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Consul (representative)

A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries. A consul is distinguished from an ambassador, the latter being a representative from one head of state to another, but both have a form of immunity. There can be only one ambassador from one country to another, representing the first country's head of state to that of the second, his or her duties revolve around diplomatic relations between the two countries. A less common usage is an administrative consul, who takes a governing role and is appointed by a country that has colonised or occupied another. In classical Greece, some of the functions of the modern consul were fulfilled by a proxenos. Unlike the modern position, this was a citizen of the host polity; the proxenos was a wealthy merchant who had socio-economic ties with another city and who helped its citizens when they were in trouble in his own city.

The position of proxenos was hereditary in a particular family. Modern honorary consuls fulfill a function, to a degree similar to that of the ancient Greek institution. Consuls were the highest magistrates of the Roman Roman Empire; the term was revived by the Republic of Genoa, unlike Rome, bestowed it on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included duties similar to those of the modern consul, i. e. helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities. The consolat de mar was an institution established under the reign of Peter IV of Aragon in the fourteenth century, spread to 47 locations throughout the Mediterranean, it was a judicial body, administering maritime and commercial law as Lex Mercatoria. Although the consolat de mar was established by the Corts General of the Crown of Aragon, the consuls were independent from the King; this distinction between consular and diplomatic functions remains to this day.

Modern consuls retain limited judicial powers to settle disputes on ships from their country. The consulado de mercaderes was set up in 1543 in Seville as a merchant guild to control trade with Latin America; as such, it had branches in the principal cities of the Spanish colonies. The connection of "consul" with trade and commercial law is retained in French. In Francophone countries, a juge consulaire is a non-professional judge elected by the chamber of commerce to settle commercial disputes in the first instance; the office of a consul is a consulate and is subordinate to the state's main representation in the capital of that foreign country an embassy or – between Commonwealth countries – high commission. Like the terms embassy or high commission, consulate may refer not only to the office of consul, but to the building occupied by the consul and his or her staff; the consulate may share premises with the embassy itself. A consul of the highest rank is termed a consul-general, is appointed to a consulate-general.

There are one or more deputy consuls-general, vice-consuls, consular agents working under the consul-general. A country may appoint more than one consul-general to another nation. Consuls of various ranks may have specific legal authority for certain activities, such as notarizing documents; as such, diplomatic personnel with other responsibilities may receive consular letters patent. Aside from those outlined in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, there are few formal requirements outlining what a consular official must do. For example, for some countries, consular officials may be responsible for the issue of visas. Nonetheless, consulates proper will be headed by consuls of various ranks if such officials have little or no connection with the more limited sense of consular service. Activities of a consulate include protecting the interests of their citizens temporarily or permanently resident in the host country, issuing passports. However, the principal role of a consulate lies traditionally in promoting trade—assisting companies to invest and to import and export goods and services both inwardly to their home country and outward to their host country.

Although it is not admitted publicly, like embassies, may gather intelligence information from the assigned country. Contrary to popular belief, many of the staff of consulates may be career diplomats, but they do not have diplomatic immunity unless they are accredited as such. Immunities and privileges for consuls and accredited staff of consulates are limited to actions undertaken in their official capacity and, with respect to the consulate itself, to those required for official duties. In practice, the extension and application of consular privileges and immunities can differ from country to country. Consulates are more numerous than diplomatic missions, such as embassies. Ambassadors ar

Anonymus (notary of Béla III)

Anonymus Bele regis notarius or Master P. was the notary and chronicler of a Hungarian King Béla III. Little is known about him, but his latinized name began with P, as he referred to himself as "P. dictus magister". Anonymus is famous for his work Gesta Hungarorum, written in Medieval Latin around 1200; this work provides the most detailed history of the arrival of the Hungarians to the Carpathian Basin. Most of his attempts to explain the origin of several Hungarian place names are unsupported by modern etymology; the identity of the author of the Gesta has always been subject to scholarly debate. Although the first words of the opening sentence—an initial "P" followed with the words "dictus magister ac quondam bone memorie gloriosissimi Bele regis Hungarie notarius"—describe him, they cannot be interpreted unambiguously. First of all, the interpretation of the "P dictus magister" text is unclear; the text may refer to a man whose monogram was P or it may be an abbreviation of the Latin word for "aforementioned" in reference to a name on the title page, now missing.

Most scholars accept the former version, translating the text as "P, called magister, sometime notary of the most glorious Béla, king of Hungary of fond memory". In his 1937 study, historian Loránd Szilágyi identified Anonymus with a certain Peter, a canon, alter provost of the cathedral chapter of Esztergom. Several authors shared his view until 1966, when literary journal Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények published the papers of János Horváth, Jr. and Károly Sólyom, who claimed Anonymus was identical with Peter, Bishop of Győr. The renowned historian György Györffy refused their theory in 1970 and considered authorship of a Peter, who served as provost of Buda, despite the fact that there is no data on the existence of such a person. Text of the Gesta Hungarorum

Danbury, Nebraska

Danbury is a village in Red Willow County, United States. The population was 101 at the 2010 census. A post office at Danbury was established in 1888, it was named after Danbury, the former hometown of the first postmaster. Danbury was incorporated as a village in 1898. Danbury is located at 40°2′20″N 100°24′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.32 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 101 people, 50 households, 31 families residing in the village; the population density was 315.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 61 housing units at an average density of 190.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 1.0 % from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 50 households of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families. 38.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.65. The median age in the village was 48.3 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 50.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 127 people, 54 households, 38 families residing in the village; the population density was 378.7 people per square mile. There were 60 housing units at an average density of 178.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 54 households out of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 1.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.87. In the village, the population spread was 25.2% of the population under the age of 18, 3.9% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.1 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $33,750, the median income for a family was $44,583. Males had a median income of $24,464 versus $18,958 for females; the per capita income for the village was $19,512. There were 4.9% of families and 8.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 19.0% of those over 64