Jhargram is a city and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarters of the Jhargram district, it is a popular tourist destination known for ancient temples and royal palaces. Jhargram is located at 22.45°N 86.98°E / 22.45. It has an average elevation of 81 metres; the weather, like much of Bengal, is humid and tropical. Temperatures can reach as high as 46 °C in the hot and dry months of May and June but can plummet to 4 °C in the chilly nights of December and January. Legend says that around 1592 CE, Raja Man Singh of Amber had come to conquer Bengal on behest of Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great from Rajputana to expand the Mughal Empire to Eastern India, he appointed one of his loyal officers in the army, Sarveshwar Singh, to defeat the local rulers of the region known as Junglekhand. This area is mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari as Jharikhanda, it was populated by the Santhal, Bhumij, Kudumi Mahato and Lodha people groups; the area belonged to the Mal Raja. The Mals were ancient warriors and were powerful people in the eastern part of India since the time of the Mauryas and the Guptas.
Sarveshwar Singh, together with the Rajput military force and cavalry, invaded the deep forest and vanquished the Mal rulers. Hence, he adopted Malla Deb. In order to commemorate this victory, every year an idol of Mal Raja is made and slain on Vijayadashami day. Raja Man Singh was appointed the Governor of Bengal and Orissa by the Mughal Emperor. After the campaign, he decided to return to Rajputana and granted Mansabdari of the 1200 km square Junglekhand region to Sarveshwar Singh as a reward; the first fortress was supposed to have existed in Old Jhargram, but the ruins of the fortress are said to have gone underground due to some unknown reasons. Sarveshwar Singh was the founder of the Jhargram kingdom, he belonged to the Chauhan clan of Rajputs from Fatehpur Sikri in Rajputana, he took the title of Raja and named the state capital Jhargram, which means a forest village, surrounded by walls and canals. It was known as Ugal in the local language. Today, the day after Durga Ashtami, the four corners are worshiped for the protection of the erstwhile kingdom.
The man, the hero or bull within the surrounded wall and canal were called Ugal Sanda. As such, the full name of the Raja of the State was known as Raja Sarveshwar Malla Ugal Sanda Deb, the title has been continued up to Raja Narasingha Malla Ugal Sanda Deb; the Marathas invaded the region between 1742–47. The rulers of Jhargram joined forces with Raja of Bishnupur and the Nawab of Bengal to fight a war against them, they were victorious. Jhargram remained an independent kingdom until 1767, when The East India Company, led by Robert Clive, came from Midnapore, via Radhanagar to capture the Jhargram fort. Raja took part in the Chuar Rebellion to protect his independent status and revolted against the British, but he surrendered; the kingdom was recognized as a Zamindari estate under the law of primogeniture, the ruler was given the title of Raja. Jhargram fell twice into the Court of Wards, after the death of Raja Raghunath Malla Ugal Sanda Deb and Raja Chandi Charan Malla Ugal Sanda Deb, respectively.
In this connection, it may be mentioned that in 1944–45, the Vice-Roy of India agreed to recognize Jhargram as a feudatory state. The Cabinet mission came to negotiate with congress, the Muslim League, other parties; the proposal for the feudatory status of Jhargram Raj has put aside then. The rulers of Jhargram were benevolent and progressive, they focused on the welfare of their subjects. Raja Raghunath Malla Deb studied FA in Scottish Church College, was the first-degree holder in the district. In 1899, he had established the first primary school in his kingdom. Raja was an avid wrestler and was known for miraculous physical strength, his wrestling instruments are still kept in the Calcutta Museum. Raja Sir Narasingha Malla Deb, the last titular king of Jhargram, is considered the father of modern Jhargram. Educated at Midnapore Collegiate School and Presidency College in Calcutta, he is conferred with OBE and KBE, granted the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal, served as a member of the Legislative Council of Bengal from 1947–52 and 1952–57, a member of Parliament-Lok Sabha in Congress from 1957-62.
He commissioned the new palace in 1931, one of the finest example of Indo Saracenic architecture and spread over 23 acres of land. During World War II, Raja sahib constructed an airstrip in Dudhkundi for the United States Air Force, apart provided the Allied forces with elephants and other help. Between 1922–1950 Prof. Debendra Mohan Battacharya was the administrator of Jhargram and that time is seen as a golden age. In those twenty-eight years, Jhargram developed into a township. Kumud Kumari Institution, a premier institution of the sub-division, was founded in 1924. In 1925, an annual sports fund was created. Raja Narasingha Malla Deb established Jhargram Agricultural College, renamed Jhargram Raj College, he established Vidyasagar Polytechnic, industrial training and gave funds to set up Sri Ramkrishna Saradapeeth Girls High School and Bharat Sevashram Sangha. The royal family established and assisted in the running of all primary institutions for at risk people in the Jhargram estate. At the consent of the Governor of Bengal
Haldia is a city and a municipality in Purba Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a major riverport and industrial belt located 125 kilometres southwest of Kolkata near the mouth of the Hooghly River, one of the distributaries of the Ganges; the Haldia Township is bordered by the Haldi River an offshoot of the Ganges River. Haldia is a centre for many petrochemical businesses, is being developed as a major trade port for Kolkata. Haldia is located at 22.03°N 88.06°E / 22.03. It has an average elevation of 8 metres; as of 2011 census, Haldia had a population of 200,762, out of which 104,852 were males and 95,910 were females. The 0–6 years population was 21,122. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 89.06 per cent. As of 2001 India census, Haldia had a population of 170,695. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In Haldia, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Haldia Municipality falls under the jurisdiction of two police territories, served by Haldia and Bhabanipur police stations.
Haldia police station is located in Chinranjibpur, covers an area of 98 km2 with a population of 65,000. Bhabanipur police station is located in Bhabanipur, covers an area of 115 km2 with a population of 124,906. Haldia is a base of Indian Coast Guard. Indian coast guard. There is a hoverport to house four of the eighteen hovercrafts belonging to the Indian Coast Guard. Indian coast guard have pantoon jetty to berth fleet of ships. Presently two fast patrol vessels, one inshore patrol vessels, one small craft is based at Haldia. Haldia has a tropical savanna climate, with winter temperatures ranging from a low of around 7 degrees Celsius to a high of 22 degrees Celsius. Summers can be hot and humid. Usual summer temperatures in May, the hottest month range from a low of 24 degrees to highs around 39 degrees. Although summers are hot and humid, Kalbaishakhis provide a relief to the people, albeit killing some in the process. Rainfall is heavy during monsoons, with an average rainfall of 144 inches and the rainy months are between May and September.
Haldia is connected to Kolkata by bus. Recent efforts have seen introduction of new air-conditioned buses which takes less than three hours from the place to Kolkata.. Haldia is connected to Kharagpur by bus. Haldia railway station is the major railway station connecting the city to Kolkata and Delhi. For long distance trains except one or two weekly for delhi and chennai you have to go to either Mecheda or kolkata or kharagpur. Haldia is connected via the 1620 km long inland waterway, National Waterway 1 that runs from Prayagraj across Ganges and Hooghly river system to Haldia. A catamaran service used to operate from Kolkata to Haldia, but was withdrawn due to its high price and unpopularity among tourists. Haldia has several major factories, including South Asian Petrochemicals Ltd, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Haldia Energy Limited, Shaw Wallace, Tata Chemicals, Haldia Petrochemicals, India Power Corporation Ltd. Hindustan Lever, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporations, S. J. Constructions and LTC&Co. in addition to various light industries.
Other transport companies like JAY ROAD CARRIERS provide major logistics services across India. The Indian Football Association and Tata Football Academy have been operating for years in the city to scout and promote football talent. A new project called Haldia International Sports City is under construction; the Japanese community of Haldia are engineers and top executives at the Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation purified terephthalic acid plant in the city. The community have been living in the mini Japanese township called Sataku for many years. Sataku has a local Japanese news station. Japanese movies are shown in local theaters. Haldia is the only Indian city to have a Japantown. Haldia travel guide from Wikivoyage
Tamluk is a city and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarters of the Purba Medinipur district. Though there is some controversy, scholars have agreed that present-day Tamluk is the site of the ancient city variously known as Tamralipta or Tamralipti; the present town is located on the banks of the Rupnarayan River close to the Bay of Bengal. The Tamluk Municipality has population of 65,306 of which 33,260 are males while 32,046 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 6180, 9.46% of total population of Tamluk. In Tamluk Municipality, Female Sex Ratio is of 963 against state average of 950. Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Tamluk is around 946 compared to West Bengal state average of 956. Literacy rate of Tamluk city is 90.18% higher than state average of 76.26%. In Tamluk, Male literacy is around 94.01% while female literacy rate is 86.21%. This ancient kingdom and port city was bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south, Rupnarayan River in the east and Subarnarekha River in the west.
The Rupnarayana is the joint flow of the rivers Silai. The Bay of Bengal and these great rivers with their numerous branches created a prosperous and easy water navigational system fostering commerce and early contacts with the people outside the region. At the same time, these rivers helped to develop the agriculture in this region. Archaeological remains show continuous settlement from about the 3rd century BC, it was known as Tramralipta, Tamalika, Tamalitti, or Tamoluk. It was a seaport, now buried under river silt. For this reason, Tamluk has many lakes remaining today. In the Mahabharata, while describing the names of the holiest rivers and kingdoms of India, Sanjay took the name of "Tramralipta" to Dhritarashtra. Tamluk was known as Bhivas, in religious texts, Madhya Desh, as the Middle State of Utkal/Kalinga and Banga. According to Jain sources, Tamralipti was the capital of the kingdom of Venga and was long known as a port. Tamluk police station has jurisdiction over Tamluk CD Block. Tamluk police station covers an area of 214.14 km2 with a population of 352,748.
The people of Tamluk are Bengali speaking. There are some lingering effects of successive migrations and invasions from both the west and from northern India, its history shows the complex combination of indigenous, Buddhist and Hindu cultures, through trade and migration. Unlike other parts of Bengal, Tamluk was always well connected with the Gangetic plains. In fact, there is evidence to suggest; the worship of Bheema is a sign of the socio-religious acceptance of Aryan culture in this area. In the recent past, Tamluk was divided into many areas based on caste and occupation, such as Malakar Para, Adhikary Para, Metia Para in Nimtala, Dey Para, Mathore Para; as a seaport, Tamluk was once famous as a centre for trade. The main trade presently is of paan; the building of bus bodies is another important business. Tamluk is an agricultural area. About 60% of the land is under cultivation. Tamluk is one of the largest exporters of paan. Fishing was an important occupation of the local residents. Tamluk is well linked by rail.
Tamluk is a major roadway junction with six bus-routes originating from it: Tamluk to Srirampur and Pursha ghat Tamluk to Mecheda and Kolkata Tamluk to Panskura and Ghatal Tamluk to Haldia, Durgachowk Tamluk to Digha and EgraNH 116 and SH 4 passes through Tamluk. IN TAMLUK TOWN, THERE ARE MANY BUS STOPPAGE-LIKE 1. MANIKTALA 2. BNAAS POOL 3. HOSPITAL MORE 4. DM OFFICE 5. NIMTALA Tamluk has a railway junction. Tamluk central bus stand to Kolkata Dharmatala bus service. There are many colleges in Tamluk. Tamluk Hamilton High School: It is Bengali medium school under WBSE & WBCHSE, it was established by an English salt agent Charles Hammilton on 7 May 1852. Alumni of this school are Sri Ajoy Mukherjee, Dr. Amalesh Tripathy, Dr Sushil Kumar Dhara, Sri Kshudiram Bose and so many eminent persons. Tamluk Town High School: It is Bengali medium school under WBSE & WBCHSE. Sudhir Memorial Institute Tamluk:- It is an CBSE English - Medium School in Tamluk, it is a Sister Institute of Sudhir Memorial Institute Madhyamgram.
Website:- www.smitamluk.com Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya was established at Tamluk in 1948. It is affiliated with Vidyasagar University, it offers courses in arts, science and education. Tamralipta Institute Of Management & Technology was established at Tamluk in 2007, it is affiliated to Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad University of Technology. There is no university but Indira Gandhi National Open University has a presence in the form of a Study Centre with Tarun Sangha Information & Documentation Centre as the host institution. There is a district hospital in the town, named Tamluk District Hospital. There are available many private hospital or Nursing home namely- 1. MAS Clinic and Hospital 2. Vivekananda Nursing Home 3. Capital Clinic and Nursing Home 4. Nightingle Nursing Home 5. Seva Nursing Home 6. Park Clinic and Nursing Home 7. Mother Nursing Home 8. Sarada Nursing Home 9. Mamata Nursing Home 9. Sabitri Nursing Home 10. Saradamoyee Shishu Seva Sadan 11. Vi
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds; the largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale. Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones and dust devils lie within smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune. Cyclogenesis is the process of cyclone intensification. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones; these zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation intensifies. In their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems.
A cyclone's track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream. Weather fronts mark the boundary between two masses of air of different temperature and densities, are associated with the most prominent meteorological phenomena. Strong cold fronts feature narrow bands of thunderstorms and severe weather, may on occasion be preceded by squall lines or dry lines; such fronts form west of the circulation center and move from west to east. Warm fronts move poleward ahead of the cyclone path. Occluded fronts form late in the cyclone life cycle near the center of the cyclone and wrap around the storm center. Tropical cyclogenesis describes the process of development of tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones form due to latent heat driven by significant thunderstorm activity, are warm core. Cyclones can transition between extratropical and tropical phases. Mesocyclones form as warm core cyclones over land, can lead to tornado formation. Waterspouts can form from mesocyclones, but more develop from environments of high instability and low vertical wind shear.
In the Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific oceans, a tropical cyclone is referred to as a hurricane, in the Indian and south Pacific oceans it is called a cyclone, in the northwestern Pacific it is called a typhoon. The growth of instability in the vortices is not universal. For example, the size, moist-convection, surface evaporation, the value of potential temperature at each potential height can affect the nonlinear evolution of a vortex. Henry Piddington published 40 papers dealing with tropical storms from Calcutta between 1836 and 1855 in The Journal of the Asiatic Society, he coined the term cyclone, meaning the coil of a snake. In 1842, he published Laws of the Storms. There are a number of structural characteristics common to all cyclones. A cyclone is a low-pressure area. A cyclone's center, is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure in the region. Near the center, the pressure gradient force and the force from the Coriolis effect must be in an approximate balance, or the cyclone would collapse on itself as a result of the difference in pressure.
Because of the Coriolis effect, the wind flow around a large cyclone is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, the fastest winds relative to the surface of the Earth therefore occur on the eastern side of a northward-moving cyclone and on the northern side of a westward-moving one. In contrast to low pressure systems, the wind flow around high pressure systems are clockwise in the northern hemisphere, counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere. Cyclogenesis is an umbrella term for several different processes that all result in the development of some sort of cyclone, it can occur from the microscale to the synoptic scale. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves along weather fronts before occluding in their life cycle as cold-core systems. However, some intense extratropical cyclones can become warm-core systems when a warm seclusion occurs.
Tropical cyclones form as a result of significant convective activity, are warm core. Mesocyclones form as warm core cyclones over land, can lead to tornado formation. Waterspouts can form from mesocyclones, but more develop from environments of high instability and low vertical wind shear. Cyclolysis is the opposite of cyclogenesis, is the high-pressure system equivalent, which deals with the formation of high-pressure areas—Anticyclogenesis. A surface low can form in a variety of ways. Topography can create a surface low. Mesoscale convective systems can spawn surface lows that are warm core; the disturbance can grow into a wave-like formation along the front and the low is positioned at the crest. Around the low, the flow becomes cyclonic; this rotational flow moves polar air towards the equator on the west side of the low, while warm air move towards the pole on the east side. A cold front appears on the west side. Usua
West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. The term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is a dry phase; the term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West Asia-Australian monsoons; the inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated. The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area; the English monsoon came from Portuguese monção from Arabic mawsim, "perhaps via early modern Dutch monson."
Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago. More studies of plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon beginning 15–20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; the monsoon has varied in strength since this time linked to global climate change the cycle of the Pleistocene ice ages. A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon strengthened around 5 million years ago. During ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed; when this happened, cold waters in the Pacific were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean.
It is believed that the resulting increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of monsoons. Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma, 1.83 Ma, 0.68 Ma, 0.45 Ma and 0.04 Ma were identified which showed a weakening of Leeuwin Current. The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea surface temperature field in the Indian Ocean, as the Indonesian through flow warms the Indian Ocean, thus these five intervals could be those of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced Indian monsoon intensity. During the weak LC, there is the possibility of reduced intensity of the Indian winter monsoon and strong summer monsoon, because of change in the Indian Ocean dipole due to reduction in net heat input to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian through flow, thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.
The impact of monsoon on the local weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a little less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into vivid green grasslands where all sorts of plants and crops can flourish; the Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green lands. See photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the fields, as it is essential to use all the rain, available for growing crops. Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean; these temperature imbalances happen. Over oceans, the air temperature remains stable for two reasons: water has a high heat capacity, because both conduction and convection will equilibrate a hot or cold surface with deeper water. In contrast, dirt and rocks have lower heat capacities, they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction and not by convection.
Therefore, bodies of water stay at a more temperature, while land temperature are more variable. During warmer months sunlight heats the surfaces of both land and oceans, but land temperatures rise more quickly; as the land's surface becomes warmer, the air above it expands and an area of low pressure develops. Meanwhile, the ocean remains at a lower temperature than the land, the air above it retains a higher pressure; this difference in pressure causes sea breezes to blow from the ocean to the land, bringing moist air inland. This moist air rises to a higher altitude over land and it flows back toward the ocean. However, when the air rises, while it is still over the land, the air cools; this decreases the air's ability to hold water, this causes precipitation over the land. This is. In the colder months, the cycle is reversed; the land cools faster than the oceans and the air over the land has higher pressure than air over the ocean. This causes the air over the land to flow to the ocean; when humid air rises over the ocean, it cools, this causes precipitation over the oceans.
(The cool air flows towards the land to complete the cy