The pipa is a four-stringed Chinese musical instrument, belonging to the plucked category of instruments. Sometimes called the Chinese lute, the instrument has a pear-shaped wooden body with a varying number of frets ranging from 12 to 26. Another Chinese four-string plucked lute is the liuqin, which looks like a smaller version of the pipa; the pear-shaped instrument may have existed in China as early as the Han dynasty, although the term pipa was once used to refer to a variety of plucked chordophones, its usage since the Song dynasty refers to the pear-shaped instrument. The pipa is one of the most popular Chinese instruments and has been played for two thousand years in China. Several related instruments in East and Southeast Asia are derived from the pipa; the Korean instrument is the only one of the three, no longer used. There are considerable confusion and disagreements about the origin of pipa; this may be due to the fact that the word pipa was used in ancient texts to describe a variety of plucked chordophones from the Qin to the Tang dynasty, including the long-necked spiked lute and the short-necked lute, as well as the differing accounts given in these ancient texts.
Traditional Chinese narrative prefers the story of the Han Chinese princess Liu Xijun sent to marry a barbarian Wusun king during the Han dynasty, with the pipa being invented so she could play music on horseback to soothe her longings. Modern researchers such as Laurence Picken, Shigeo Kishibe, John Myers suggested a non-Chinese origin; the earliest mention of pipa in Chinese texts appeared late in the Han Dynasty around the 2nd century AD. According to Liu Xi's Eastern Han Dynasty Dictionary of Names, the word pipa may have an onomatopoeic origin, although modern scholarship suggests a possible derivation from the Persian word "barbat", the two theories however are not mutually exclusive. Liu Xi stated that the instrument called pipa, though written differently in the earliest texts, originated from amongst the Hu people. Another Han Dynasty text indicates that, at that time, pipa was a recent arrival, although 3rd-century texts from the Jin dynasty suggest that pipa existed in China as early as the Qin Dynasty.
An instrument called xiantao, made by stretching strings over a small drum with handle, was said to have been played by labourers who constructed the Great Wall of China during the late Qin Dynasty. This may have given rise to the Qin pipa, an instrument with a straight neck and a round sound box, evolved into ruan, an instrument named after Ruan Xian, one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove and known for playing similar instrument, yet another term used in ancient text was Qinhanzi similar to Qin pipa, but modern opinions differ on its precise form. The pear-shaped pipa is to have been introduced to China from Central Asia, and/or India. Pear-shaped lutes have been depicted in Kusana sculptures from the 1st century AD; the pear-shaped pipa may have been introduced during the Han dynasty and was referred to as Han pipa. However, depictions of the pear-shaped pipas in China only appeared after the Han dynasty during the Jin dynasty in the late 4th to early 5th century. Pipa acquired a number of Chinese symbolisms during the Han dynasty - the instrument length of three feet five inches represents the three realms and the five elements, while the four strings represent the four seasons.
Depictions of the pear-shaped pipas appeared in abundance from the Southern and Northern Dynasties onwards, pipas from this time to the Tang Dynasty were given various names, such as Hu pipa, bent-neck pipa, some of these terms however may refer to the same pipa. Apart from the four-stringed pipa, other pear-shaped instruments introduced include the five-stringed, straight-necked, wuxian pipa, a six-stringed version, as well as the two-stringed hulei. From the 3rd century onwards, through the Sui and Tang Dynasty, the pear-shaped pipas became popular in China. By the Song dynasty the word pipa was used to refer to the four-stringed pear-shaped instrument; the pipa reached a height of popularity during the Tang Dynasty, was a principal musical instrument in the imperial court. It may be played as a solo instrument or as part of the imperial orchestra for use in productions such as daqu, an elaborate music and dance performance. During this time Persian and Kuchan performers and teachers were in demand in Chang ` an.
Some delicately carved pipas with beautiful inlaid patterns date from this period, with fine examples preserved in the Shosoin Museum in Japan. It had close association with Buddhism and appeared in mural and sculptural representations of musicians in Buddhist contexts. For example, masses of pipa-playing Buddhist semi-deities are depicted in the wall paintings of the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang; the four and five-stringed pipas were popular during the Tang Dynasty, these instruments were introduced into Japan during the Tang Dynasty as well as into other regions such as Korea and Vietnam. The five-stringed pipa however had fallen from use by the Song Dynasty, although attempts have been made to revive this instrument in the early 21st century with a
Tan Dun is a Chinese contemporary classical composer and conductor, most known for his scores for the movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero, as well as composing music for the medal ceremonies at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. His works incorporate audiovisual elements. In 2013, he was named a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador, he has won numerous awards for his works, including an Academy Award, a Grammy Award and a BAFTA award. Tan Dun was born in 1957 in a village in Changsha in the Hunan province of China; as a child, he was fascinated by the rituals and ceremonies of the village shaman, which were set to music made with natural objects such as rocks and water. Due to the bans enacted during the Cultural Revolution, he was discouraged from pursuing music and was sent to work as a rice planter on the Huangjin commune, he joined an ensemble of other commune residents and learned to play traditional Chinese string instruments. Following a ferry accident that resulted in the death of several members of a Peking opera troupe, Tan Dun was called upon as a violist and arranger.
This initial success earned him a seat in the orchestra, from there he went to study at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing in 1977. While at the Conservatory, Tan Dun came into contact with composers such as Toru Takemitsu, George Crumb, Alexander Goehr, Hans Werner Henze, Isang Yun, Chou Wen-Chung, all of whom influenced his sense of musical style. In 1986, he moved to New York City as a doctoral student at Columbia University, once again studying with Chou Wen-Chung, who had studied under Edgard Varèse. At Columbia, Tan Dun discovered the music of composers such as Philip Glass, John Cage, Meredith Monk, Steve Reich, began incorporating these influences into his compositions, he completed his dissertation and Fire: Dialogue with Paul Klee, in 1993. Inspired by a visit to the Museum of Modern Art and Fire is a short symphony that engages with the paintings of Paul Klee. On June 15, 2016, he created the Grand Opening Theme Song of Shanghai Disney Resort. During his time at Columbia University, Tan Dun created his first opera, a setting of nature poems by Qu Yuan called Nine Songs.
The poems are sung in both Classical Chinese and contemporary English alongside a small ensemble of Western and Chinese instruments. Among these are a specially built set of 50 ceramic percussion and wind instruments, designed in collaboration with potter Ragnar Naess. To emphasize the shamanistic nature of Qu Yuan's poetry, the actors dance and move in a ritualized manner. Tan Dun's second work in the genre, Marco Polo, set to a libretto by Paul Griffiths, is an opera within an opera, it begins with the spiritual journey of two characters and Polo, their encounters with various historic figures of literature and music, including Dante Alighieri, William Shakespeare, Sigmund Freud, John Cage, Gustav Mahler, Li Po, Kublai Khan. These sections are presented in an Peking opera style. Interwoven with these sections are the travels of the real-life Marco Polo, presented in a Western operatic style. Though the score calls for traditional Western orchestral instrumentation, additional instruments are used to indicate the location of the characters, including recorder, sitar, singing bowls, Tibetan horn and pipa.
The opera won the Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition in 1998. That same year, Tan Dun premiered his next opera, an adaptation of Tang Xianzu's 1598 Kunqu opera The Peony Pavilion. Directed by Peter Sellars in its original production, Tan Dun's The Peony Pavilion is performed in English, though one of the characters must be trained in Peking or Kunqu style; the small ensemble of six musicians performs electronics and Chinese instruments onstage with the actors. Stylistically, the music is a blend of Chinese opera. At this point in his career, Tan Dun had created many works for "organic instruments," i.e. instruments constructed from materials such as paper, water and stone. For his fourth opera, Tea: A Mirror of Soul, co-authored by librettist Xu Ying, organic instruments factor prominently into the structure of the opera itself; the title of each act corresponds to the materials of the instruments being used, as well as the opera's plot. The first act, entitled "Water, Fire", opens with a tea ceremony onstage while percussionists manipulate glass bowls of water.
The second act, "Paper", features music on rice paper drums and depicts the characters' search for The Classic of Tea, the first book to codify tea production and preparation in China. The third and final act, "Ceramic, Stones", depicts the death of the protagonist's love. Percussionists play on pitched flowerpots, referred to as "Ceramic chimes" in the score. Tan Dun's most recent opera, The First Emperor, was commissioned by the Metropolitan Opera with the title role created for Plácido Domingo. Co-authored by Tan Dun and Chinese novelist Ha Jin, the opera focuses on the unification of China under Qin Shi Huang, first emperor of the Qin Dynasty, his relationship with the musician Gao Jianli. Like Tan Dun's previous operas, The First Emperor calls for Chinese instruments in addition to a full orchestra, including guzheng and bianzhong; the original Met production was directed by Zhang Yimou, with whom Tan Dun had collaborated on the film Hero. Tan Dun earned more widespread attention after composing the score for Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, for which he won an Academy Aw
Order of chivalry
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights founded during or inspired by the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades, paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry. During the 15th century, orders of chivalry, or dynastic orders of knighthood, began to be created in a more courtly fashion that could be created ad hoc; these orders would retain the notion of being a society or association of individuals, some of them were purely honorific, consisting of nothing but the badge. In fact, the badges themselves came to be known informally as orders; these institutions in turn gave rise to the modern-day orders of merit of states. In Dell'origine dei Cavalieri, the Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino distinguished knights and their respective societies in three main categories: "Knights of the Cross", comparable to the modern term military orders "Knights of Spur", i.e. invested by the Pope or other sovereign, thus somewhat comparable to dynastic orders of knighthood, or by feudal lords and knights elderly "Knights of Necklace", i.e. purely ornamentalOver time, the above division became no longer sufficient, heraldic science distinguished orders into: hereditary, military and fees.
The Secretariat of the State of the Holy See - medieval pioneer - distinguishes orders in the following manner: State orders: "orders of merit" of a nation state, rewarding military or civil merit of its citizens based on the sovereignty of their states Pontifical equestrian orders, conferred by the Pope Sovereign orders: the only extant one in this category is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an international sovereign entity Dynastic orders of a sovereign royal dynasty, either an active "dynastic state actor", otherwise a "non-national dynastic order", as the head of a reigning royal house operating under iure collationis approved by Papal bulls in the case of older origins In a more generous distribution proposed in The Knights in the Crown: The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Late Medieval Europe, the Canadian heraldist D'Arcy Boulton classifies chivalric orders as follows: Monarchical orders Confraternal orders Fraternal orders Votive orders Cliental pseudo-orders Honorific ordersBased on Boulton, this article distinguishes: Chivalric orders by time of foundation: Medieval chivalric orders: foundation of the order during the Middle Ages or the Renaissance Modern chivalric orders: foundation after 1789 Chivalric orders by religion: Catholic chivalric orders: membership for members of the Catholic Church Orthodox chivalric orders: blessed by the heads of Orthodox churches Protestant chivalric orders: blessed by the heads of Protestant churches Chivalric orders by purpose: Monarchical chivalric orders: foundation by a monarch, a fount of honour.
Order of Saint George, founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325 Order of the Band, founded by Alfonso XI of Castile in ca. 1330 Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III of England in 1348 Order of the Star, founded by John II of France in 1351 Order of the Knot, founded by Louis I of Naples in 1352. Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, founded by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in 1362. Order of the Ermine, founded by Duke of Brittany in 1381: First order to accept Women. Order of the Ship, founded by Charles III of Naples on 1 December 1381 Order of the Dragon, founded by Sigismund von Luxembourg in 1408. Order of the Golden Fleece, founded by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430 Order of the Tower and Sword, founded by Afonso V of Portugal in 1459 Order of Saint Michael, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469Post-medieval foundations of chivalric orders:Order of Saint Stephen Order of the Holy Spirit Blood of Jesus Christ Order of the Thistle Order of Saint Louis Order of the Seraphim Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Order of St. Patrick Order of Saint Joseph Monarchical orders whose monarch no longer reigns but continues to bestow the order:Order of the Golden Fleece Order of the Holy Spirit Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje Order of Skanderbeg Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception Order of the Crown Order of Carol I Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa Order of Saint Michael of the Wing Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Order of the Eagle of Georgia Order of Queen Tamara Order of the Crown of Georgia Royal Order of the Crown of Hawai'i Confraternal orders are orders of chivalry with the presidency attached to a nobleman: Princely orders were founded by noblemen of higher rank.
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Hero (2002 film)
Hero is a 2002 Chinese wuxia film directed by Zhang Yimou. Starring Jet Li as the nameless protagonist, the film is based on the story of Jing Ke's assassination attempt on the King of Qin in 227 BC. Hero was first released in China on 24 October 2002. At that time, it was the most expensive project and one of highest-grossing motion pictures in China. Miramax Films bought the American market distribution rights, but delayed the release of the film for nearly two years. Quentin Tarantino convinced Miramax to open the film in American theaters on 27 August 2004; the film became the first Chinese-language movie to place No. 1 at the American box office and went on to earn $53.6 million. In ancient China during the Warring States period, Nameless, a Qin prefect, arrives at the Qin capital city to meet the king of Qin, who had survived an attempt on his life by the assassins Sky, Flying Snow, Broken Sword; as a result, the king has implemented extreme security measures: no visitors allowed to approach the king within 100 paces.
Nameless claims that he has slain the three assassins and he displays their weapons before the king, who allows the former to approach within ten paces and tell him his story. Nameless recounts first killing Long Sky, before traveling to meet Flying Snow and Broken Sword, who had taken refuge at a calligraphy school in the Zhao state, he tells Sword that he is there to commission a calligraphy scroll with the character for "Sword", secretly seeking to learn Sword's skill through his calligraphy. Nameless learns that Snow and Sword, who are lovers, had grown distant. Once the scroll is complete, Nameless reveals his identity and challenges Snow to a duel the next day, to avenge her secret lover Long Sky. Sword, in anger at Snow's betrayal to him, makes love to his pupil Moon, is seen by Snow. In revenge, Snow kills Sword, followed by Moon; the next day, Nameless kills the unstable Snow before the Qin army, claims her sword. As the tale concludes, the king expresses disbelief and accuses Nameless of staging the duels with the assassins, as in the previous assassination attempt he had perceived Sword as an honourable man who would not stoop so low as to cheat on Snow.
The king suggests that what happened was that the assassins volunteered their lives so that Nameless could gain the king's trust, which would allow Nameless to get close enough to the king to kill him. He narrates his guess at what happened. In the king's hypothetical version of the story, Nameless had sought out Snow and Sword after staging the battle with Sky, telling them that he had acquired a special technique that would allow him to kill any target, within ten paces. Nameless explains that he can use this technique to kill the king, but to get close enough he must present Snow's and Sword's weapons to the king, he further explains that he only needs to kill one of them in public to "prove" that he has killed both of them. Snow and Sword argue over who should be the one to die, which results in a short fight in which Snow is quicker and manages to injure Sword. Snow proceeds to meet Nameless before the Qin army while Sword, still recovering from his wound, watches helplessly as Snow is defeated.
Moon gives Nameless her master's sword, telling him that the swords of Snow and Sword should remain together in death as they had in life. Nameless admits. However, he states that the King had underestimated Sword, tells the true story. Nameless says that the special technique, while deadly, can be used to deal a seemingly-fatal blow that nonetheless misses all the victim's vital organs, he had used this technique on Sky, now asked Snow and Sword to cooperate by faking a duel with him as well. He demonstrates the technique by showing that it is accurate as well as deadly. Snow agrees to the plan. Snow angrily accuses Sword of ruining the opportunity they had three years ago, when they had broken into the Qin palace yet Sword had refused to kill the king, she attacks Sword, manages to wound him with Nameless's help. The next day, Nameless "kills" Snow in front of the Qin army. Sword sends Nameless off to the Qin capital. Sword had not killed the king 3 years ago because he desired a unified, peaceful state, only the king of Qin could achieve that vision.
The king, touched by the tale and by Sword's understanding of his dream to unify China, ceases to fear Nameless. He examines the scroll drawn by Sword; the king understands that it describes the ideal warrior, paradoxically, should have no desire to kill. When Nameless realizes the wisdom of these words, he spares the king; when Snow learns that Sword had convinced Nameless to forgo the assassination, she furiously attacks Sword and unintentionally kills him when he chooses not to defend himself so that she would understand his feelings for her. Overwhelmed with sorrow, Snow commits suicide. Urged by his court, the king reluctantly orders Nameless to be executed at the Qin palace for his assassination attempt, he understands that in order to unify the nation, he must enforce the law and use Nameless as an example. As the film ends, Nameless receives a hero's funeral and a closing text identifies the king as Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Jet Li as Nameless An unknown prefect of a small province, orphaned at an early age.
Forged into a master swordsman over years of training, Nameless possesses the singular technique "Death at Ten Paces" allowing him to strike prec
Three Kingdoms (TV series)
Three Kingdoms is a 2010 Chinese television series based on the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The plot is adapted from the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and other stories about the Three Kingdoms period. Directed by Gao Xixi, the series had a budget of over 160 million RMB and took five years of pre-production work. Shooting of the series commenced in October 2008, it was released in China in May 2010. Three Kingdoms set a record as the most expensive small screen series so far in China's television history, having been sold to four regional TV broadcasters at the price of 160 million yuan; the series was a commercial success in China and dominated ratings, but has caused controversy among fans with many commenting that the TV series has veered too far from the classic novel and real history. It has been sold to over 20 countries, earning an estimated 800 million RMB in total as of May 2012. Jiang Wen was cast as Cao Cao, but decided to abandon the role after two directors quit the project.
Soon afterwards, Tang Guoqiang, who played Zhuge Liang in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, asked for the role, but it had been reassigned to Chen Jianbin. Ken Watanabe asked director Gao Xixi for the role of Guan Yu. Gao was unable to meet Watanabe's request for a salary of 30-40 million yuan, was forced to turn him away; the role went to Yu Rongguang. Romance of the Three Kingdoms List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms Three Kingdoms official page on Sina.com Three Kingdoms official page on Sohu.com Three Kingdoms on IMDb
Cheng Yu (musician)
Cheng Yu is a Chinese musician. She is internationally renowned as a performer of the pipa, a Chinese four-stringed lute, but plays the guqin, a seven-stringed zither, is a virtuoso and specialist of Chinese music, she gained a BMus in China and an MMus in the United Kingdom. She completed her PhD studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London on Ancient Xi'an Music and performs throughout the UK, she plays and researches on traditional and contemporary Chinese music as well as cross-cultural music collaborations in the UK, Europe and other places. In her recent project in 2005, she re-created a modern version of the lost Tang Dynasty five-stringed pipa, based on the study of old Tang dynasty pipas and lutes from the East Asian cultures, she is the founder of the UK Chinese Ensemble in 1994 and the London Youlan Qin Society in 2003. Cheng Yu was born in Beijing, but grew up in Gansu Province in Northwest China when her family was exiled during the Cultural Revolution, she studied the southern Pudong style of pipa with her father from the age of seven and was further trained by pipa masters in the north-western Pinghu style later.
She studied and graduated with distinction in the Xi'an Conservatory of Music in 1987 for the guqin. She won the "outstanding pipa player" award in China in the same year she was selected as a pipa soloist in the China Central Orchestra of Chinese Music in Beijing, she moved to London in the 1990s and teaches pipa and guqin as well as research at SOAS, University of London. Asian Music Circuit: Chinese Music Summer School from 2003 ARC Music SOAS Music House Zomba Extreme Music Realworld Damon Albarn Monkey: Journey to the West Tan Dun Chen Yi Xu Yi Barrington Pheloung Randy Edelman Karl Jenkins Trevor Jones Fabien Tehericsen London Sinfonietta 1996 Lyon Ensemble Orchestral Contemporian 2000-01 Avignon Orchestra 2003 Edinburgh String Quartet 2004 Youth Music: Faber Music Songbook 2005 Jan Kuiper Purbayan Chatterjee Zoumana Kiarra Jan Hendrickse Tim Garside Stephen Dydo Gillian Carcas Gyewon Byeon Please see: References section in the guqin article for a full list of references used in all qin related articles.
UK Chinese Music Her official site with up-to-date news and events
Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with