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Consubstantiation is a Christian theological doctrine that describes the real presence in the Eucharist. It holds that during the sacrament, the substance of the body and blood of Christ are present alongside the substance of the bread and wine, which remain present, it considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. In the early church it was common for the bread to be regarded as bread yet as the Body of Christ, the wine regarded as wine yet as the Blood of Christ. In about 150, Justin Martyr, referring to the Eucharist, wrote: "Not as common bread and common drink do we receive these. …For as the bread from the earth, receiving the invocation of God, is no longer common bread but the Eucharist, consisting of two elements and heavenly…” The doctrine of consubstantiation is held in contrast to the doctrine of transubstantiation. While some Lutherans use the term "consubstantiation" to describe their doctrine, many reject it as not reflecting the eucharistic doctrine of Martin Luther, the sacramental union.

They reject the concept of consubstantiation because it replaces what they believe to be the biblical doctrine with a philosophical construct, denotes a mixing of substances, denotes a "gross, carnal" presence of the body and blood of Christ. In England in the late 14th century, there was a religious movement known as Lollardy. Among much broader goals, the Lollards affirmed a form of consubstantiation—that the Eucharist remained physically bread and wine, while becoming spiritually the body and blood of Christ. Lollardy survived up until the time of the English Reformation. Literary critic Kenneth Burke's dramatism takes this concept and utilizes it in secular rhetorical theory to look at the dialectic of unity and difference within the context of logology. Eucharistic theology Impanation Real Presence Transignification

MaPo Kinnord

MaPo Kinnord is an artist and educator based in New Orleans, Louisiana. Kinnord grew up in Ohio, she completed her BFA at Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, received her MFA from Ohio State University in Columbus. In 1995 she moved to LA where she met one of her mentors, John T. Scott. Using ceramic sculptural forms resembling mud huts of Ghana, Kinnord's work is about ancestral memory, she has spent time in Northern Ghana creating a research video on ceramic architecture. Much of her work is inspired by architecture and explores both exteriors and interiors through clay and surface treatment, she has compared the way she works with clay to jazz, improvisational but with structure. Part of Kinnord's work as an educator includes art therapy manipulating clay with meditation, she was an instructor at Penland School of Crafts, in North Carolina, Haystack Mountain School of Craft in Maine. Kinnord taught in MassArt in Massachusetts and Berkeley California before moving to New Orleans in 1995 where she became Associate Professor of Art at Xavier University of Louisiana.

Kinnord's work has been exhibited Internationally including at Arthur Roger Gallery, Tulane University, Baltimore Clayworks, Stella Jones Gallery, Swarthmore College, Contemporary Arts Center in New Orleans and Imago Mundi. In 2017 her work was included in an exhibition called Congregation at Antenna Gallery. In 2018 Kinnord's work was included in The Whole Drum Will Sound: Women in Southern Abstraction at the Ogden Museum of Southern Art alongside works by Lynda Benglis, Dusti Bongé, Clyde Connell, Dorothy Hood, Marie Hull, Lin Emery, Margaret Evangeline, Cynthia Brants, Jacqueline Humphries, Valerie Jaudon and Ida Kohlmeyer. Official website

Nick McKim

Nicholas James McKim is an Australian politician a member of the Australian Senate representing Tasmania. He was a Tasmanian Greens member of the Tasmanian House of Assembly elected at the 2002 election, representing the Franklin electorate from 2002 to 2015, led the party from 2008 until 2014. On 21 April 2010, he became the first member of the Greens in any Australian ministry. McKim was born in England; when he was five years old, his family emigrated from the UK to Australia. He attended the Hutchins School, Kingston High School Hobart College, he lived in South Australia, before moving to Tasmania. Before entering parliament, McKim worked as a wilderness advertising executive. McKim served time in prison after being arrested during the Farmhouse Creek Blockade in the early 1980s; the issue of Nick McKim's citizenship was raised during the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis while he was a sitting senator. McKim applied to renounce his UK citizenship by filling out the renunciation form on the 31st of July 2015.

The form was received by the British Home Office on the 14th of August 2015, further received for processing on the 4th of September 2015, formally registered on the 1st of February 2016. The Home Office citizenship renunciation guidelines state that a person will cease being a British citizen after the date of registration; because McKim's RN form was not registered until the 1st of February 2016, he maintained dual citizenship while serving as a senator, in breach of the Australian constitution, from the 20th of August 2015 until the 1st of February 2016, a period of just over 5 months. Since nominations for the 2016 federal election occurred after McKim's citizenship was formally renounced, he was not in breach of section 44 when nominating for that election. Elected to Tasmanian House of Assembly in the Division of Franklin at the 2002 election, McKim was re-elected at the 2006 election, receiving 15.93 per cent of first preferences, an increase compared to his previous vote of 12.59%.

He replaced Peg Putt as Leader of the Tasmanian Greens when Putt retired from Parliament in 2008. McKim supported the government in passing the same sex relationships bill and has promoted the Greens' own Same-Sex Marriage Bill. During 2008, he campaigned against the use of 1080 poison, forestry practices and the state's anti-terrorism bill. In the 2010 Tasmanian election McKim achieved 24.1% of first preferences in his lower house seat. On 19 April 2010, Labor premier David Bartlett agreed to appoint McKim as a minister along with Cassy O'Connor as cabinet secretary; as a minister, McKim held the portfolios of Sustainable Transport and Alternative Energy and Consumer Protection, Climate Change, Human Services, Community Development: though he delegated responsibility for the portfolios of Human Services and Community Development to fellow Greens MP and cabinet secretary Cassy O'Connor. After a Cabinet reshuffle in November 2010 the portfolios of human services and community development were formally assumed by newly appointed Greens minister Cassy O'Connor, whilst McKim was sworn in as minister for the newly created Aboriginal Affairs portfolio alongside his other three portfolios.

Another Cabinet reshuffle, caused by Lin Thorp losing her seat in the Tasmanian Legislative Council elections and David Bartlett resigning from the assembly saw McKim sworn in on 13 May 2011 as Minister for Education and Skills, whilst retaining the three portfolios of corrections, consumer protection and sustainable transport. McKim was responsible for overseeing the closing of the Hayes Prison Farm and the removal of Flex Learning for prisoners as Minister for both portfolio areas of Education and Corrections. On 16 January 2014, the premier, Lara Giddings, announced that the power sharing arrangement with the Tasmanian Greens was over, that McKim and O'Connor would be replaced by Labor MPs effective on 17 January, she said. McKim was re-elected to the House of Assembly at the 2014 Tasmanian State Election with 13.4% of the primary vote. After Christine Milne's resignation from the senate, McKim was announced to be one of the 10 Greens members vying to replace her; the ballot, open to Greens members, was held in July 2015.

The Tasmanian Greens announced at a press conference on 30 July 2015 that McKim had won the membership ballot to replace Christine Milne in the Senate. He resigned from the Tasmanian Parliament on 4 August, a countback was conducted to elect Rosalie Woodruff as his replacement on 17 August. McKim was appointed to the Senate by a joint sitting of the Tasmanian Parliament on 19 August 2015. Unlike other Greens Senators, Senator McKim has had ministerial experience due to him having been a minister in the previous Tasmanian ALP Government whilst as State Greens leader. McKim was re-elected to the Senate at the 2019 federal election where he received 12.4% of the state's vote, with a swing of 1.41% in his favour. In July 2009, McKim confirmed he was in a relationship with Cassy O'Connor a Tasmanian Greens Member of the House of Assembly. "Greens MPs Homepage". Australian Greens. Nick McKim. "Facebook". Summary of parliamentary voting for Senator Nick McKim on Parliament biographyNick McKim's maiden speech to the Tasmanian Parliament Tasmanian Parliament biography

Rosenborg Castle Gardens

Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Established in the early 17th century as the private gardens of King Christian IV's Rosenborg Castle, the park contains several other historical buildings, including Rosenborg Barracks, home to the Royal Guards, as well as a high number of statues and monuments; the park plays host to temporary art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. The park traces its history back to 1606 when King Christian IV acquired land outside Copenhagen's East Rampart and established a pleasure garden in Renaissance style which delivered fruit and flowers for the royal household at Copenhagen Castle; the garden had a small pavilion, expanded into present day Rosenborg Castle, completed in 1624. In 1634, Charles Ogier, secretary to the French ambassador to Denmark, compared the gardens to the Tuileries Garden in Paris. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, provides knowledge about the layout of the original garden.

The garden contained statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples and lavender. In the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a typical feature of the Baroque garden, it had an intricate system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. From about 1710, after Frederiksberg Palace had been built, Rosenborg Castle, as well as its gardens, was abandoned by the royal family and the gardens were instead opened to the public- Johan Cornelius Krieger was appointed gardener of the Orangery in 1711 and after becoming head gardener in 1721 he redesigned the garden in the Baroque style; the 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade. Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides; the two main entrance are the King's Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, the Queen's Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade.

There are four other entrances to the park. A dominant feature of the scenery are the two diagonal lime tree avenues which intersect near the centre of the park and are known as the Knight's Path and the Lady's Path, while the rest of the paths are laid out in a grid pattern; the tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Krieger's Baroque garden but the underlying network of paths can be seen in Heiders' plan from 1649. Special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was a pavilion and two long conservatory buildings built by Lambert van Haven for Christian V. In 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann. In 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen.

The Commandant's House is located just left of the main entrance to Rosenborg Castle and faces a lawn. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling. Today the building plays host to special exhibitions; the building is today used as an exhibition space. Slotsforvalterboligen fronts Øster Voldgade, it was built in 1688 and extended with an extra story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park; the Gartner's House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen. It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and takes its name from a statue of Hercules positioned in a deep niche between two Tuscan columns, it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy. Along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side.

After the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 there was an urgent need for new housing and Crown Prince Frederik put the southern strip of his garden at disposal for the construction of a new street, to connect Gothersgade to Sølvgade. It was named Kronprinsessegade in honour of Crown Princess Marie Sophie. New residential buildings soon sprung up along the south side of the street but in the same time the need arose for a barrier toward the garden and City Architect Peter Meyn was charged with the commission, he had just returned from Paris where he had been struck by the Pont-Neuf with its iron grill and many small shops and the street life which surrounded it. With this as an inspiration, he designed the new grill along the edge of the park with 14 small shop pavilions which were completed in 1806; the two last pavilions, opposite Landemærket, were not built until 1920. Before this time, the site was occupied by two buildings and Rosenborg Brøndanstalt; the pavilions are built to a Newclassical design and are six ells wide, six ells deep and six ells high.

Among the goods which were sold from the pavilions were stockings. They were available to architects and artists from the Roydal Arts Academy as a sort of grant. Today they are rented out by the Palaces and Properties Agency on two-years leases with possibility of extension. There is a required minimum opening time of 20 hours


A fasciculation, or muscle twitch, is a small, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin. Deeper areas can be detected by electromyography testing, though they can happen in any skeletal muscle in the body. Fasciculations arise as a result of spontaneous depolarization of a lower motor neuron leading to the synchronous contraction of all the skeletal muscle fibers within a single motor unit. An example of normal spontaneous depolarization is the constant contractions of cardiac muscle, causing the heart to beat. Intentional movement of the involved muscle causes fasciculations to cease but they may return once the muscle is at rest again. Fasciculations have a variety of causes, the majority of which are benign, but can be due to disease of the motor neurons, they are encountered by all healthy people, though for most, it is quite infrequent. In some cases, the presence of fasciculations can interfere with quality of life. If a neurological examination is otherwise normal and EMG testing does not indicate any additional pathology, a diagnosis of benign fasciculation syndrome is made.

Neuromyotonia known as Isaacs' syndrome Diseases of the lower motor neuron, such as: Poliomyelitis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Spinal muscular atrophies – including spinal muscular atrophy and bulbar muscular atrophy, others Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Some medications to treat myasthenia gravis contain acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Organophosphate poisoning Benzodiazepine withdrawal Magnesium deficiency RabiesThe most effective way to detect fasciculations may be surface electromyography. Surface EMG is more sensitive than needle electromyography and clinical observation in the detection of fasciculation in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Risk factors for benign fasciculations may include the use of anticholinergic drugs over long periods. In particular, these include ethanolamines such as diphenhydramine, used as an antihistamine and sedative, dimenhydrinate for nausea and motion sickness. Persons with benign fasciculation syndrome may experience paraesthesia shortly after taking such medication.

Stimulants can cause fasciculations directly. These include caffeine, pseudoephedrine and the asthma bronchodilators salbutamol. Medications used to treat attention deficit disorder contain stimulants as well, are common causes of benign fasciculations. Since asthma and ADHD are much more serious than the fasciculations themselves, this side effect may have to be tolerated by the patient after consulting a physician or pharmacist; the depolarizing neuromuscular blocker succinylcholine causes fasciculations. It is a normal side effect of the drug's administration, can be prevented with a small dose of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker prior to the administration of succinylcholine 10% of a nondepolarizing NMB's induction dose. If a drug such as caffeine causes fasciculations, that does not mean it is the only cause. For example, a slight magnesium deficiency by itself might not be enough for fasciculations to occur, but when combined with caffeine, the two factors together could be enough.

Inadequate magnesium intake can cause fasciculations after a magnesium loss due to severe diarrhea. Over-exertion and heavy alcohol consumption are risk factors for magnesium loss; as 70–80% of the adult population does not consume the recommended daily amount of magnesium, inadequate intake may be a common cause. Treatment consists of increased intake of magnesium from dietary sources such as nuts and spinach. Magnesium supplements or pharmaceutical magnesium preparations may be taken. However, too much magnesium may cause diarrhea, resulting in nutrient loss, it is well known as a laxative, though chelated magnesium can reduce this effect. Fasciculation often occurs during a rest period after sustained stress, such as that brought on by unconsciously tense muscles. Reducing stress and anxiety is therefore another useful treatment. There is no proven treatment for fasciculations in people with ALS. Among patients with ALS, fasciculation frequency is not associated with the duration of ALS and is independent of the degree of limb weakness and limb atrophy.

No prediction of ALS disease duration can be made based on fasciculation frequency alone. Blepharospasm Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency Myokymia


Orites is a genus of 9 known species, 7 endemic to Australia and 2 in South America. This listing was sourced from the Australian Plant Name Index and other scholarly sources: Orites acicularis Roem. & Schult. Yellow bush – Tasmania, Australia Orites diversifolius R. Br. – Tasmania, Australia Orites excelsus R. Br. Mountain silky oak, prickly ash, white beefwood, southern silky oak, siky oak – NSW and Qld, Australia Orites fiebrigii – Bolivia Orites lancifolius F. Muell. Alpine orites – NSW, ACT and Victoria, Australia Orites megacarpus A. S. George & B. Hyland - endemic to mountains of NE. Qld, Australia Orites milliganii Meisn. – Tasmania, Australia Orites myrtoidea – Chile Orites revolutus R. Br. – Tasmania, AustraliaFormerly included here, awaiting the Australian Plant Census update of the new name to the accepted species names Orites sp. Devils Thumb / ⇒ Hollandaea diabolica A. J. Ford & P. H. Weston – endemic to a restricted area in the Wet Tropics rainforests of NE. Qld, Australia