed by 246 votes to 12. The new charter was imposed on the king by the nation, on August 9,1830, Louis-Philippe dOrléans swore to uphold the Charter and was crowned King of the French, and not King of France. The July Monarchy was to last until 24 February 1848 when the Second Republic was established, the Charter of 1830 removed from the king the power to instigate legislation, royal ordinances were henceforth to concern only the application of laws. Hereditary peerage was eliminated, but not the institution of peerage, catholicism was no longer the state religion, but only the religion professed by the majority of the French, censorship of the press was abolished, and the French tricolor flag was reinstated.
This article is based on the article Charte de 1830 from the French Wikipedia and this is a copy of the text of the Charter. Http, //www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/1830frenchconstitution. asp Constitution of France Government of France History of France
French Constitution of 1852
The French Constitution of 1852 was enacted on 14 January 1852 by Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. Slightly modified that year, on 25 December 1852 the constitution became the basis for the creation of the French Second Empire, Louis Napoléon effectively brought an end to the Second French Republic by the coup détat of 2 December 1851. The same day, he had issued that proclaimed to the French people his desire to restore the system created by the First Consul — his uncle. His coup was ratified by plebiscite on 22 and 23 December 1851 and this vote was heavily rigged,92 percent were announced as voting in favour. Backed by this success, he encouraged counsellors Rouher, Baroche. The constitution was modified by the French Senate on 7 November 1852 to permit the re-establishing of the Empire, with the crown to be hereditary in Louis-Napoléon, the amended document was approved in another heavily rigged plebiscite. The Second Empire was proclaimed on 2 December 1852 and the Imperial Constitution was enacted on 25 December 1852, the constitution rejected the Ancien Régime and the post-revolutionary restoration monarchies with census suffrage.
It referred directly to the French Revolution – saying that it recognizes and guarantees the principles proclaimed in 1789 – and especially to the First French Empire. Louis Napoléon was persuaded that democracy needed to be incarnated in a man, the constitution extended the presidents term to 10 years, with no term limits. Under the provisions of the constitution, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was automatically reelected to a term as president. The president was vested with sweeping executive and legislative powers and he was commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and had the powers of clemency and amnesty, as well as the ability to enact and sign treaties. He appointed and dismissed ministers and dissolved the Legislative Body. He was assisted by the Council of State which he controlled and presided, under Article 4 of the constitution, he could initiate, sign or veto any legislation or senate decree. The two French parliamentary assemblies were highly controlled and had limited powers, the Legislative Body could neither amend laws nor censure the actions of the ministers, and had no legislative autonomy, as its president and its rules were designated by the government.
The French Senate was composed of from 80 to 150 members appointed for life by the president and it had the right to issue decrees, or senatus-consulte, to modify institutions and to verify the constitutionality of laws. Over time, various decrees and the senatus-consulte modified the constitution, in 1860, Napoleon III permitted the Senate and Legislative Body to once again have the right to air their opinions and grievances on the acts of the government. In 1861, the Legislative Body began to publish its debates, in 1867 it gained the power to direct questions to the government, in 1869, it gained the power to initiate and amend legislation. This article is based on the article Constitution de 1852 from the French Wikipedia, French constitution French Parliament Government of France History of France
The Consulate was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804. By extension, the term The Consulate refers to period of French history. Due to the institutions established during these years, Robert B. Holtman has called the Consulate one of the most important periods of all French history, Napoleon brought authoritarian personal rule which has been viewed as military dictatorship. French military disasters in 1798 and 1799 had shaken the Directory, an irregularity emerged in the election of Jean Baptiste Treilhard, who retired in favor of Louis Jérôme Gohier. Within days, Philippe-Antoine Merlin and Louis-Marie de La Revellière were driven to resign, Baron Jean-François-Auguste Moulin, the three new directors were generally seen as non-entities. A few more military disasters, royalist insurrections in the south, Chouan disturbances in a dozen departments of the part of France, Orléanist intrigues. In order to soothe the populace and protect the frontier, more than the French Revolutions usual terrorist measures was necessary, the new Directory government, led by Sieyès, decided that the necessary revision of the constitution would require a head and a sword.
Jean Victor Moreau being unattainable as his sword, Sieyès favoured Barthélemy Catherine Joubert, success was reserved for Bonaparte, suddenly landing at Fréjus with the prestige of his victories in the East, and now, after Hoches death, appearing as sole master of the armies. In the coup of 18 Brumaire Year VIII, Napoleon seized French parliamentary and military power in a two-fold coup détat, the initial 18 Brumaire coup seemed to be a victory for Sieyès, rather than for Bonaparte. Sieyès was a proponent of a new system of government for the Republic, Bonapartes cleverness lay in counterposing Pierre Claude François Daunous plan to that of Sieyès, and in retaining only those portions of both which could serve his ambition. Ultimate executive authority was vested in three consuls, who were elected for ten years, popular suffrage was retained, though mutilated by the lists of notables. Napoleon vetoed Sieyès original idea of having a single Grand Elector as supreme executive, Sieyès had intended to reserve this important position for himself, and by denying him the job Napoleon helped reinforce the authority of the consuls, an office which he would assume.
Nor was Napoleon content simply to be part of an equal triumvirate, by consolidating power, Bonaparte was able to transform the aristocratic constitution of Sieyès into an unavowed dictatorship. On 7 February 1800, a referendum confirmed the new constitution. It vested all of the power in the hands of the First Consul. A full 99. 9% of voters approved the motion, according to the released results and he gave everyone a feeling that France was governed once more by a real statesman, and that a competent government was finally in charge. Bonaparte had now to rid himself of Sieyès and of those republicans who had no desire to hand over the republic to one man, particularly of Moreau and Masséna, his military rivals
French Constitution of 1791
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality. The National Assembly began the process of drafting a constitution, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, adopted on 27 August 1789 eventually became the preamble of the constitution adopted on 3 September 1791. The Declaration offered sweeping generalizations about rights and sovereignty, a twelve-member Constitutional Committee was convened on 14 July 1789. Its task was to do much of the drafting of the articles of the constitution and it included originally two members from the First Estate, two from the Second, and four from the Third. Many proposals for redefining the French state were floated, particularly in the days after the sessions of 4–5 August 1789. The main controversies early on surrounded the issues of what level of power to be granted to the king of France and their greatest controversy faced by this new committee surrounded the issue of citizenship.
Would every subject of the French Crown be given equal rights, as the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen seemed to promise, the October Days intervened and rendered the question much more complicated. In the end, a distinction was held between active citizens which had rights, and passive citizens, who had only civil rights. This conclusion was intolerable to such radical deputies as Maximilien Robespierre, a second body, the Committee of Revisions, was struck September 1790, and included Antoine Barnave, Adrien Duport, and Charles de Lameth. Because the National Assembly was both a legislature and a convention, it was not always clear when its decrees were constitutional articles or mere statutes. It was the job of this committee to sort it out, after very long negotiations, the constitution was reluctantly accepted by King Louis XVI in September 1791. Redefining the organization of the French government and the limits to the powers of government and it abolished many “institutions which were injurious to liberty and equality of rights”.
The National Assembly asserted its legal presence in French government by establishing its permanence in the Constitution, the Assemblys belief in a sovereign nation and in equal representation can be seen in the constitutional separation of powers. The National Assembly was the body, the king and royal ministers made up the executive branch. By the same token, representative democracy weakened the executive authority. The constitution was not egalitarian by todays standards and it distinguished between the propertied active citizens and the poorer passive citizens. Women lacked rights to such as education, freedom to speak, print
French Constitution of 1793
Designed by the Montagnards, principally Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Saint-Just, it was intended to replace the outdated Constitution of 1791. With sweeping plans for democratization and wealth redistribution, the new document promised a significant departure from the relatively moderate goals of the Revolution in previous years, the Constitutions radical provisions were never implemented. The government placed a moratorium upon it, ostensibly because of the need to employ emergency war powers during the French Revolutionary War, in the Thermidorian Reaction, it was discarded in favor of a more conservative document, the Constitution of 1795. The National Convention chose Louis Saint-Just and several deputies to serve on a committee that would draft a new governmental system for the recently established Republic. The new constitution was intended to supersede the Constitution of 1791, the draftsmen were placed on the elite Committee of Public Safety to maximize their resources. The Convention deemed their work to be of importance, to be completed in the shortest possible time.
The work took less than two weeks, a complete constitutional document was submitted to the Convention on 10 June 1793. It was subsequently accepted by that body on 24 June and put to a public referendum. Employing universal male suffrage, the vote was a popular victory for the new constitution. In light of Frances internal and external conflicts, the National Convention found sufficient reason to maintain itself until peace, after the fall of Robespierre and Saint-Just in the Thermidorian Reaction, the Montagnard Constitution was shunned. It was eventually supplanted by the French Constitution of 1795, which established the Directory, the revolutionaries of 1848 were inspired by this constitution, and after 1870 it passed into the ideology of the Third Republic as well. The document represents a fundamental and historic shift in priorities, one which contributed much to democratic institutions. The French Republic is one and indivisible, the French people is, for the purpose of exercising its sovereignty, divided into primary assemblies according to cantons.
For the purpose of administration and justice, it is divided into departments, the exercise of the rights of citizen is suspended, by being in a state of accusation, by a sentence in contumaciam, so long as this sentence has not been rescinded. The sovereign people embraces the whole of French citizens and it delegates to electors the choice of administrators, public civil judges, penal judges, and judges of cassation. The primary assemblies are formed of the citizens who have resided six months in a canton and they consist of no less than 200 and no more than 600 citizens, called together for the purpose of voting. They are organized, after a president and collectors of votes have been appointed, no one is allowed to appear there with arms. The elections are made either by secret or loud voting, at the pleasure of each voter, a primary meeting can in no case prescribe more than one manner of voting
French Constitution of 1848
The Constitution of 1848 is the constitution passed in France on 4 November 1848 by the National Assembly, the constituent body of the Second French Republic. It was repealed on 14 January 1852 by the constitution of 1852 which profoundly changed the face of the Second Republic,16 delegates were chosen to debate the structure of the new constitution. Present among them, was Alexis de Tocqueville author of Democracy in America, the delegates debated two types of legislature power and bicameral legislatures. Most arguments were given in support of a legislative body. These included the belief that a house would only benefit an aristocracy in France. Also, many believed that two houses would slow the pace of political progress happening in France. Tocqueville believed that two houses were necessary to prevent abuses by the power as well as prevent political passions from being exerted on the laws. The French assembly of 1848 and American constitutional doctrines, les constitutions et les principales lois politiques de la France depuis 1789.
The Constitution of the French Republic Adopted November 4,1848, Constitution of France Politics of France Government of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in ways a revival of the Third Republic, which was in place before World War II. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946, the greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development. In 1946, the government established a social security system that assured unemployment insurance and old-age pensions. Moreover, the government proved unable to make decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most importantly the Algerian crisis of 1958, wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration which was empowered to design a new French constitution. The Fourth Republic was dissolved by a referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency.
After the liberation of France in 1944, the Vichy government was dissolved, Charles de Gaulle led the GPRF from 1944 to 1946. Meanwhile, negotiations took place over the new constitution, which was to be put to a referendum. De Gaulle advocated a system of government, and criticized the reinstatement of what he pejoratively called the parties system. He resigned in January 1946 and was replaced by Félix Gouin, the new constituent assembly included 166 MRP deputies,153 PCF deputies and 128 SFIO deputies, giving the tripartite alliance an absolute majority. Georges Bidault replaced Félix Gouin as the head of government, a new draft of the Constitution was written, which this time proposed the establishment of a bicameral form of government. Léon Blum headed the GPRF from 1946 to 1947, after a new legislative election in June 1946, the Christian democrat Georges Bidault assumed leadership of the Cabinet. This culminated in the establishment in the year of the Fourth Republic. The President of the Republic was given a symbolic role, although he remained chief of the French Army.
The wartime damage was extensive and expectations of large reparations from defeated Germany largely failed, the United States helped revive the French economy with the Marshall Plan, 1948-1951, whereby it gave France $2.3 billion with no repayment. France was the second largest recipient after Britain, the total of all American grants and credits to France from 1946 to 1953, amounted to $4.9 billion. The terms of the Marshall Plan required a modernization of French industrial and managerial systems, free trade, after the expulsion of the Communists from the governing coalition, France joined the Cold War against Stalin, as expressed by becoming a founding member of NATO in April 1949
Constitution of the Year VIII
The Constitution of the Year VIII was a national constitution of France, adopted December 24,1799, which established the form of government known as the Consulate. The coup of 18 Brumaire effectively gave all power to Napoleon Bonaparte, after the coup and his allies legitimized his position by creating the short and obscure Constitution of the Year VIII. The constitution tailor-made the position of First Consul to give Napoleon most of the powers of a dictator and it was the first constitution since the Revolution without a Declaration of Rights. The executive power was vested in three Consuls, but all power was held by the First Consul, Bonaparte. To emphasize this, Napoleon used classical Roman terms in the Constitution, such as Consul, the Constitution used the term notables. The term notables was a common usage under the monarchy, every Frenchman understood it and it referred to prominent, distinguished men — landholders, scholars, professionals and officials. The people in each district chose a slate of notables by popular vote, the First Consul and Corps Législatif each nominated one Senatorial candidate to the rest of the Senate, which chose one candidate from among the three.
Once all of its members were picked, it would appoint the Tribunate, the Corps Législatif, the judges of cassation. Napoleon held a plebiscite on the Constitution in December, the vote was not binding, but it allowed Napoleon to maintain a veneer of democracy. The vote was said to be 3,011,007 in favor, the true result was probably around 1.55 million for it, against several thousand against it. The Napoleonic constitutions were replaced by the Charter of 1814. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the equivalent, may indicate an emperors wife, mother. Emperors are generally recognized to be of an honour and rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both kings and emperors are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler. Thus a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German speaking states. In Eastern Europe the rulers of the Russian Empire used translatio imperii to wield authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their title of Emperor was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, in practice the Russian Emperors are often known by their Russian-language title Tsar, which may used to refer to rulers equivalent to a king.
Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia, however such empires did not need to be headed by an emperor. Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century, outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era, the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, rules for indicating successors varied, there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known.
Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue and military force could mingle in for appointing successors, probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Romes third century rule. When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the half of the 1st century BC