José Maria de Santo Agostinho
José Maria de Santo Agostinho, born Miguel Boaventura Lucena, was a Brazilian religious leader from the state of Santa Catarina. He was the third of three monks named João Maria who appeared in turn in southern Brazil and healing with herbs, he was the original leader of the peasants in the unsuccessful Contestado War. And was killed in one of the first encounters with troops. José Maria de Santo Agostinho was the soldier Miguel Lucena de Boaventura, he settled in Santa Catarina, where he gained a reputation for healing powers. He resurrected a young woman thought to be dead and cured the wife of a colonel of a disease that the doctors had proclaimed uncurable, he was literate, unusual in among the local country people, wrote notebooks of herbal recipes. He established a "people's pharmacy" where he would provide herbs and roots as well as prayers. José Maria claimed to be the brother of the monk João Maria D’Agostini, an earlier religious leader in the region, he was the religious leader of the rebels during the "Contestado War" of 1912–16, in which small farmers and settlers in Paraná and Santa Catarina, expelled from their lands fought against the large capitalist landowners and companies.
He gathered a following in the Contestado, a region between Parana and Santa Catarina, opposed to construction of a railway that would open the land to outsiders. He organized the dispossessed sharecroppers from his base at the Fazenda do Irani; the superintendent of the municipality of Curitibanos was suspicious of José Maria and summoned him to introduce himself, which he refused to do. This was taken as an act of contempt, the state government's security regiment marched to Taquaruçu to disperse his followers. In a clash on 22 October 1912 the troops were defeated, but José Maria, leading the rebels, was killed. In their religious excitement the rebels sanctified José Maria and began to call him São João Maria, thinking he would return in a few months with an enchanted army commanded by Saint Sebastian; the people of the region began to conflate José Maria and the earlier João Maria, uniting them as one person
A religious war or holy war is a war caused or justified by differences in religion. In the modern period, debates are common over the extent to which religious, economic, or ethnic aspects of a conflict predominate in a given war. According to the Encyclopedia of Wars, out of all 1,763 known/recorded historical conflicts, 123, or 6.98%, had religion as their primary cause. Matthew White's The Great Big Book of Horrible Things gives religion as the cause of 13 of the world's 100 deadliest atrocities. In several conflicts including the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Syrian civil war, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, religious elements are overtly present but variously described as fundamentalism or religious extremism—depending upon the observer's sympathies. However, studies on these cases conclude that ethnic animosities drive much of the conflicts; some historians argue that what is termed "religious wars" is a "Western dichotomy" and a modern invention from the past few centuries, arguing that all wars that are classed as "religious" have secular ramifications.
Similar opinions were expressed as early as the 1760s, during the Seven Years' War recognized to be "religious" in motivation, noting that the warring factions were not split along confessional lines as much as along secular interests. According to Jeffrey Burton Russell, numerous cases of supposed acts of religious wars such as the Thirty Years' War, the French Wars of Religion, the Sri Lankan Civil War, 9/11 and other terrorist attacks, the Bosnian War, the Rwandan Civil War were all motivated by social and economic issues rather than religion; the modern word religion comes from the Latin word religio. In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship, never as doctrine, practice, or actual source of knowledge; the modern concept of "religion" as an abstraction which entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines is a recent invention in the English language since such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and more prevalent colonization or globalization in the age of exploration which involved contact with numerous foreign and indigenous cultures with non-European languages.
It was in the 17th century that the concept of "religion" received its modern shape despite the fact that ancient texts like the Bible, the Quran, other ancient sacred texts did not have a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the people or the cultures in which these sacred texts were written. For example, the Greek word threskeia, used by Greek writers such as Herodotus and Josephus and is found in texts like the New Testament, is sometimes translated as "religion" today, the term was understood as "worship" well into the medieval period. In the Quran, the Arabic word din is translated as "religion" in modern translations, but up to the mid-1600s translators expressed din as "law". In the 1st century AD, Josephus had used the Greek term ioudaismos, which some translate as "Judaism" today though he used it as an ethnic term, not one linked to modern abstract concepts of religion as a set of beliefs, it was in the 19th century that the terms "Buddhism", "Hinduism", "Taoism", "Confucianism" first emerged.
Throughout its long history, Japan had no concept of "religion" since there was no corresponding Japanese word, nor anything close to its meaning, but when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan in 1853 and forced the Japanese government to sign treaties demanding, among other things, freedom of religion, the country had to contend with this Western idea. According to the philologist Max Müller in the 19th century, the root of the English word "religion", the Latin religio, was used to mean only "reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety". Max Müller characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt and India, as having a similar power structure at this point in history. What is called ancient religion today, they would have only called "law"; some languages have words that can be translated as "religion", but they may use them in a different way, some have no word for religion at all. For example, the Sanskrit word dharma, sometimes translated as "religion" means law.
Throughout classical South Asia, the study of law consisted of concepts such as penance through piety and ceremonial as well as practical traditions. Medieval Japan at first had a similar union between "imperial law" and universal or "Buddha law", but these became independent sources of power. There is no precise equivalent of "religion" in Hebrew, Judaism does not distinguish between religious, racial, or ethnic identities. One of its central concepts is "halakha", meaning the "walk" or "path" sometimes translated as "law", which guides religious practice and belief and many aspects of daily life; the Crusades against Muslim expansion in the 11th century was recognized as a "holy war" or bellum sacrum by writers in the 17th century. The early modern wars against the Ottoman Empire were seen as a seamless continuation of this conflict by contemporaries; the term "religious war" was used to describe, controversially at the time, what are now known as the European wars of religion, the then-ongoing Seven Years' War, from at least the mid 18th century.
In their Encyclopedia of Wars, authors Charles Phillips and Alan Axelrod document 1763 notable wars in world history. They note that before the 17th century, much of the "reasons" for conflicts were explained through the
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, fortifications, ships or armament to another power. A surrender may be accomplished peacefully, without fighting, or it may be the result of defeat in battle. A sovereign state may surrender following defeat in a war by signing a peace treaty or capitulation agreement. A battlefield surrender, either by individuals or when ordered by officers results in those surrendering becoming prisoners of war. Merriam-Webster defines surrender as "the action of yielding one's person or giving up the possession of something into the power of another", traces the etymology to the Middle English surrendre, from French sur- or sus-, suz "under" + rendre "to give back". A white flag or handkerchief is taken or intended as a signal of a desire to surrender, but in international law, it represents a desire for a parley that may or may not result in a formal surrender. A surrender will involve the handing over of weapons. Individual combatants can indicate a surrender by discarding weapons and raising their hands empty and open above their heads.
Flags and ensigns are hauled down or furled, ships' colors are struck. When the parties agree to terms, the surrender may be conditional; the leaders of the surrendering group negotiate privileges or compensation for the time and loss of life saved by the victor through the stopping of resistance. Alternatively, in a surrender at discretion, the victor makes no promises of treatment, unilaterally defines the treatment of the vanquished party. An early example of a military surrender is the defeat of Carthage by the Roman Empire at the end of the Second Punic War. Over time accepted laws and customs of war have been developed for such a situation, most of which are laid out in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the Geneva Conventions. A belligerent will agree to surrender unconditionally only if incapable of continuing hostilities. Traditionally, a surrender ceremony was accompanied by the honors of war; the Third Geneva Convention states that prisoners of war should not be abused. US Army policy, for example, requires that surrendered persons should be secured and safeguarded while being evacuated from the battlefield.
While not a formal military law, the Code of the US Fighting Force disallows surrender unless "all reasonable means of resistance exhausted and... certain death the only alternative": the Code states, "I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist". False surrender is a type of perfidy in the context of war, it is a war crime under Protocol I of the Geneva Convention. False surrenders are used to draw the enemy out of cover to attack them off guard, but they may be used in larger operations such as during a siege. Accounts of false surrender can be found frequently throughout history. One of the more infamous examples was the alleged false surrender of British troops at Kilmichael, during the Irish War of Independence. Capitulation, an agreement in time of war for the surrender to a hostile armed force of a particular body of troops, a town or a territory. Debellatio occurs. No quarter occurs when a victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life of the vanquished when they surrender at discretion.
Under the laws of war, "it is forbidden... to declare that no quarter will be given". Unconditional surrender is a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
First Brazilian Republic
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930. The República Velha ended with the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 that installed Getúlio Vargas as a dictator. On November 15, 1889 Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca deposed Emperor Dom Pedro II, declared Brazil a republic, reorganized the government. From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy. In reality, the elections were rigged, voters in rural areas were pressured or induced to vote for the chosen candidates of their bosses and, if all those methods did not work, the election results could still be changed by one sided decisions of Congress' verification of powers commission; this system resulted in the presidency of Brazil alternating between the oligarchies of the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. This regime is referred to as "café com leite",'coffee with milk', after the respective agricultural products of the two states; this period ended with a military coup that placed a civilian, in the presidency.
The Brazilian republic was not an ideological offspring of the republics born of the French or American Revolutions, although the Brazilian regime would attempt to associate itself with both. The republic did not have enough popular support to risk open elections, it was a regime born of a coup d'état. The republicans made Deodoro president and, after a financial crisis, appointed Field Marshal Floriano Vieira Peixoto Minister of War to ensure the allegiance of the military; the officers who joined Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca in ending the Empire had made an oath to uphold it. The officer corps would resolve the contradiction by linking its duty to Brazil itself, rather than to transitory governments; the Republic was born rather accidentally: Deodoro had intended only to replace the cabinet, but the republicans manipulated him into founding a republic. The history of the Old Republic was dominated by a quest for a viable form of government to replace the monarchy; this quest lurched forth between state autonomy and centralization.
The constitution of 1891, establishing the United States of Brazil, granted extensive autonomy to the provinces, now called States. The Federal system was adopted, all powers not granted in the Constitution to the Federal Government belonged to the States, it recognized. The Empire of Brazil had not absorbed the regional pátrias, now they reasserted themselves. Into the 1920s, the federal government in Rio de Janeiro was dominated and managed by a combination of the more powerful states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and to a lesser extent Pernambuco, Bahia; as a result, the history of the outset of republic in Brazil is the story of the development of the Army as a national regulatory and interventionist institution. The sudden elimination of the monarchy reduced the number of masterful national institutions to one, the Army. Although the Roman Catholic Church continued its presence throughout the country, it was not national but rather international in its personnel, doctrine and purposes.
The Army assumed this new position not haphazardly, occupying in the conservative national economical elites' heart, part of the vacuum left by the monarchy with slavery abolition, acquiring support to its de facto role, eclipsing other military institutions, like the Navy and the National Guard. The Navy attempts to prevent. Although it had more units and men in Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul than elsewhere, the Army's presence was felt throughout the country, its personnel, its interests, its ideology, its commitments were national in scope. In the last decades of the 19th century, the United States, much of Europe, neighboring Argentina expanded the right to vote. Brazil, moved to restrict access to the polls. In 1874, in a population of about 10 million, the franchise was held by about one million, but in 1881 this had been cut to 145,296; this reduction was one reason the Empire's legitimacy foundered, but the Republic did not move to correct the situation. By 1910 there were only 627,000 voters in a population of 22 million.
Throughout the 1920s, only between 2.3% and 3.4% of the total population could vote. The instability and violence of the 1890s were related to the absence of consensus among the elites regarding a governmental model; the lack of military unity and the disagreement among civilian elites about the military's role in society explain why a long-term military dictatorship was not established, as some officers advocating positivism wanted. However, military men were active in politics; the Constituent Assembly that drew up the constitution of 1891 was a battleground between those seeking to limit executive power, dictatorial in scope under President Deodoro da Fonseca, the Jacobins, radical authoritarians who opposed the paulista coffee oligarchy and who wanted to preserve and intensify presidential authority. The new charter established a federation governed by a president, a bicameral National Congress, a judiciary. However, real power was in th
The Uruguay River is a river in South America. It flows from north to south and forms parts of the boundaries of Brazil and Uruguay, separating some of the Argentine provinces of La Mesopotamia from the other two countries, it passes between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. The river measures about 1,838 kilometres in length and starts in the Serra do Mar in Brazil, where the Canoas River and the Pelotas River are joined, at about 200 metres above mean sea level. In this stage the river falls, its course through Rio Grande do. An unusual feature of the Uruguay River is a submerged canyon; this canyon formed during the Ice Age, when the climate was drier and the river was narrower. Its depth is up to 100 metres below the bottom of the river channel and it is 1/8 to 1/3 as wide as the river; the canyon is only visible in two places, one of, the Moconá Falls. However, the falls are not visible for 150 days per year and become more like rapids when they are not visible. Unlike most waterfalls, the Moconá Falls are parallel to the river, not perpendicular.
The falls are 10 metres to 12 metres high and between 1,800 metres and 3,000 metres wide. They are 1,215 kilometres from the mouth of the river; the 17,491 hectares Turvo State Park, created in 1947, protects the Brazilian side of the falls. Together with the Paraná River, the Uruguay forms the Río de la Plata estuary, it is navigable from around Salto Chico. Its main tributary is the Río Negro, born in the south of Brazil and goes through Uruguay for 500 km until its confluence with the Uruguay River, located 100 km north of the Uruguay's confluence with the Río de la Plata, in Punta Gorda, Colonia Department, Uruguay; the river is crossed by five international bridges called: Integration Bridge and Paso de los Libres-Uruguaiana International Bridge, between Argentina and Brazil. The drainage basin of the Uruguay River has an area of 365,000 square kilometres, its main economic use is the generation of hydroelectricity and it is dammed in its lower portion by the Salto Grande Dam and by the Itá Dam upstream in Brazil.
The name of the river comes from the Spanish settlers' interpretation of the Guaraní language word the inhabitants of the region used to designate it. There are several interpretations, including "the river of the uru", " the uruguá". Argentina and Uruguay experienced a conflict over the construction of pulp mills on the Uruguay River. Two European companies, ENCE and Botnia, proposed building cellulose processing plants at Fray Bentos, opposite Gualeguaychú, Argentina. According to a 1975 treaty and Uruguay were supposed to jointly agree on matters relating to the Uruguay River. Argentina alleged. Additionally, Argentina believed the Finnish company Botnia was polluting the fish and the overall environment of the river while Uruguay believed that the plant was not depositing a large amount of toxins in the Uruguay River. Starting in April 2005, residents of Gualeguaychú, as well as many others, claiming that the plants would pollute the river shared by the two countries. Early in 2006, the conflict escalated into a diplomatic crisis, compelling one of the companies move the project 250 kilometres south.
Beginning in December 2005, the international bridges linking the Argentine province of Entre Ríos with Uruguay were intermittently blockaded by Argentine protesters, causing major disruptions in commercial traffic and tourism. In 2006, Argentina brought the dispute before the International Court of Justice; the ICJ completed hearings between Argentina and Uruguay regarding the dispute on October 2, 2009. In 2010, the court ruled that although Uruguay failed to inform Argentina of the construction of the pulp mills, the mills did not pollute the river, so closing the remaining pulp mill would be unjustified. In 2010, Argentina and Uruguay created a joint commission to coordinate activities on the river; the course of the Uruguay is crossed by the following bridges, beginning upstream: List of rivers of the Americas Geography of Uruguay Tributaries of the Río de la Plata Media related to Uruguay River at Wikimedia Commons Salto Grande Hydroelectric System Uruguay River at GEOnet Names Server Río Uruguay at GEOnet Names Server Rio Uruguai at GEOnet Names Server "Map of the Uruguay River from Yapeyu to the Farm of Sn. Gregorio" from 1784
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro