Consumer activism is a process by which activists seek to influence the way in which goods or services are produced or delivered. Kozinets and Handelman attempt to define the broad concept as any social movement that uses society's drive for consumption to the detriment of business interests. Consumer activism includes both activism on behalf of consumers for consumer protection and activism by consumers themselves. Consumerism is made up of the behaviors and ideologies created from the interaction between humans and materials and services of which they consume. Consumer activism has several aims: Change the social structure of consumption Protect the social welfare of stakeholders Satisfy perceived slights to the ego Seek justice for the consumer and environment in the relationships of consumerism Historian Lawrence B. Glickman identifies the free produce movement of the late 1700s as the beginning of consumer activism in the United States. Like members of the British abolitionist movement, free produce activists were consumers themselves, under the idea that consumers share in the responsibility for the consequences of their purchases, boycotted goods produced with slave labor in an attempt to end slavery.
Other early consumer activism included the creation of consumer cooperatives in Northwestern England in 1844 as a measure against local monopolies and high commodity prices. Activism on the behalf of the consumer began around the 20th Century in the United States, in what scholars Tim Lang and Yiannis Gabriel term the "value-for-consumer" wave, which sociologist Hayagreeva Rao calls the antiadulteration movement, it was during this time that consumer organizations began to emerge in the United States, starting with a Consumers League in New York in 1891 which merged with other regional branches to form the National Consumers League in 1898. One of the first consumer protection laws in the United States and worldwide, the Pure Food and Drug Act, was passed in 1906. More legislation around the world followed. During this time consumer-led activism like boycotts continued in response to domestic and international socio-political concerns; the publication of Unsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader in 1965 gave rise to a new type of legal-focused, anti-corporate activism.
Whereas past activism had focused on the consequences of consumer actions and the protection of consumers and Gabriel argue the activism inspired by Ralph Nader and others is more confrontational toward the market. From the 1990s and into the 21st century, consumer activism has been associated with sharp critiques of globalization and the damaging effects of concentrated corporate power. Consumer activism seeks to change some aspect of the way in which goods or services are produced in order to make the production process safer, more ethical, more environmentally friendly, to make the products themselves safer and of better quality, or more available to consumers; as a result, consumer activism challenges existing corporate practices in order to effect a direct change in production, or attempts to modify some aspect of the behavior of consumers themselves. Scholars Robert V. Kozinets and Jay M. Handelman find that consumer activism needs three factors: "a goal, a self-representation, an adversary."
In this model, the goal is the change consumer activists wish to effect in the way goods or services are produced or in the way consumers themselves approach consumption. Consumer activists may frame the purchase of a good or service as a moral choice, with the consumer responsible for aspects of the production. In this way, consumer activists attempt to influence the behavior of consumers by getting them to consider their consumption choices in an ethical light, portray consumer activism as a movement among consumers, themselves included, for a common good. Consumer activists may be part of various consumer organizations or portray themselves as members of a larger consumer movement; the targets of consumer activism are corporations that support causes or practices consumer activists find unethical. Corporations are made the recipients of consumer activism based on an aspect of the way in which they do business or because of organizations they choose to support, financially or otherwise. Religious terms, such as David and Goliath, may be used in rhetoric to motivate non-activist consumers to join in the activism.
Activists may describe them as their rival. Consumer activism may target the state in order to implement some form of regulation for consumer protection. Consumer activist tactics can include boycotts, petitioning the government, media activism, organizing interest groups. Boycotts are prevalent among consumer activists within environmental and animal rights activist groups. According to research from Eastern Michigan University, boycotts that are media-orientated rather than marketplace-orientated are preferred; this means the nature of the boycott did not target actual consumption, by demonstrating in front of a storefront for example, but instead demonstrations are orientated to getting media attention by demonstrating in front of the rival headquarters. Consumer boycotts are effective at damaging a brand's reputation and can result in short term dips in a company's stock prices. While these dips may be forgettable in terms of the company's overall revenue when the company may be among the top global brands, these boycotts can gain attention and cause fast mobilization due to the rapid pace of information spreading across the internet and be successful in seeing through policy change or restructure in leadership if the boycott represents a major societal issue or movement instead of an isolated, independent effort.
They are known to be successful when the is
Consumerism is a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. With the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century, mass production led to an economic crisis: there was overproduction—the supply of goods would grow beyond consumer demand, so manufacturers turned to planned obsolescence and advertising to manipulate consumer spending. In 1899, a book on consumerism published by Thorstein Veblen, called The Theory of the Leisure Class, examined the widespread values and economic institutions emerging along with the widespread "leisure time" in the beginning of the 20th century. In it Veblen "views the activities and spending habits of this leisure class in terms of conspicuous and vicarious consumption and waste. Both are related to the display of status and not to functionality or usefulness."In economics, consumerism may refer to economic policies which emphasise consumption. In an abstract sense, it is the consideration that the free choice of consumers should orient the choice by manufacturers of what is produced and how, therefore orient the economic organization of a society.
In this sense, consumerism expresses the idea not of "one man, one voice", but of "one dollar, one voice", which may or may not reflect the contribution of people to society. In the complete absence of other sustained macro-political and social narratives—concern about global climate change notwithstanding—the pursuit of the'good life' through practices of what is known as'consumerism' has become one of the dominant global social forces, cutting across differences of religion, gender and nationality, it is the other side of the dominant ideology of market globalism and is central to what Manfred Steger calls the'global imaginary'. The term consumerism has several definitions; these definitions may not be related to each other and confusingly, they conflict with each other. One sense of the term relates to efforts to support consumers' interests. By the early 1970s it had become the accepted term for the field and began to be used in these ways:Consumerism is the concept that consumers should be informed decision makers in the marketplace.
In this sense consumerism is the study and practice of matching consumers with trustworthy information, such as product testing reports. Consumerism is the concept that the marketplace itself is responsible for ensuring social justice through fair economic practices. Consumer protection policies and laws compel manufacturers to make products safe. Consumerism refers to the field of regulating, or interacting with the marketplace; the consumer movement is the social movement which refers to all actions and all entities within the marketplace which give consideration to the consumer. While the above definitions were becoming established, other people began using the term consumerism to mean "high levels of consumption"; this definition has gained popularity since the 1970s and began to be used in these ways: Consumerism is the selfish and frivolous collecting of products, or economic materialism. In this sense consumerism is negative and in opposition to positive lifestyles of anti-consumerism and simple living.
Consumerism is a force from the marketplace which harms society. It is related to globalization and in protest against this some people promote the "anti-globalization movement". In a 1955 speech, John Bugas coined the term consumerism as a substitute for capitalism to better describe the American economy: The term consumerism would pin the tag where it belongs — on Mr. Consumer, the real boss and beneficiary of the American system, it would pull the rug right out from under our unfriendly critics who have blasted away so long and loud at capitalism. Somehow, I just can't picture them shouting: "Down with the consumers!" Bugas's definition aligned with Austrian economics founder Carl Menger's vision of consumer sovereignty, whereby consumer preferences and choices control the economy entirely. Vance Packard worked to change the meaning of the term consumerism from a positive word about consumer practices to a negative word meaning excessive materialism and waste; the ads for his 1960 book The Waste Makers prominently featured the word consumerism in a negative way.
The consumer society emerged in the late seventeenth century and intensified throughout the eighteenth century. While some claim that change was propelled by the growing middle-class who embraced new ideas about luxury consumption and about the growing importance of fashion as an arbiter for purchasing rather than necessity, many critics argue that consumerism was a political and economic necessity for the reproduction of capitalist competition for markets and profits, while others point to the increasing political strength of international working-class organizations during a rapid increase in technological productivity and decline in necessary scarcity as a catalyst to develop a consumer culture based on therapeutic entertainments, home-ownership and debt; the "middle-class" view argues that this revolution encompassed the growth in construction of vast country estates designed to cater for comfort and the increased availability of luxury goods aimed at a growing market. Such luxury goods included sugar, tobacco and coffee.
In particular, sugar consumption in Britain during the course of the 18th century increased by a factor of 20. Critics
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, descriptions, or skills, acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to a practical understanding of a subject, it can be explicit. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception and reasoning; the eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible by the notion that philosophy's core was "theory of knowledge," a theory distinct from the sciences because it was their foundation... Without this idea of a "theory of knowledge," it is hard to imagine what "philosophy" could have been in the age of modern science; the definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology. The classical definition, described but not endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified and believed.
Some claim that these conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples demonstrate. There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert Nozick's arguments for a requirement that knowledge'tracks the truth' and Simon Blackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet any of these conditions'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge. Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth. In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moore's paradox, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on this account, to know that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular task with the statement that the kettle is boiling.
Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natural languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance. Following this idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but, not adequately captured by any definition. Symbolic representations can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, audio and video recordings. Philosophers of language and semioticians construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication. While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant tools for the transfer of knowledge is writing and reading, argument over the usefulness of the written word exists nonetheless, with some scholars skeptical of its impact on societies. In his collection of essays Technopoly, Neil Postman demonstrates the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt from Plato's work Phaedrus.
In this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. In this story, Theuth presents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new invention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians". King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge, he argues that the written word will infect the Egyptian people with fake knowledge as they will be able to attain facts and stories from an external source and will no longer be forced to mentally retain large quantities of knowledge themselves. Classical early modern theories of knowledge those advancing the influential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke, were based implicitly or explicitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words; this analogy between language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowledge in which the mind was treated as a table, a container of content, that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters, numbers or symbols.
This created a situation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognitive weight, so much so that educators paid close attention to the visual structure of information on the page and in notebooks. Major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge, it is only that audio and video technology for recording knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay equipment and electricity. Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limited to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could interpret wr
Ellen Swallow Richards
Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards was an industrial and safety engineer, environmental chemist, university faculty member in the United States during the 19th century. Her pioneering work in sanitary engineering, experimental research in domestic science, laid a foundation for the new science of home economics, she was the founder of the home economics movement characterized by the application of science to the home, the first to apply chemistry to the study of nutrition. Richards graduated from Westford Academy in 1862, she was the first woman admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She graduated in 1873 and became its first female instructor. Mrs. Richards was the first woman in America accepted to any school of science and technology, the first American woman to obtain a degree in chemistry, which she earned from Vassar College in 1870. Richards was a pragmatic feminist, as well as a founding ecofeminist, who believed that women's work within the home was a vital aspect of the economy.
Richards was born in Massachusetts. She was the only child of Peter Swallow and Fanny Gould Taylor, both of whom came from established families of modest means and were believers in the value of education. Swallow was home-schooled in her early years. In 1859 the family moved to Westford and she attended Westford Academy. Studies at the academy included mathematics and Latin, similar to other New England academies of the time. Swallow's Latin proficiency allowed her to study French and German, a rare language north of New York; because of her language skills she was much in demand as a tutor, the income earned doing this made it possible for Swallow to further her studies. In March 1862, she left the academy. Two months in May, she developed the measles which set her back physically and interrupted her preparations to begin teaching. In the spring of 1863 the family moved to Littleton, where Mr. Swallow had just purchased a larger store and expanded his business. In June 1864, now twenty-one, took a teaching position.
She did not teach again in 1865 but spent that year tending the family store and taking care of her ill mother. During the winter of 1865 -- 66, Swallow attended lectures in Worcester. In September 1868 she entered. Somewhat over a year she was admitted to the senior class, graduating in 1870 with a bachelor's degree, she earned a Master of Art's degree with a thesis on the chemical analysis of iron ore. The strongest personal influences during her college years were Maria Mitchell, the astronomer, Professor Charles S. Farrar, at the head of the Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. In 1870, she wrote to Merrick and Gray, commercial chemists in Boston, asking if they would take her on as an apprentice, they replied that they were not in a position to take pupils, that her best course was to try to enter the Institute of Technology of Boston as a student. On December 10, 1870, after some discussion and a vote, the Faculty of the Institute of Technology recommend to the Corporation the admission of Miss Swallow as a special student in Chemistry.
Swallow thus became the first woman admitted to Massachusetts Institute of Technology where she was able to continue her studies, "it being understood that her admission did not establish a precedent for the general admission of females" according to the records of the meeting of the MIT Corporation on December 14, 1870. In 1873, Swallow received a Bachelor of Science degree from MIT for her thesis, "Notes on Some Sulpharsenites and Sulphantimonites from Colorado", she continued her studies at MIT and would have been awarded its first advanced degree, but MIT balked at granting this distinction to a woman and did not award its first advanced degree, a Master of Science in Chemistry, until 1886. Richards served on the board of trustees of Vassar College for many years and was granted an honorary doctor of science degree in 1910. On June 4, 1875, Miss Swallow married Robert H. Richards, chairman of the Mine Engineering Department at MIT, with whom she had worked in the mineralogy laboratory.
They took up residence in Massachusetts. With her husband's support she remained associated with MIT, volunteering her services and contributing $1,000 annually to the "Woman's Laboratory," a program in which her students were schoolteachers, whose training had lacked laboratory work, who wanted to perform chemical experiments and learn mineralogy, her first post-college career was as an unpaid chemistry lecturer at MIT from 1873 to 1878. From 1884 until her death, Swallow now Richards was an instructor at the newly founded laboratory of sanitary chemistry at the Lawrence Experiment Station, the first in the United States, headed by her former professor William R. Nichols. In 1884 she was appointed as an instructor in sanitary chemistry at a newly formed MIT laboratory for the study of sanitation. Mrs. Richards was a consulting chemist for the Massachusetts State Board of Health from 1872 to 1875, the Commonwealth's official water analyst from 1887 until 1897, she served as nutrition expert for the US Department of Agriculture.
In the 1880s, her interests turned in particular air and water quality. She performed a series of water tests on 40,000 samples of local waters which served as drinking water for their immediate populations; these led to the so-called "Richards' Normal Chlorine Map", predictive of inland water pollution in the state of Massachusetts. This map plotted the chlor
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Esther Eggertsen Peterson was a lifelong consumer and women's advocate. The daughter of Danish immigrants, Esther Eggertsen grew up in a Mormon family in Utah, she graduated from Brigham Young University in 1927 with a degree in physical education, a master's from Teachers College, Columbia University, in 1930. She held several teaching positions in the 1930s, including one at the innovative Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, which brought milliners, telephone operators and garment workers onto the campus, she moved to New York City. In 1932, the two moved to Boston, where she taught at The Winsor School and volunteered at the YWCA. In 1938, Peterson became a paid organizer for the American Federation of Teachers and traveled around New England. In 1944, Peterson became the first lobbyist for the National Labor Relations Board in Washington, D. C. In 1948, the State Department offered Peterson’s husband a position as a diplomat in Sweden; the family returned to Washington D. C. in 1957 and Peterson joined the Industrial Union Department of the AFL-CIO, becoming its first woman lobbyist.
She was Assistant Secretary of Labor and Director of the United States Women's Bureau under President John F. Kennedy. In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson named Peterson to the newly created post of Special Assistant for Consumer Affairs, she would serve as President Jimmy Carter's Director of the Office of Consumer Affairs. Peterson was Vice President for Consumer Affairs at Giant Food Corporation, president of the National Consumers League, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1981. Peterson was elected to the Common Cause National Governing Board in 1982, she was named a delegate of the United Nations as a UNESCO representative in 1993. In that same year, Peterson was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Peterson died on December 20, 1997. Great Society Simon P. Eggertsen, Sr. House Restless: The Memoirs of Labor and Consumer Activist Esther Peterson Archives.gov Papers, 1884-1998, 1929-1998. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. AFL-CIO Profile Transcribed oral history interview with Esther Peterson at the JFK Library
Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with the relationship between individuals, families and the environment in which they live. Home economics courses are offered internationally and across multiple educational levels. Home economics courses have been important throughout history because it gave women the opportunity to pursue higher education and vocational training in a world where only men were able to learn in such environments. In modern times, home economics teaches both men and women important life skills, such as cooking and finances. With the stigma the term “home economics” has earned over the years, the course is now referred to by different terms, such as “family and consumer science.” Family and consumer science was known in the United States as home economics abbreviated "home ec" or "HE". In 1994, various organizations, including the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences, adopted the new term "family and consumer science" to reflect the fact that the field covers aspects outside of home life and wellness.
The field is known by other names, including human sciences, home science, domestic economy. In addition, home economics has a strong historic relationship to the field of human ecology, since the 1960s a number of university-level home economics programs have been renamed "human ecology" programs, including Cornell University's program. Over the years, homemaking in the United States has been a foundational piece of the education system for women; these homemaking courses, called home economics, have had a prevalent presence in secondary and higher education since the 19th century. By definition, home economics is “the art and science of home management”, meaning that the discipline incorporates both creative and technical aspects into its teachings. Home economics courses consist of learning how to cook, how to do taxes, how to perform child care tasks. In the United States, home economics courses have been a key part of learning the art of taking care of a household. One of the first to champion the economics of running a home was Catherine Beecher, sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Since the 19th century, schools have been incorporating home economics courses into their education programs. In the United States, the teaching of home economics courses in higher education increased with the Morrill Act of 1862. Signed by Abraham Lincoln, the Morrill Act of 1862 granted land to each state or territory in America for higher educational programs in vocational arts mechanical arts and home economics; such land grants allowed for people of a wider array of social classes to receive better education in important trade skills. Home economics courses taught students how to cook, sew and take care of children; the vast majority of these programs were dominated by women. Home economics allowed for women to receive a better education while preparing them for a life of settling down, doing the chores, taking care of the children while their husbands became the breadwinners. At this time, homemaking was only accessible to middle and upper class white women whose families could afford secondary schooling.
In the late 19th century, the Lake Placid Conferences took place. The conferences consisted of a group of educators working together to elevate the discipline to a legitimate profession, they wanted to call this profession "oekology", the science of right living. However, "home economics" was chosen as the official term in 1899. Home economics in the United States education system increased in popularity in the early 20th century, it emerged as a movement to train women to be more efficient household managers. At the same moment, American families began to consume many more goods and services than they produced. To guide women in this transition, professional home economics had two major goals: to teach women to assume their new roles as modern consumers and to communicate homemakers’ needs to manufacturers and political leaders; the development of the profession progressed from its origins as an educational movement to its identity as a source of consumer expertise in the interwar period to its virtual disappearance by the 1970s.
An additional goal of the field was to “rationalize housework”, or lend the social status of a profession to it, based on a theory that housework could be intellectually fulfilling to women engaged in it, along with any emotional or relational benefits. In 1909, Ellen Swallow Richards founded the American Home Economics Association. From 1900 to 1917, more than thirty bills discussed in Congress dealt with issues of American vocational education and, by association, home economics. Americans wanted more opportunities for their young people to learn vocational skills and to learn valuable home and life skills. However, home economics was still dominated by women and women had little access to other vocational trainings; as stated by the National Education Association on the distribution of males and females in vocations, “one-third of our menfolk are in agriculture, one-third in non-agricultural productive areas. Practice homes were added to American universities in the early 1900s in order to model a living situation, although the all-women ‘team’ model used for students was different from prevailing expectations of housewives.
For example, women were graded on collaboration, while households at the time assumed that women would be working independently. The practice homes were valued; these practicum courses took place in a variety of environments including single-family homes, a