Ferdinand de Lesseps
Ferdinand Marie, Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI was a French diplomat and developer of the Suez Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas reducing sailing distances and times between Europe and East Asia. He attempted to repeat this success with an effort to build a Panama Canal at sea level during the 1880s, but the project was devastated by epidemics of malaria and yellow fever in the area, as well as beset by financial problems, the planned de Lesseps Panama Canal was never completed; the project was bought out by the United States, which solved the medical problems and changed the design to a non-sea level canal with locks. It was completed in 1914; the origins of de Lesseps' family are traceable back as far as the end of the 14th century. His ancestors, it is believed, came from Spain, settled at Bayonne during the region's occupation by the English. One of his great-grandfathers, Pierre de Lesseps, son of Bertrand Lesseps and wife Louise Fisson, was town clerk and at the same time secretary to Queen Anne of Neuberg, widow of Charles II of Spain, exiled to Bayonne after the accession of Philip V, married on 7 January 1715 his great-grandmother Catherine Fourcade, by whom he had fourteen children, six of whom died in childhood: Dominique de Lesseps, Pierre de Lesseps, Marie de Lesseps, Arnaud de Lesseps, Jean-Barthélémy de Lesseps, Marcel de Lesseps, Jean-Pierre de Lesseps, Catherine de Lesseps, Gracy de Lesseps, Plaisance de Lesseps, Michel de Lesseps, married in 1769 to Florence Verdier (parents of Louise Thérèse de Lesseps, married in 1788 to Mathieu Belland, Martin de Lesseps, married to Anna Caysergues and had issue, Jeanne de Lesseps, married in 1759 to Alexandre Dubrocq, Etiennette de Lesseps, married in 1761 to Pierre Simonin.
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of de Lesseps followed diplomatic careers, he himself occupied several diplomatic posts from 1825 to 1849. His uncle was ennobled by King Louis XVI, his father was made a count by Emperor Napoleon I, his father, Mathieu de Lesseps, was in the consular service. She was a daughter of wife Francisca Antonia Gallegos. Ferdinand de Lesseps was born November 1805 in Versailles, Yvelines, he had a sister, Adélaïde de Lesseps, married to Jules Tallien de Cabarrus, two brothers, Théodore de Lesseps, married in 1828 to Antonia Denois, Jules de Lesseps, married on 11 March 1874 to Hyacinthe Delarue. His first years were spent in Italy, he was educated at the College of Henry IV in Paris. From the age of 18 years to 20 he was employed in the commissary department of the army. From 1825 to 1827 he acted as assistant vice-consul at Lisbon, where his uncle, Barthélemy de Lesseps, was the French chargé d'affaires; this uncle was an old companion of Jean-François de La Pérouse and the only survivor of the expedition in which La Pérouse perished.
Barthélemy de Lesseps had left the expedition in Kamchatka to travel to St Petersburg overland. In 1828 de Lesseps was sent as an assistant vice-consul to Tunis, where his father was consul-general, he aided the escape of Youssouff, pursued by the soldiers of the Bey, of whom he was one of the officers, for violation of the seraglio law. Youssouff acknowledged this protection given by a Frenchman by distinguishing himself in the ranks of the French army at the time of the French conquest of Algeria. De Lesseps was entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Bertrand Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria; the marshal wrote to Mathieu de Lesseps on 18 December 1830: "I have had the pleasure of meeting your son, who gives promise of sustaining with great credit the name he bears". In 1832 de Lesseps was appointed vice-consul at Alexandria. While the vessel, in which de Lesseps sailed to Egypt, was in quarantine at the Alexandrian lazaretto, M. Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among, the memoir written upon the filled and abandoned Ancient Suez Canal, according to Napoleon Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Jacques-Marie Le Père, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
This work struck de Lesseps's imagination, was one of the influences that gave him the idea of constructing a canal across the African isthmus. For de Lesseps, Muhammad Ali, the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position in part to the recommendations made on his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, consul-general in Egypt when Ali was a colonel; because of this, de Lesseps received a warm welcome from the viceroy and became good friends with his son, Said Pasha. Politically, the British were allied with the Ottoman capital in Constantinople - to prevent the Russians from Black Sea access to the Mediterranean Sea - and had repelled Ali's attempt to invade the Ottoman capital in 1833; the French were able to maneuv
New York Journal-American
The New York Journal-American was a daily newspaper published in New York City from 1937 to 1966. The Journal-American was the product of a merger between two New York newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst: The New York American, a morning paper, the New York Evening Journal, an afternoon paper. Both were published by Hearst from 1895 to 1937; the American and Evening Journal merged in 1937. The Journal-American was a publication with several editions in the evening. Joseph Pulitzer's younger brother Albert founded the New York Morning Journal in 1882. John R. McLean acquired the paper in 1895, but sold it to Hearst. Hearst founded the Evening Journal about a year later. Hearst entered into a circulation war with the New York World, the newspaper run by his former mentor Joseph Pulitzer and from whom he stole the cartoonists George McManus and Richard F. Outcault. In October 1896, Outcault defected to Hearst's New York Journal; because Outcault had failed in his effort to copyright The Yellow Kid both newspapers published versions of the comic feature with George Luks providing the New York World with their version after Outcault left.
The Yellow Kid was one of the first comic strips to be printed in color and gave rise to the phrase yellow journalism, used to describe the sensationalist and dishonest articles, which helped, along with a one-cent price tag, to increase circulation of the newspaper. Many believed that as part of this, aside from any nationalistic sentiment, Hearst may have helped to initiate the Spanish–American War of 1898 to increase sales. In the early 1900s, Hearst weekday morning and afternoon papers around the country featured scattered black-and-white comic strips, on January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comics page in the Evening Journal. A year on January 12, 1913, McManus launched his Bringing Up Father comic strip; the comics expanded into two full pages daily and a 12-page Sunday color section with leading King Features Syndicate strips. By the mid-1940s, the newspaper's Sunday comics included Bringing Up Father, Blondie, a full-page Prince Valiant, Flash Gordon, The Little King, Buz Sawyer, Feg Murray's Seein' Stars, Tim Tyler's Luck, Gene Ahern's Room and Board and The Squirrel Cage, The Phantom, Jungle Jim, Tillie the Toiler, Little Annie Rooney, Little Iodine, Bob Green's The Lone Ranger, Believe It or Not!, Uncle Remus, Dinglehoofer und His Dog, Donald Duck, Right Around Home, Barney Google and Snuffy Smith and The Katzenjammer Kids.
Tad Dorgan, known for his boxing and dog cartoons as well as the comic character Judge Rummy, joined the Journal's staff in 1905. In 1922, the Evening Journal introduced a Saturday color comics tabloid with strips not seen on Sunday, this 12-page tabloid continued for decades, offering Popeye, Don Tobin's The Little Woman, Mandrake the Magician, Don Flowers' Glamor Girls and Bear It and Buck Rogers and other strips. Rube Goldberg became a cartoonist with the Journal-American; the Evening Journal was home to famed investigative reporter Nellie Bly, who began writing for the paper in 1914 as a war correspondent from the battlefields of World War I. Bly returned to the United States and was given her own column that she wrote right up until her death in 1922. Popular columnists included Ambrose Bierce, Benjamin De Casseres, Dorothy Kilgallen, O. O. McIntyre, Westbrook Pegler. Kilgallen wrote articles that appeared on the same days as her column on different pages, sometimes the front page. Regular Journal-American contributor Jimmy Cannon was one of the highest paid sports columnists in the United States.
Society columnist Maury Henry Biddle Paul, who wrote under the pseudonym "Cholly Knickerbocker", became famous and coined the term "Café Society". John F. Kennedy contributed to the newspaper during a brief career he had as a journalist during the final months of World War II. Beginning in 1938, Max Kase was the sports editor until the newspaper expired in 1966; the fashion editor was Robin Chandler Duke. Jack O'Brian was television critic for the Journal-American and exposed the 1958 quiz-show scandal that involved cheating on the popular television program Twenty-One. O'Brian was a supporter of Senator Joseph McCarthy and his series of published attacks on CBS News and WCBS-TV reporter Don Hollenbeck, may have been a major factor in Hollenbeck's eventual suicide, referenced in the 1986 HBO film Murrow and the 2005 motion picture Good Night, Good Luck. Ford Frick was a sportswriter for the American before becoming president of baseball's National League commissioner of Major League Baseball.
Frick was hired by Wilton S. Farnsworth, sports editor of the American from 1914–37 until becoming a boxing promoter. Bill Corum was a sportswriter for the Journal-American who served nine years as president of the Churchill Downs race track. Frank Graham covered sports there from 1945–65 and was inducted in the Baseball Hall of Fame, as were colleagues Charley Feeney and Sid Mercer. Before becoming a news columnist elsewhere, Jimmy Breslin was a Journal-American sportswriter in the early 1960s, he authored the book Can't Anybody Here Play This Game? chronicling the season of the 1962 New York Mets. Sheilah Graham was a reporter for the Journal-American before gaining fame as a gossip columnist and as an acquaintance of F. Scott Fitzgerald. William V. Finn, a staff photographer, died on the morning of June 25, 1958 while photographing the aftermath of a fiery collision between the tanker Empress Bay and cargo ship Nebraska in the East River. Finn was a past-president of the New York Press Photographers Association and was the second of only two of t
W. Eugene Smith
William Eugene Smith was an American photojournalist. He has been described as "perhaps the single most important American photographer in the development of the editorial photo essay." His major photo essays include World War II photographs, the dedication of an American country doctor and a nurse midwife, the clinic of Dr Schweitzer in French Equatorial Africa, the city of Pittsburgh, the pollution which damaged the health of the residents of Minamata in Japan. His 1948 series, Country Doctor, photographed for Life magazine is now recognized as "the first extended editorial photo story". William Eugene Smith was born in the city of Wichita, Kansas on December 30, 1918 to the parents of William H. Smith and Nettie Lee. Growing up, Smith had taken interest in flying and aviation; when the little boy was only nine years old and asking his mother for money to buy photographs of airplanes, the child was given his first camera. In 1927 Nettie gave him her old camera in hopes. Though this is what birthed Smith's vocation.
When her nine year old boy, who would become the most esteemed photographer in history, came to her with a full roll of shots, she would develop the film for him in her own homemade darkroom. Smith started grade school in his home town of Wichita, he started Catholic school in 1924. By the time he was a teenager, photography was his craft, he began his journey as a professional and serious photographer when the famous Frank Noel of the Wichita Press approached him. Noel, impressed with his photography, pushed him to submit his works to the news sources. By the time Smith was fifteen years old he was published in The Wichita Eagle and the Wichita Beacon. Smith graduated from the Wichita North High School in 1936; that same year, his father committed suicide. In ther aftermath of his father's death, Smith's values where carved into stone. Salt was thrown into the wounds he and his mother endured when the news of the town used the story and twisted the death into a falsity; the truth of the circumstances of the situation had been lost.
It was in this series of unfortunate events that lit the flame for Smith to begin his career in photojournalism. He made. Smith moved by 1938 he had begun to work for Newsweek, he became known there for his incessant perfectionism and thorny personality and Smith was fired from Newsweek. He explained that Newsweek wanted him to work with larger format negatives, but he refused to abandon the 35mm Contax camera he preferred to work with. Smith began to work for Life magazine in 1939 building a strong relationship with picture editor Wilson Hicks; as a correspondent for Ziff-Davis Publishing, at Life, Smith took photos on the front lines in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was with the American forces during their island-hopping offensive against Japan, photographing U. S. Marines and Japanese prisoners of war at Saipan, Iwo Jima, Okinawa. In 1945, Smith was injured by mortar fire while photographing the Battle of Okinawa. In 1946, he took his first photograph since being injured: a picture of his two children walking in the garden of his home in Tuckahoe, New York, which he titled The Walk to Paradise Garden.
The photograph became enormously famous when Edward Steichen used it as one of the key images in the exhibition The Family of Man, which Steichen curated in 1955. After spending two years undergoing surgery, Smith continued to work at Life until 1954. In 1950, Smith was sent to the UK to cover the General Election, in which the Labour Party, under Clement Attlee, was elected with a tiny majority. Life had taken an editorial stance against the Labour government. In the end, a limited number of Smith's photographs of British working class people were published, including three shots of the South Wales Valleys. In a documentary made by BBC Wales, Dai Smith traced a miner who described how he and two colleagues had met Smith on their way home from work at the pit and had been instructed on how to pose for one of the photographs published in Life. Between 1948 and 1954 Smith photographed for Life magazine a series of photo essays with a humanist perspective which laid the basis of modern photojournalism, which were, in the estimate of Encyclopædia Britannica, "characterized by a strong sense of empathy and social conscience."In August 1948 Smith photographed Dr. Ernest Ceriani in the town of Kremmling, for several weeks, covering the doctor's arduous work in a thinly populated western environment, grappling with life and death situations.
The essay Country Doctor was published by Life on September 20, 1948. It has been described by Sean O'Hagan as "the first extended editorial photo story". Smith spent a month in Spain in 1950, photographing the village of Deleitosa, focusing on themes of rural poverty. Smith attracted the suspicion of the local Guardia Civil, until he made an abrupt exit across the border to France. A Spanish Village was published in Life on April 1951 to great acclaim. Ansel Adams wrote Smith a letter of praise, which Smith carried in his pocket for three years, unable to write a reply. In 1951, Smith persuaded Life editor Edward Thompson to let him do a photo-journalistic profile of Maude E. Callen, a black nurse midwife working in rural South Carolina. For weeks Smith accompanied Callen on her exhausting schedule, rising before dawn and working into the evening; the essay Nurse Midwife was published in Life on December 3
Ansel Easton Adams was an American landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West. Adams helped found Group f/64, an association of photographers advocating "pure" photography that favored sharp focus and the use of the full tonal range of a photograph. With Fred Archer, he developed an exacting system of image-making called the Zone System, which described a method of achieving a desired final print through a technical understanding of how tonal range is recorded and developed in exposure, negative development, printing; the resulting clarity and depth of such images characterized his photography. Adams was a life-long advocate for environmental conservation, his photographic practice was entwined with this advocacy. At age 12, he was given his first camera during his first visit to Yosemite National Park, he developed his early photographic work as a member of the Sierra Club. He was contracted with the U. S. Department of the Interior to make photographs of U.
S. National Parks. For his work and his persistent advocacy, which helped expand the National Park system, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1980. With trustee David H. McAlpin and curator Beaumont Newhall, Adams was a key advisor in establishing the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, an important landmark in securing photography's institutional legitimacy, he helped to stage that department's first photography exhibition, helped found the photography magazine Aperture, co-founded the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona. Adams was born in the Fillmore District of San Francisco, the only child of Charles Hitchcock Adams and Olive Bray Adams, he was named after Ansel Easton. His mother's family came from Baltimore, where his maternal grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business but lost his wealth investing in failed mining and real estate ventures in Nevada; the Adams family came from New England, having migrated from Northern Ireland during the early 18th century.
His paternal grandfather founded and built a prosperous lumber business which his father managed. In life, Adams condemned the industry his grandfather worked in for cutting down many of the great redwood forests. One of Adams's earliest memories was watching the smoke from the fires caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Four years old, Adams was uninjured in the initial shaking but was tossed face-first into a garden wall during an aftershock three hours breaking and scarring his nose. A doctor recommended that his nose be reset once he reached maturity, but it remained crooked and necessitated mouth breathing for his entire life. In 1907, his family moved 2 miles west to a new home near the Seacliff neighborhood, just south of the Presidio Army Base; the home had a "splendid view" of the Marin Headlands. Adams was a hyperactive child and prone to frequent hypochondria, he had few friends, but his family home and surroundings on the heights facing the Golden Gate provided ample childhood activities.
He had little patience for games or sports, but enjoyed the beauty of nature from an early age, collecting bugs and exploring Lobos Creek all the way to Baker Beach and the sea cliffs leading to Lands End, "San Francisco's wildest and rockiest coast, a place strewn with shipwrecks and rife with landslides." Adams's father had a three-inch telescope, they enthusiastically shared the hobby of amateur astronomy, visiting the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton together. His father served as the paid secretary-treasurer of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific from 1925 to 1950. Charles Adams's business suffered significant financial losses after the death of his father in the aftermath of the Panic of 1907; some of the induced near-poverty was because his uncle Ansel Easton and Cedric Wright's father George had secretly sold their shares of the company to the Hawaiian Sugar Trust for a large amount of money, "knowingly providing the controlling interest." By 1912, the family's standard of living had dropped sharply.
Adams was dismissed from several private schools for being restless and inattentive, so when he was 12 his father decided to remove him from school. For the next two years he was educated by private tutors, his aunt Mary, his father. Mary was a devotee of Robert G. Ingersoll, a 19th-century agnostic and women's suffrage advocate, so Ingersoll's teachings were important to his upbringing. During the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in 1915, his father insisted that he spend part of each day studying the exhibits as part of his education, he resumed and completed his formal education by attending the Mrs. Kate M. Wilkins Private School, graduating from eighth grade on June 8, 1917. During his years, he displayed his diploma in the guest bathroom of his home, his father raised him to follow the ideas of Ralph Waldo Emerson: to live a modest, moral life guided by a social responsibility to man and nature. Adams had a loving relationship with his father, but he had a distant relationship with his mother, who did not approve of his interest in photography.
The day after her death in 1950, Ansel had a dispute with the undertaker when choosing the casket in which to bury her. He chose the cheapest in the room, a $260 coffin that seemed the least he could purchase without doing the job himself; the undertaker remarked, "Have you no respect for the dead?" Adams replied, "One more crack like that and I will take Mama elsewhere." Adams became interested in piano at age 12 after hearing his sixteen-year-old neighbor, Henry Cowell, play on the Adamses' piano, he taught himself to play and read music. Cowell a well-known avante-garde composer, gave
Willard Van Dyke
Willard Van Dyke was an American filmmaker, arts administrator and former director of the film department at the Museum of Modern Art. Van Dyke went to the University of California, dropping out for a time to avoid taking an ROTC course. Van Dyke died in January 23, 1986 of a heart attack on his way to Cambridge, where he was named Laureate Artist in Residence at Harvard, he was 79 years old. Van Dyke is survived by the former Barbara Millikin, of New York. Y.. Van Dyke's involvement with photography started, he recalled that "I had been playing around with a camera and developing my own pictures since I was 12 years of age." In 1928, he went to see a photographic exhibition at the Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco, where he not only saw some Edward Weston’s work but met him. It was a life-changing experience. In 1928, he apprenticed with Edward Weston and by 1932 co-founded Group f/64, with Imogen Cunningham, Ansel Adams, Weston; the group’s approach emphasized both sharp and deep focus in contrast with the painterly approach of many other photographers.
Van Dyke soon abandoned still photography, saying in a 1982 documentary based on his life that he did not want to compete with his closest friend, Weston. Van Dyke's photographs were marked by a tendency to address social issues, as in portraits of migrant workers, as well as purely formal subjects; this interest led him to documentary films. "The effects of the Depression were disturbing to me, I felt anxious to promote change," he once said to an interviewer. "I was young and impatient, felt that the documentary film would more communicate issues to more people than would still photography." He suggested that he abandoned photography because he did not want to compete with his closest friend, Weston. In 1935, Van Dyke began making documentary films, he served as a cameraman on The River directed by Pare Lorentz. He worked with NYKINO, the film organization that involved Paul Strand, Ralph Steiner, Henri Cartier-Bresson, his film The City with Steiner, ran for two years at the New York World's Fair of 1939.
During World War II, he worked the OWI Overseas Motion Picture Bureau, acting as liaison officer between the OWI and a Hollywood writers. From 1946 to 1965, he was a producer/director of films for television and in the field of adult education, he directed films for the CBS Television programs, The Twentieth Century and The Twenty-First Century. In 1948, Van Dyke made the documentary film The Photographer about Edward Weston. In 1960, he was nominated with Shirley Clarke and Irving Jacoby for an Academy Award for the short documentary film Skyscraper; the Academy Film Archive has preserved a few of Willard Van Dyke's films, including The 21st Century/The Shape of Films To Come, Journey Into Medicine, The American Scene Number 6: Steel Town. Van Dyke was director of the Department of Film at the Museum of Modern Art from 1965 to 1974, overseeing the expansion of the department's archives and exhibitions, he started two programs for showing the work of avant-garde and documentary film makers, he introduced the work of modern and fellow documentary photographers and was credited with enhancing photography's position as a serious art form.
While director of the Department of Film, Mr. Van Dyke served as president of the Robert Flaherty International Film Seminars, as chairman of the faculty at the first cinema session of the Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, as vice-president of the International Federation of Film Archives. From 1976 he was a trustee and chairman of the Film Advisory Committee of the American Federation of Arts. After leaving the Museum of Modern Art in 1977, he became a professor at the State University of New York at Purchase, founded its film program and remained there until 1981. In 1978, Van Dyke was awarded the George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film. Director 1934 Hands 1939 The City 1940 Valley Town 1947 To Hear Your Banjo Play 1947 Journey Into Medicine 1948 The Photographer 1950 Choosing for Happiness 1950 This Charming Couple 1953 American Frontier 1961-1965 The Twentieth Century 1963 So That Men Are Free Cinematographer 1938 The River 1943 This Is Tomorrow 1954 The Lonely Night Producer 1947 To Hear Your Banjo Play 1948 The Photographer 1953 American Frontier 1954 The Lonely Night 1976 Nanook of the North Calmes, Leslie Squyres 1992 The Letters between Edward Weston & Willard Van Dyke.
Archive 30. The Center for Creative Photography, Tucson, 67 pp. a few black-and-white illustrations, 8½x11". Enyeart, James L. 2008 Willard Van Dyke: Changing the World Through Photography and Film. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press. Rothschild, Amalie 1981 Conversations With Willard Van Dyke. New Day Films
Group f/64 was a group founded by seven 20th-century San Francisco Bay Area photographers who shared a common photographic style characterized by focused and framed images seen through a Western viewpoint. In part, they formed in opposition to the pictorialist photographic style that had dominated much of the early 20th century, but moreover, they wanted to promote a new modernist aesthetic, based on exposed images of natural forms and found objects; the late 1920s and early 1930s were a time of substantial social and economic unrest in the United States. The United States was suffering through the Great Depression, people were seeking some respite from their everyday hardships; the American West was seen as the base for future economic recovery because of massive public works projects like the Hoover Dam. The public sought out news and images of the West because it represented a land of hope in an otherwise bleak time, they were attracted to the work of such photographers as Ansel Adams, whose strikingly detailed photographs of the American West were seen as "pictorial testimony…of inspiration and redemptive power."At the same time, workers throughout the country were beginning to organize for better wages and working conditions.
There was a growing movement among the economically oppressed to band together for solidarity and bargaining strength, photographers were directly participating in these activities. Shortly before Group f/64 was formed, Edward Weston went to a meeting of the John Reed Club, founded to support Marxist artists and writers; these circumstances not only helped set up the situation in which a group of like-minded friends decided to come together around a common interest, but they played a significant role in how they thought about their effort. Group f/64 was more than a club of artists. While all of this social change was going on, photographers were struggling to redefine what their medium looked like and what it was supposed to represent; until the 1920s the primary aesthetic standard of photography was pictorialism, championed by Alfred Stieglitz and others as the highest form of photographic art. That began to change in the early 1920s with a new generation of photographers like Paul Strand and Imogen Cunningham, but by the end of that decade there was no clear successor to pictorialism as a common visual art form.
Photographers like Weston were tired of the old way of seeing and were eager to promote their new vision. Group f/64 was created when photographers Willard Van Dyke and Ansel Adams decided to organize some of their fellow photographers for the purposes of promoting a common aesthetic principle. Van Dyke was an apprentice to Edward Weston, in the early 1930s he established a small photography gallery in his home at 683 Brockhurst in Oakland, he called the gallery 683 "as our way of thumbing our nose at the New York people who didn't know us", a direct reference to Stieglitz and his earlier New York gallery called 291. Van Dyke's home/gallery became a gathering place for a close circle of photographers that became the core of Group f/64. In 1931, Weston was given an exhibition at the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco, because of the public's interest in that show the photographers who gathered at Van Dyke's home decided to put together a group exhibition of their work. They convinced the director at the de Young Museum to give them the space, on November 15, 1932, the first exhibition of Group f/64 opened to large crowds.
A small poster at the exhibition said: Group f/64 — Ansel Adams Imogen Cunningham John Paul Edwards Sonya Noskowiak Henry Swift Willard Van Dyke Edward Westonannounces an exhibition of photographs at the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum. From time to time various other photographers will be asked to display their work with Group f/64; those invited for the first showing are: Preston Holder Consuelo Kanaga Alma Lavenson Brett Weston. This first exhibition consisted of 80 photographs, including 10 by Adams, 9 each by Cunningham, Noskowiak, Van Dyke and Edward Weston, 4 each by Holder, Kanaga and Brett Weston. Edward Weston's prints were priced at $15 each; the show ran for six weeks. In 1934 the group posted a notice in Camera Craft magazine that said "The F:64 group includes in its membership such well known names as Edward Weston, Ansel Adams, Willard Van Dyke, John Paul Edwards, Imogene Cunningham, Consuela Kanaga and several others." While this announcement implies that all of the photographers in the first exhibition were "members" of Group f/64, not all of the individuals considered themselves as such.
In an interview in her life, Kanaga said "I was in that f/64 show with Edward Weston, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke and Ansel Adams, but I wasn't in a group, nor did I belong to anything ever. I wasn't a belonger."Some photo historians view Group f/64 as an organized faction consisting of the first seven photographers, view the other four photographers as associated with the group by virtue of their visual aesthetics. However, in an interview in 1997 Dody Weston Thompson reported that in 1949 she was invited to join Group f/64, she recounted that her husband Brett Weston, whom she married in 1952 considered himself a member. This suggests that an absolute delineation of membership in historical terms is difficult to determine in light of the informality of the group’s shifting social composition during the 1930s and 1940s. There is some difference of opinion about. Van Dyke recalle
Alfred Stieglitz was an American photographer and modern art promoter, instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form. In addition to his photography, Stieglitz was known for the New York art galleries that he ran in the early part of the 20th century, where he introduced many avant-garde European artists to the U. S, he was married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe. Stieglitz was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, the first son of German Jewish immigrants Edward Stieglitz and Hedwig Ann Werner, his father was a lieutenant in the Union Army. He had five siblings, twins Julius and Leopold and Selma. Alfred Stieglitz, seeing the close relationship of the twins, wished he had a soul mate of his own during his childhood. Stieglitz attended Charlier Institute, a Christian school in New York, in 1871; the following year, his family began spending the summers at Lake George in the Adirondack Mountains, a tradition that continued into Stieglitz's adulthood. So that he could qualify for admission to the City College of New York, Stieglitz was enrolled in a public school for his junior year of high school, but found the education inadequate.
In 1881, Edward Stieglitz sold his company for US$40,000 and moved his family to Europe for the next several years so that his children would receive a better education. Alfred Stieglitz enrolled in the Real Gymnasium in Karlsruhe; the next year, Stieglitz studied mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin. He enrolled in a chemistry class taught by Hermann Wilhelm Vogel, a scientist and researcher, who worked on the chemical processes for developing photographs. In Vogel, Stieglitz found both the academic challenge he needed and an outlet for his growing artistic and cultural interests, he received an allowance of $1,200 a month. German artists Adolf von Menzel and Wilhelm Hasemann were his friends, he bought his first camera and traveled through the European countryside, taking photographs of landscapes and peasants in Germany and the Netherlands. Photography, he wrote, "fascinated me, first as a toy as a passion as an obsession."In 1884, his parents returned to America, but 20-year-old Stieglitz remained in Germany and collected books on photography and photographers in Europe and the U.
S. Through his self-study, he saw photography as an art form. In 1887, he wrote his first article, "A Word or Two about Amateur Photography in Germany", for the new magazine The Amateur Photographer, he wrote articles on the technical and aesthetic aspects of photography for magazines in England and Germany. He won first place for The Last Joke, Bellagio, in 1887 from Amateur Photographer; the next year he won both first and second prizes in the same competition, his reputation began to spread as several German and British photographic magazines published his work. In 1890, his sister Flora died while giving birth, Stieglitz returned to New York. Stieglitz considered himself an artist, his father purchased a small photography business for him so that he could earn a living in his chosen profession. Because he demanded high quality images and paid his employee high wages, the Photochrome Engraving Company made a profit, he wrote for The American Amateur Photographer magazine. He won awards for his photographs at exhibitions, including the joint exhibition of the Boston Camera Club, Photographic Society of Philadelphia and the Society of Amateur Photographers of New York.
In late 1892, Stieglitz bought his first hand-held camera, a Folmer and Schwing 4×5 plate film camera, which he used to take two of his best known images, Fifth Avenue and The Terminal. Prior to that he used an 8×10 plate film camera that required a tripod. Stieglitz gained a reputation for his photography and his magazine articles about how photography is a form of art. In the spring of 1893, he became co-editor of The American Amateur Photographer. In order to avoid the appearance of bias in his opinions and because Photochrome was now printing the photogravures for the magazine, Stieglitz refused to draw a salary, he wrote most of the articles and reviews in the magazine, was known for both his technical and his critical content. On November 16, 1893, the 29 year-old Stieglitz married 20 year-old Emmeline Obermeyer, the sister of his close friend and business associate Joe Obermeyer and granddaughter of brewer Samuel Liebmann, they were married in New York City. Stieglitz wrote that he did not love Emmy, as she was known, when they were married and that their marriage was not consummated for at least a year.
Daughter of a wealthy brewery owner, she had inherited money from her father, a wealthy brewery owner and his father lost a great deal of money in the stock market. He came to regret his decision to marry Emmy, as she did not share his artistic and cultural interests. Stieglitz biographer Richard Whelan summed up their relationship by saying Stieglitz "resented her bitterly for not becoming his twin." Throughout his life Stieglitz maintained a fetish for younger women. In early 1894, Stieglitz and his wife took a delayed honeymoon to France and Switzerland. Stieglitz photographed extensively on the trip, producing some of his early famous images such as A Venetian Canal, The Net Mender and A Wet Day on the Boulevard, Paris. While in Paris, Stieglitz met French photographer Robert Demachy, who became a lifelong correspondent and colleague. In London, Stieglitz met The Linked Ring founders George Davison and Alfred Horsley Hinton, both of whom remained his friends and colleagues throughout much of his life.
In the year, after his return, Stieg