In publishing, a colophon is a brief statement containing information about the publication of a book such as the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. A colophon may be emblematic or pictorial in nature, colophons were formerly printed at the ends of books, but in modern works they are usually located at the verso of the title-leaf. The term colophon derives from the Late Latin colophōn, from the Greek κολοφών and it should not be confused with Colophon, an ancient city in Asia Minor, after which colophony, or rosin, is named. The term is applied to clay tablet inscriptions appended by a scribe to the end of an Ancient Near East text such as a chapter, manuscript. The colophon usually contained facts relative to the such as associated person, literary contents. Colophons and catch phrases helped the reader organize and identify various tablets, colophons on ancient tablets are comparable to a signature line in modern times. Bibliographically, they closely resemble the imprint page in a modern book.
Examples of colophons in ancient literature may be found in the compilation The Ancient Near East, Supplementary Texts, colophons are found in the Pentateuch, where an understanding of this ancient literary convention illuminates passages that are otherwise unclear or incoherent. An extensive study of the eleven colophons found in the book of Genesis was done by Percy John Wiseman. C. sometimes additional information, such as the name of a proofreader or editor, or other more-or-less relevant details, might be added. A colophon might be emblematic or pictorial rather than in words, the normal position for a colophon was after the explicit. After around 1500 these data were transferred to the title page. Colophons sometimes contained book curses, as this was the one place in a medieval manuscript where a scribe was free to write what he wished, such curses tend to be unique to each book. In Great Britain colophons grew generally less common in the 16th century, in some parts of the world, colophons helped fledgling printers and printing companies gain social recognition.
For example, in early modern Armenia printers used colophons as a way to gain power by getting their name out into the social sphere. Some commercial publishers took up the use of colophons, and began to include details in their books. Such colophons might identify the designer, the software used, the printing method, the printing company, the typeface used in the page design. Book publishers Alfred A. Knopf, the Folio Society and OReilly Media are notable for their substantial colophons, some web pages have colophons, which frequently contain HTML, CSS, or usability standards compliance information and links to website validation tests. Jerusalem Colophon Union label Wiseman hypothesis
Parliament of Catalonia
The Parliament of Catalonia is the unicameral legislature of Catalonia. It is formed by 135 members, who are elected every four years or after extraordinary dissolution, chosen by universal suffrage in lists with four constituencies, the Parliament building is located in Ciutadella park, Barcelona. The most recent parliamentary elections were held on 27 September 2015, the first representative and legislative bodies in Catalonia were the Peace and Truce of God Assemblies, of which the earliest record dates from 1027. These were originally ad hoc, local meetings convened by the Church, the first Catalan legal code, the Usatges de Barcelona, was promulgated by Count Ramon Berenguer I based on the decisions of these assemblies. Their personal resources were insufficient in periods of economic crisis or military expansion. The need to secure troops and revenue led to the expansion of the royal court. The Corts Catalanes were composed of Three Estates, representing the Church, the feudal nobles, inhabitants of feudal towns were not represented, except by their overlords.
The main function of the Corts was legislative, either in approving laws proposed by the King or at their own initiative. Although the Corts met at irregular intervals, it formally approved the acts of the King between their sessions and, from 1359, established a permanent delegation to oversee the Crown. The Catalan Courts were abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees in 1716 after Catalonias defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, there were several attempts in the early 20th century to institute an autonomous system of representation for Catalonia. The republican Parliament remains exiled since 1939, after the death of the dictator and the progressive restoration of democracy, the new Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979 recognized the restoration of the Parliament. The first legislature of the current Parliament of Catalonia was elected in 20 March 1980, to elect the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya. To pass the Catalan legislation in the business of its competence, to pass the Budget of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
To control the action of the Government of Catalonia and the agencies, public companies
Chamber of commerce
A chamber of commerce is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community, local businesses are members, and they elect a board of directors or executive council to set policy for the chamber. The board or council hires a President, CEO or Executive Director, plus staffing appropriate to size, the first chamber of commerce was founded in 1599 in Marseille, France. Another official chamber of commerce would follow 65 years later, probably in Bruges, Hull Chamber of Commerce is the UKs oldest, followed by those of Leeds and of Belfast in Northern Ireland. As a non-governmental institution, a chamber of commerce has no role in the writing and passage of laws. It may however, lobby in an attempt to get laws passed that are favorable to businesses, membership in an individual chamber can range from a few dozen to well over 800,000, as is the case with the Paris Île-de-France Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Some chamber organizations in China report even larger membership numbers, Chambers of commerce can range in scope from individual neighborhoods within a city or town up to an international chamber of commerce. In addition, Chambers represent the interests of businesses, while the BBB represents both the interests of businesses and the general public, some Chambers are partially funded by local government, others are non-profit, and some are a combination of the two. Chambers of commerce can include economic development corporations or groups as well as tourism, some chambers have joined state and even international bodies. Currently, there are about 13,000 chambers registered in the official Worldchambers Network registry, and this network is informal, with each local chamber incorporated and operating separately, rather than as a chapter of a national or state chamber. Chambers of commerce in the United States can be considered community, regional, city Chambers work on the local level to bring the business community together to develop strong local networks, which can result in a business-to-business exchange.
In most cases, city Chambers work with their government, such as their mayor, their city council. There are bilateral chambers of commerce that link the business environments of two countries, community chambers of commerce have started in the UK and spread to in the US, becoming city chambers of commerce as the communities developed and became larger. Community chambers of commerce are smaller and most have a limits on numbers of members, city chambers of commerce have a long history in the US. The Charleston Chamber of Commerce is one of the oldest, dating back to colonial 1773 and that same year, Bostons Chamber of Commerce organized a seminal tax protest, The Boston Tea Party. In 2005 there were 2,800 chambers of commerce in the United States and 102 chambers representing U. S. businesses overseas. State chambers of commerce are much different from local and regional chambers of commerce, as work on state. State Chambers work with their Governor, state representatives, state senators, US congressional leaders, understanding the National or International need for understanding and information is the key service that these level of chambers of commerce provide
Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1. 5–1.6 million people. Valencia is Spains third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million, the Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea. The city is ranked at Gamma in the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, and called Valentia Edetanorum. In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon reconquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it and he created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812.
It served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic, the city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea. Valencia is integrated into an area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencias main festival is the Falles, the traditional Spanish dish, originated in Valencia. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning strength, or valour, the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. It is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city, by gradual sound changes, Valentia /waˈlentia/ has become Valencia or in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent <è> /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent <é> /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule and it is spelled according to Catalan etymology, though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin.
Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, at its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia,6.4 km from the sea. The Albufera, a lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain. The City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, in 1986, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate with short, very mild winters and long and its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C.23.0 °C during the day and 13.8 °C at night. In the coldest month – January, the temperature typically during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C. In the warmest month – August, the temperature during the day typically ranges from 28–34 °C. Generally, similar temperatures to those experienced in the part of Europe in summer last about 8 months
A sea captain is a high-grade licensed mariner in ultimate command of the merchant vessel. A ships captain commands and manages all ships personnel, and is typically in charge of the accounting, payrolls. The captain is responsible for responding to and reporting in case of accidents and incidents, the captain ensures that the ship complies with local and international laws and complies with company policies. One of a particularly important duties is to ensure compliance with the vessels security plan. The security plan covers such as refugees and asylum seekers, smuggling. On ships without a purser, the captain is in charge of the ships accounting and this includes ensuring an adequate amount of cash on board, coordinating the ships payroll, and managing the ships slop chest. On international voyages, the captain is responsible for satisfying requirements of the local immigration, customs requirements can include the master providing a cargo declaration, a ships stores declaration, a declaration of crewmembers personal effects, crew lists and passenger lists.
The master acts as a liaison to local investigators and is responsible for providing complete and accurate logbooks, statements, specific examples of the ship causing external damage include collisions with other ships or with fixed objects, grounding the vessel, and dragging anchor. Some common causes of damage include heavy weather, water damage, pilferage. There is a belief that ship captains have historically been. In most countries of ships registry, ship captains are not, the United States Navy defined a captain’s powers in its 1913 Code of Regulations, specifically stating, The commanding officer shall not perform a marriage ceremony on board his ship or aircraft. New Jerseys 1919 Bolmer v. Edsall said a shipboard marriage ceremony is governed by the laws of the nation where ownership of the vessel lies. In the United Kingdom, the captain of a merchant ship has never permitted to perform marriages. In other countries of ships registry, the situation varies. Most do not permit performance of a marriage by the master of a ship at sea, japan allows ship captains to perform a marriage ceremony at sea, but only for Japanese citizens.
Malta and Bermuda permit captains of ships registered in their jurisdictions to perform marriages at sea, princess Cruises, whose ships are registered in Bermuda, has used this as a selling point for their cruises since 1998. In 2011, Cunard announced its intention to move the registration of “Queen Mary 2″, “Queen Victoria” and “Queen Elizabeth” from Southampton, in the United Kingdom, to Bermuda. Some captains obtain other credentials, which allow them to perform marriages in jurisdictions where they would otherwise not be permitted to do so
Peter III of Aragon
Peter the Great was the King of Aragon of Valencia, and Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death. At the invitation of some rebels, he conquered Sicily and became its king in 1282, pressing the claim of his wife, Constance of Hohenstaufen and he was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs. Peter was the eldest son of James I of Aragon and his second wife Violant of Hungary, among betrothals of his youth, he was betrothed to Eudoxia Laskarina, the youngest daughter of Emperor Theodoros II of Nicaea, in or before 1260. This contract was dissolved, after Eudoxias brother lost the throne in 1261. On 13 June 1262, Peter married Constance and heiress of Manfred of Sicily, during his youth and early adulthood, Peter gained a great deal of military experience in his fathers wars of the Reconquista against the Moors. On James Is death in 1276, the lands of the Crown of Aragon were divided amongst his two sons, Peter the Great and Constance of Sicily were crowned in Zaragoza in November 1276 by the archbishop of Tarragona.
Peters first act as king was to complete the pacification of his Valencian territory, however, a revolt soon broke out in Catalonia, led by the viscount of Cardona and abetted by Roger-Bernard III of Foix, Arnold Roger I of Pallars Sobirà, and Ermengol X of Urgell. The rebels had developed a hatred for Peter as a result of the severity of his dealings with them during the reign of his father, now they opposed him for not summoning the Catalan corts, and confirming its privileges after his ascension to the throne. At the same time, a succession crisis continued in the County of Urgell, meanwhile, a good portion of the county had been repossessed by Peters father, James I, and was thus inherited by Peter in 1276. In 1278, Ermengol X, Álvaros eldest son, succeeded in recovering most of his lost patrimony, in 1280, Peter defeated the stewing rebellion led by Roger-Bernard III after besieging the rebels in Balaguer for a month. Most of the leaders were imprisoned in Lleida until 1281. When Muhammad I al-Mustansir, the Hafsid Emir of Tunisia who had put himself under James the Conqueror, died in 1277, Peter first sent an expedition to Tunis in 1280 under Conrad de Llansa designed to re-establish his suzerainty.
In 1281, he prepared to lead a fleet of 140 ships with 15,000 men to invade Tunisia on behalf of the governor of Constantine. The fleet landed at Alcoyll in 1282 and it was these Aragonese troops that received a Sicilian embassy after the Vespers of 30 March asking Peter to take their throne from Charles of Anjou. This made Peter III the heir of Manfred of Sicily in right of his wife, the Italian physician John of Procida acted on behalf of Peter in Sicily. John had fled to Aragon after Charles success at Tagliacozzo, John travelled to Sicily to stir up the discontents in favour of Peter and thence to Constantinople to procure the support of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Michael refused to aid the Aragonese king without papal approval, and so John voyaged to Rome and there gained the consent of Pope Nicholas III, who feared the ascent of Charles in the Mezzogiorno. John returned to Barcelona but the pope died, to be replaced by Simon de Brion, a Frenchman and an ally of Charles
The Catalan constitutions were the laws promulgated by the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona and approved by the Catalan Courts. The Corts in Catalan have the origin as courts in English. The first constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of 1283, the last ones were promulgated by the Corts of 1705. They had pre-eminence over the legal rules and could only be revoked by the Catalan Courts themselves. The compilations of the constitutions and other rights of Catalonia followed the Roman tradition of the Codex, the first compilation was prescribed by Ferdinand I of Aragon, and suggestion by the Corts of Barcelona from 1413. It spread in edition of the 1495, together with the Usages of Barcelona, Usatges of Barcelona, constitutions and acts of court and other laws of Catalonia. This series of decrees abolished the laws of the territories that supported his rival to the throne, the Archduke Charles of Austria. The Decretos attempted to make Spain into a state on the model of France. These acts were promulgated in Valencia and Aragon in 1707, and were extended in 1716 to Catalonia, the Catalan Constitutions were effectively abolished by the Kings authority after his military victory, rather than through any legislative process within Catalonia itself.
The change ignored the Catalan Constitutions own provisions for how they were to be amended or reformed, during the Third Carlist War, the Carlist forces managed to occupy some cities in the Catalan interior. Isabel II was in exile and King Amadeo I had reigned since 1871, the promise was never fulfilled, as the Carlist revolt did not succeed. Carlos María de los Dolores finally departed for France,27 February 1876, principality of Catalonia Parliament of Catalonia Decretos de Nueva Planta Catalan Grand Company Constitucions de Catalunya del 1495 on Wikisource. Furs, capítols, provisions e actes de cort fets y atorgats per la S. C. R. M, del rey don Phelip nostre senyor, ara gloriosamente regnant. Constitutions y altres drets de Cathalunya, Barcelona,1704 on Wikisource, chapters of the Corts of Montsó digitalized, at the Spanish Office of Culture record image The demise of the catalan dynasty and the growing estrangement of the crown
Messina is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina. It is located near the northeast corner of Sicily, at the Strait of Messina, opposite Villa San Giovanni on the mainland, according to Eurostat the FUA of the metropolitan area of Messina has, in 2014,277,584 inhabitants. The citys main resources are its seaports, cruise tourism, the city has been a Roman Catholic Archdiocese and Archimandrite seat since 1548 and is home to a locally important international fair. The city has the University of Messina, founded in 1548 by Ignatius of Loyola, Messina has a light rail system, Tranvia di Messina, that was opened on 3 April 2003. This line is 7.7 kilometres and links the central railway station with the city centre. The city is home to a significant Greek-speaking minority, rooted in its history, founded by Greek colonists in the 8th century BC, Messina was originally called Zancle, from the Greek ζάγκλον meaning scythe because of the shape of its natural harbour. A comune of its Metropolitan City, located at the entrance of the Strait of Messina, is to this day called Scaletta Zanclea.
In the early 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegium renamed it Messene in honour of the Greek city Messene, the city was sacked in 397 BC by the Carthaginians and reconquered by Dionysius I of Syracuse. In 288 BC the Mamertines seized the city by treachery, killing all the men, the city became a base from which they ravaged the countryside, leading to a conflict with the expanding regional empire of Syracuse. Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Mamertines near Mylae on the Longanus River, carthage assisted the Mamertines because of a long-standing conflict with Syracuse over dominance in Sicily. When Hiero attacked a second time in 264 BC, the Mamertines petitioned the Roman Republic for an alliance, although initially reluctant to assist lest it encourage other mercenary groups to mutiny, Rome was unwilling to see Carthaginian power spread further over Sicily and encroach on Italy. Rome therefore entered into an alliance with the Mamertines, in 264 BC, Roman troops were deployed to Sicily, the first time a Roman army acted outside the Italian Peninsula.
At the end of the First Punic War it was a city allied with Rome. In Roman times Messina, known as Messana, had an important pharos, Messana was the base of Sextus Pompeius, during his war against Octavian. In 1548 St. Ignatius founded there the first Jesuit college in the world, the Christian ships that won the Battle of Lepanto left from Messina, the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, who took part in the battle, recovered for some time in the Grand Hospital. The city reached the peak of its splendour in the early 17th century, under Spanish domination, in 1674 the city rebelled against the foreign garrison. A massive fortress was built by the occupants and Messina decayed steadily, in 1743,48,000 died of plague in the city. In 1783, an earthquake devastated much of the city, and it took decades to rebuild, in 1847 it was one of the first cities in Italy where Risorgimento riots broke out
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Any such act is known as a notarization. The term notary public only refers to common-law notaries and should not be confused with civil-law notaries, Notaries are appointed by a government authority, such as a court or lieutenant governor, or by a regulating body often known as a society or faculty of notaries public. For lawyer notaries, an appointment may be for life, while lay notaries are usually commissioned for a briefer term, in most common law countries and their number for a given notarial district are highly regulated. To these documents a notary affixes a notarial certificate which attests to the execution of the document, usually by the person who appears before the notary, originals or secondary originals are filed and stored in the notarys archives, or protocol. Notaries are generally required to undergo training in the performance of their duties. Some must first serve as an apprentice before being commissioned or licensed to practice their profession, notaries public in the U. S.
Notarial practice is universally considered to be distinct and separate from that of an attorney. In England and Wales, there is a course of study for notaries which is conducted under the auspices of the University of Cambridge and the Society of Notaries of England and Wales. In bi-juridical jurisdictions, such as South Africa or Louisiana, the office of notary public is a profession with educational requirements similar to those for attorneys. Many even have institutes of learning that offer degrees in notarial law. Therefore, despite their name, notaries public in these jurisdictions are in civil law notaries. Notaries public hold an office which can trace its origins back to the ancient Roman Republic, the history of notaries is set out in detail in Chapter 1 of Brookes Notary, The office of a public notary is a public office. It has a long and distinguished history, the office has its origin in the civil institutions of ancient Rome. A writer who adopted the new method was called a notarius, originally, a notary was one who took down statements in shorthand using these notes, and wrote them out in the form of memoranda or minutes.
Later, the title notarius was applied almost exclusively to registrars attached to government officials, including provincial governors. Notwithstanding the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century AD, the separate development of the common law in England, free from most of the influences of Roman law, meant that notaries were not introduced into England until in the 13th and 14th centuries. At first, notaries in England were appointed by the Papal Legate, in 1279 the Archbishop of Canterbury was authorized by the Pope to appoint notaries. Not surprisingly, in early days, many of the notaries were members of the clergy. The Reformation produced no change in the position and functions of notaries in England
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Lex mercatoria, often referred to as the Law Merchant in English, is the body of commercial law used by merchants throughout Europe during the medieval period. It evolved similar to English common law as a system of custom and best practice and it functioned as the international law of commerce. It emphasised contractual freedom and alienability of property, while shunning legal technicalities, a distinct feature was the reliance by merchants on a legal system developed and administered by them. States or local authorities seldom interfered, and did not interfere a lot in internal domestic trade, under lex mercatoria trade flourished and states took in large amounts of taxation. In the last years new theories had changed the understanding of this medieval treatise considering it as proposal for reform or a document used for instructional purposes. These theories consider that the treatise cannot be described as a body of laws applicable in its time, the text is composed by 21 sections and an annex.
The sections described procedural matters such as the presence of witnesses, the lex mercatoria was originally a body of rules and principles laid down by merchants to regulate their dealings. It consisted of rules and customs common to merchants and traders in Europe and it originated from the need for quick and effective jurisdiction, administered by specialised courts. International commercial law today owes some of its principles to the lex mercatoria. This includes choice of arbitration institutions, applicable law and arbitrators and services flowed freely during the medieval merchant law, thus generating more wealth for all involved. It is debated whether the law was uniform in nature, was spontaneous as a method of dispute resolution, the lex mercatoria was a means for local communities to protect their own markets. Local kings or lords extracted taxes and set trade restrictions, in 1303 Edward I issued the Carta Mercatoria, a charter to foreign merchants in England, which guaranteed them freedom to trade, with certain protections and exemption under the law.
The lex mercatoria was the product of customs and practices among traders, the merchants needed to solve their disputes rapidly, sometimes on the hour, with the least costs and by the most efficient means. Public courts did not provide this, a trial before the courts would delay their business, and that meant losing money. The lex mercatoria provided quick and effective justice and this was possible through informal proceedings, with liberal procedural rules. The lex mercatoria rendered proportionate judgements over the disputes, in light of fair price, good commerce. Judges were chosen according to their background and practical knowledge. Their reputation rested upon their perceived expertise in merchant trade and their fair-mindedness, gradually, a professional judiciary developed through the merchant judges