Richard Matthew Stallman known by his initials, RMS, is an American free software movement activist and programmer. He campaigns for software to be distributed in a manner such that its users receive the freedoms to use, study and modify that software. Software that ensures these freedoms is termed free software. Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, wrote the GNU General Public License. Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed of free software. With this, he launched the free software movement, he has been the GNU project's lead architect and organizer, developed a number of pieces of used GNU software including, among others, the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU Debugger and the GNU Emacs text editor. In October 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation. Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, which uses the principles of copyright law to preserve the right to use and distribute free software, is the main author of free software licenses which describe those terms, most notably the GNU General Public License, the most used free software license.
In 1989, he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. Since the mid-1990s, Stallman had spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against software patents, digital rights management, other legal and technical systems which he sees as taking away users' freedoms; this has included software license agreements, non-disclosure agreements, activation keys, copy restriction, proprietary formats and binary executables without source code. Stallman was born March 16, 1953 in New York City, to a family of Jewish heritage, though Stallman is an atheist, his parents are Alice Lippman, a school teacher, Daniel Stallman, a printing press broker. Stallman had a difficult relationship with his parents, as his father had a drinking habit and verbally abused his stepmother, he came to describe his parents as "tyrants". He was interested in computers at a young age. From 1967 to 1969, Stallman attended a Columbia University Saturday program for high school students. Stallman was a volunteer laboratory assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University.
Although he was interested in mathematics and physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he showed promise as a biologist. His first experience with actual computers was at the IBM New York Scientific Center when he was in high school, he was hired for the summer in 1970, following his senior year of high school, to write a numerical analysis program in Fortran. He completed the task after a couple of weeks and spent the rest of the summer writing a text editor in APL and a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM System/360; as a first-year student at Harvard University in fall 1970, Stallman was known for his strong performance in Math 55. He was happy: "For the first time in my life, I felt I had found a home at Harvard."In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, became a regular in the hacker community, where he was known by his initials, RMS. Stallman received a bachelor's degree in physics from Harvard in 1974.
Stallman considered staying on at Harvard, but instead he decided to enroll as a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He pursued a doctorate in physics for one year, but left that program to focus on his programming at the MIT AI Laboratory. While working as a research assistant at MIT under Gerry Sussman, Stallman published a paper in 1977 on an AI truth maintenance system, called dependency-directed backtracking; this paper was an early work on the problem of intelligent backtracking in constraint satisfaction problems. As of 2009, the technique Stallman and Sussman introduced is still the most general and powerful form of intelligent backtracking; the technique of constraint recording, wherein partial results of a search are recorded for reuse, was introduced in this paper. As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, the Lisp machine operating system, he would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab, which at that time was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman found a way to decrypt the passwords and sent users messages containing their decoded password, with a suggestion to change it to the empty string instead, to re-enable anonymous access to the systems. Around 20 percent of the users followed his advice at the time, although passwords prevailed. Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived on began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution. Such
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Trusted Platform Module
Trusted Platform Module is an international standard for a secure cryptoprocessor, a dedicated microcontroller designed to secure hardware through integrated cryptographic keys. Trusted Platform Module was conceived by a computer industry consortium called Trusted Computing Group, was standardized by International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission in 2009 as ISO/IEC 11889. TCG continued to revise the TPM specifications; the last revised edition of TPM Main Specification Version 1.2 was published on March 3, 2011. It consisted based on their purpose. For the second major version of TPM, however, TCG released TPM Library Specification 2.0, which builds upon the published TPM Main Specification. Its latest edition was released on September 29, 2016, with several errata with the latest one being dated on January 8, 2018. Trusted Platform Module provides A random number generator Facilities for the secure generation of cryptographic keys for limited uses.
Remote attestation: Creates a nearly unforgeable hash key summary of the hardware and software configuration. The software in charge of hashing the configuration data determines the extent of the summary; this allows a third party to verify. Binding: Encrypts data using the TPM bind key, a unique RSA key descended from a storage key. Sealing: Similar to binding, but in addition, specifies the TPM state for the data to be decrypted. Computer programs can use a TPM to authenticate hardware devices, since each TPM chip has a unique and secret RSA key burned in as it is produced. Pushing the security down to the hardware level provides more protection than a software-only solution; the United States Department of Defense specifies that "new computer assets procured to support DoD will include a TPM version 1.2 or higher where required by DISA STIGs and where such technology is available." DoD anticipates that TPM is to be used for device identification, authentication and device integrity verification.
The primary scope of TPM is to assure the integrity of a platform. In this context, "integrity" means "behave as intended", a "platform" is any computer device regardless of its operating system, it is to ensure that the boot process starts from a trusted combination of hardware and software, continues until the operating system has booted and applications are running. The responsibility of assuring said integrity using TPM is with the firmware and the operating system. For example, Unified Extensible Firmware Interface can use TPM to form a root of trust: The TPM contains several Platform Configuration Registers that allow secure storage and reporting of security relevant metrics; these metrics can be used to decide how to proceed. Good examples can be found in Linux Unified Key Setup, BitLocker and PrivateCore vCage memory encryption. An example of TPM use for platform integrity is the Trusted Execution Technology, which creates a chain of trust, it could remotely attest that a computer is using the specified software.
Full disk encryption utilities, such as dm-crypt and BitLocker, can use this technology to protect the keys used to encrypt the computer's storage devices and provide integrity authentication for a trusted boot pathway that includes firmware and boot sector. Operating systems require authentication to protect keys, data or systems. If the authentication mechanism is implemented in software only, the access is prone to dictionary attacks. Since TPM is implemented in a dedicated hardware module, a dictionary attack prevention mechanism was built in, which protects against guessing or automated dictionary attacks, while still allowing the user a sufficient and reasonable number of tries. Without this level of protection, only passwords with high complexity would provide sufficient protection. Any application can use a TPM chip for: Digital rights management Protection and enforcement of software licenses Prevention of cheating in online gamesOther uses exist, some of which give rise to privacy concerns.
The "physical presence" feature of TPM addresses some of these concerns by requiring BIOS-level confirmation for operations such as activating, clearing or changing ownership of TPM by someone, physically present at the console of the machine. Starting in 2006, many new laptops have been sold with a built-in TPM chip. In the future, this concept could be co-located on an existing motherboard chip in computers, or any other device where the TPM facilities could be employed, such as a cellphone. On a PC, either the LPC bus or the SPI bus is used to connect to the TPM chip. TCG has certified TPM chips manufactured by Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, having assigned TPM vendor IDs to Advanced Micro Devices, Broadcom, IBM, Intel, National Semiconductor, Nationz Technologies, Qualcomm, Standard Microsystems Corporation, STMicroelectronics, Sinosun, Texas Instruments, Winbond. There are five different types of TPM 2.0 implementations: Discrete TPMs are dedicated chips that implement TPM functionality in their own tamper resistant semiconductor package.
They are theoretically the most secure type of TPM because the routines implemented in hardware should be more resistant to bugs versus routines implemented in software, their packages are required to implement some tamper resistance. Integrated TPMs are part of another chip. While they use hardware that resists software
Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings was an American politician who served as a United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to 2005. A conservative Democrat, he was the Governor of South Carolina and the 77th Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, he served alongside Republican Senator Strom Thurmond for 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate duo in history. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living former U. S. Senator. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942 and joined a law practice in Charleston after attending the University of South Carolina School of Law. During World War II, he served as an artillery officer in campaigns in North Europe. After the war, Hollings successively won election to the South Carolina House of Representatives, as Lieutenant Governor, as Governor, he was defeated by incumbent Olin D. Johnston. Johnston died in 1965, the following year Hollings won a special election to serve the remainder of Johnston's term.
Though the Republican Party became dominant in South Carolina after 1966, Hollings remained popular and continually won re-election, becoming one of the longest-serving Senators in U. S. history. Hollings sought the Democratic nomination in the 1984 presidential election but dropped out of the race after the New Hampshire primary, he was succeeded by Republican Jim DeMint. Hollings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Wilhelmine Dorothea Meyer and Adolph Gevert Hollings, Sr, he was raised at 338 President St. in the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood from the age of 10 until he enrolled in college. Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942, he achieved an LL. B. in 1947 after 21 months at the University of South Carolina, joined a law practice in Charleston. Hollings was a member of the Pi Kappa Phi fraternity, he was married to Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings from August 21, 1971, until her death in October 2012. He had four children with his first wife, Martha Patricia Salley Hollings, whom he married on March 30, 1946.
He was a Lutheran. In addition and Patricia had two sons who died, he served as an officer in the U. S. Army's 353rd and 457th Artillery units from 1942 to 1945, during World War II, was awarded the Bronze Star for meritorious service in direct support of combat operations from December 13, 1944, to May 1, 1945, in France and Germany, he received the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with five Bronze Service Stars for participation in the Tunisia, Southern France, Rome-Arno, Central Europe Campaigns. He served three terms in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1949 to 1954. After only one term, Hollings' colleagues elected him Speaker Pro Tempore in 1951 and 1953, he was subsequently elected Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina in 1954, Governor in 1958 at the age of 36. As governor of South Carolina from January 20, 1959, to January 15, 1963, Hollings worked to improve the state's educational system, helping to bring more industry and employment opportunities to the state.
His term in office saw the establishment of the state's technical education system and its educational television network. He called for and achieved significant increases in teachers' salaries, bringing them closer to the regional average. At the 1961 Governor's Conference on Business, Industry and Agriculture in Columbia, South Carolina, he declared, "Today, in our complex society, education is the cornerstone upon which economic development must be built—and prosperity assured."During Hollings' term as governor, the Confederate battle flag was flown above the South Carolina State House underneath the U. S. and state flags. The battle flag was placed over the dome in 1962 by a concurrent resolution of the state legislature during the commemoration of the Civil War centennial; the resolution failed to designate a time for its removal. In 2000 the state legislature voted to move the flag from above the state house to a Confederate soldiers' monument in front of the building, where it remained until 2015, when Republican governor Nikki Haley ordered it removed following the murders of nine black churchgoers by a Confederate sympathizer in the state earlier that year.
In his last address to the General Assembly on January 9, 1963, ahead of the peaceful admission to Clemson University of its first black student, Harvey Gantt, Hollings declared: "As we meet, South Carolina is running out of courts... this General Assembly must make clear South Carolina's choice, a government of laws rather than a government of men…This should be done with dignity. It should be done with law and order."Hollings oversaw the last executions in South Carolina before the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in Georgia, which temporarily banned capital punishment. During his term, eight inmates were put to death by electric chair; the last was rapist Douglas Thorne, on April 20, 1962. He sought the Democratic nomination for a seat in the U. S. Senate in 1962 but lost to incumbent Olin D. Johnston. Johnston died on April 18, 1965. Hollings' successor as governor, Donald S. Russell, resigned in order to accept appointment to the Senate seat. In the summer of 1966, Hollings defeated Russell in the Democratic primary for the remaining two years of the term.
He narrowly won the special election on November 8, 1966, against the Democrat-turned-Republican Marshall Parker, was sworn in shortly thereafter. He gained seniority on other newly elected U. S. senators who would have to wait until January 1967 to take the oath of office. In 1967, he was one of eleven senators who voted against the n
John Berlinger Breaux is an American attorney and retired politician, a member of the United States Senate from Louisiana from 1987 until 2005. He was a member of the US House of Representatives from 1972 to 1987, he was considered one of the more conservative national legislators from the Democratic Party. Breaux was a member of the New Democrat Coalition. After his congressional tenure, he became a lobbyist; the firm was acquired by law and lobbying firm Patton Boggs, now Squire Patton Boggs. Breaux was born in Crowley, Louisiana, on March 1, 1944, he graduated from the University of Southwestern Louisiana in Lafayette in 1964 and from Louisiana State University Law School in Baton Rouge in 1967. After graduation, he practiced law, served as an assistant to U. S. Representative Edwin Edwards, he was a member of Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity. Breaux was elected as a Democrat to the 92nd United States Congress in a special election on September 30, 1972, to fill the vacancy created by Edwards' resignation in order to become governor.
Breaux's campaign manager was Ron Faucheux, a recent graduate of Georgetown University and a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives and a nationally known political consultant and pundit from New Orleans. At the age of twenty-eight, Breaux was the youngest member of the U. S. House of Representatives. Breaux was re-elected with ease to the seven succeeding Congresses and served until January 3, 1987, he was not a candidate for re-election to the House of Representatives in 1986, but was instead elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate. In the 1986 jungle primary, Breaux finished second to Sixth District Republican Congressman W. Henson Moore, III, of Baton Rouge. State Senator Samuel B. Nunez polled another 73,504 votes. In the general election, Breaux turned the tables on Moore: 723,586 to 646,311, a margin of 77,275 ballots. Thereafter, Moore took a sub-Cabinet position with the administration of George H. W. Bush, Breaux took the Senate seat that he would hold for eighteen years.
Breaux was not opposed in the 1992 and 1998 elections. In the latter contest, current state insurance commissioner Jim Donelon opposed Breaux, as did perennial candidate L. D. Knox of Winnsboro, who in 1979 changed his name to "None of the Above" Knox to highlight support for the "None of the Above" option on ballots. On October 15, 1991, Breaux was one of seven Southern Democrats who voted to confirm the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U. S. Supreme Court in a 52 to 48 vote, the narrowest margin of approval in more than a century. Breaux was seen as a centrist in a Senate divided along partisan lines, was sought out by Republican leaders to corral a few Democratic votes when they needed them, he was pro-life and a supporter of Second Amendment rights, though he moderated his position on gun control. He was more conservative on taxes than most in his party and challenged many environmental protections, he voted in favor of the North American Free Trade Agreement, welfare reform, the balanced budget amendment, tighter bankruptcy laws.
He was a key Democratic supporter of Republican attempts to abolish the estate tax and in 2001 was among the minority of Democrats to support Bush's tax cut and opposed all attempts by Democrats to alter it. However Breaux had voted with the majority of Democrats in favor of the 1993 Budget. In 2003 he submitted an amendment to reduce the tax cut to $350 billion. In 1995 he notably voted twice with more liberal elements of his party against the approved lawsuit reform measures, the Common Sense Product Liability and Legal Reform Act and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. Both acts were vetoed by President Bill Clinton. On June 22, 2004, Breaux cast the lone vote against amendment, S. A. 3464, which would increase the maximum fine from $27,500 to $275,000 when the FCC determines a broadcaster is guilty of "obscene, indecent or profane language." Breaux opposed the loosening of FCC rules that would allow cross-media platforms in the same community to fall under a single owner. In 1993, Breaux was elected by Senate Democrats as Deputy Majority Whip, a position he held until his retirement.
He held a number of key Senate committee positions. A senior member of the Finance Committee, Senator Breaux served as the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy. From his position on the Finance Committee, he helped build the coalition that passed welfare reform and health insurance reform bills in 1996, he pushed for a reduction in the capital gains tax and for tax relief for college education expenses. In 1998, Breaux was selected by the White House and House and Senate leaders to chair the National Bipartisan Commission on the Future of Medicare. In 1998, Senator Breaux co-chaired the National Commission on Retirement Policy, which produced legislation to help reform Social Security. Breaux was the principal architect of the $400 billion Medicare Prescription Drug Modernization Act. Breaux was a founder of the bipartisan Senate Centrist Coalition and served as chairman of the Democratic Leadership Council. Breaux's state director and press secretary was the journalist Robert "Bob" Mann, who holds the Douglas Manship Chair of Journalism at Louisiana State University.
In the 2003 Louisiana gubernatorial campaign, after flirting with the possibility of running himself, Brea
Clarence William Nelson II is an American politician, who served as United States Senator from Florida from 2001 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he served in the Florida House of Representatives from 1972 to 1978 and in the United States House of Representatives from 1979 to 1991. In January 1986, he became the second sitting member of Congress to fly in space when he served as a payload specialist on the Space Shuttle Columbia. Before entering politics he served in the U. S. Army Reserve during the Vietnam War. Nelson was unsuccessful, he was appointed Treasurer, Insurance Commissioner and Fire Marshal of Florida, serving from 1995 to 2001. In 2000, Nelson was elected to the U. S. Senate seat, vacated by retiring Republican Senator Connie Mack III with 51% of the vote, he was reelected in 2006 in 2012 with 55 % of the vote. Nelson ran for a fourth term in 2018, but was narrowly defeated by then-Republican Governor Rick Scott. In the U. S. Senate, he was considered a centrist and a moderate Democrat.
Nelson supported same-sex marriage, lowering taxes on lower and middle income families, expanding environmental programs and regulation, protecting the Affordable Care Act and expanding Medicaid. Nelson was born on September 29, 1942, in Miami, the only child of Nannie Merle and Clarence William Nelson, he is of Scottish, Irish and Danish descent. His father died of a heart attack when Nelson was 14 and his mother of Lou Gehrig's disease when he was 24. Nelson grew up in Melbourne, where he attended Melbourne High School, he attended Baptist and Episcopal churches but was baptized through immersion in a Baptist church. He served as International President of Kiwanis-sponsored Key Club International. In 2005, he joined the First Presbyterian Church in Orlando. Nelson attended the University of Florida, where he was a member of Florida Blue Key, the Beta Theta Pi social fraternity, he transferred to Yale University, where he was a member of the Snake secret society. He received a law degree from the University of Virginia.
In 1965, during the Vietnam War, he joined the U. S. Army Reserve, he served on active duty from 1968 to 1970, attaining the rank of captain, he remained in the Army until 1971. Nelson was admitted to the Florida bar in 1968, began practicing law in Melbourne in 1970. In 1971, he worked as legislative assistant to Governor Reubin Askew. In 1972, Nelson married Grace Cavert; the couple have two adult children: Nan Ellen Nelson. In 1986, Nelson became the second sitting member of Congress to travel into space, he went through NASA training with Senator Jake Garn of Utah. Nelson was a Payload Specialist on Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-61-C mission from January 12 to 18, 1986; the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards AFB at 5:59 a.m. PST, on January 18; the mission's elapsed time was 6 days, 2 hours, 45 minutes, 51 seconds. This flight was the last successful space shuttle flight prior to the Challenger accident, which occurred only ten days after the return of the Columbia. In 1988, Nelson published a book about his space flight experience entitled Mission: An American Congressman's Voyage to Space.
In 1972, Nelson was elected to the Florida House of Representatives as the member from the 47th district, representing much of Brevard County and portions of Orange County and Seminole County. He won reelection in 1974 and 1976. Nelson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1978 in the open 9th congressional district after the five-term Republican incumbent, Louis Frey Jr. chose to run for Governor of Florida rather than for reelection. In 1980, Nelson was reelected to that district, which encompassed all of Brevard and part of Orange County, he was redistricted to the 11th congressional district, encompassing all of Brevard and parts of Orange, Indian River, Osceola counties. He remained a member of the U. S. House of Representatives until 1991. In 1990, Nelson ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Florida. S. Senator Lawton Chiles by 30.5% to 69.5%. Chiles went on to win the general election. In 1994, Nelson announced his intention to seek the office of Treasurer, Insurance Commissioner and Fire Marshal of Florida.
He won the election with 52% of the vote over State Rep. Tim Ireland's 48%. In 1998, he won re-election to the office. In 2000, Nelson announced that he would be running for the United States Senate seat held by retiring Republican Connie Mack III. Florida's "resign-to-run" law requires an incumbent office holder seeking another elective office to submit an irrevocable resignation from the office he or she holds unless that tenure would end anyway before the office holder would, if elected, assume the new position; the candidate may designate the effective date of the resignation to be in the future, but it must be no than the date on which he or she would assume the new office. This law compelled Nelson to submit his resignation as Treasurer, Insurance Commissioner and Fire Marshal early in 2000 when he began to campaign for the U. S. Senate seat, he chose January 3, 2001, as the effective date of his resignation, as, the date on which new Senators would be sworn in. In 2000, Nelson ran as a Democrat for the U.
S. Senate seat vacated by retiring Republican Senator Connie Mack III, he won the election, defeating U. S. Representative Bill McCollum, who ran as the Republican candidate. Following the 2004 election, in which Republican George W. Bush was re-elected and the Republican Party increased it
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti