Contiguous United States

The contiguous United States or the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U. S. states on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii, all other off-shore insular areas, such as American Samoa, U. S. Virgin Islands, Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico; these differ from the related term continental United States which includes Alaska but excludes the Hawaiian Islands and unincorporated U. S. territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. The greatest distance within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles. Together, the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U. S. land area, similar to the area of Australia. 160,820.25 square miles of the contiguous United States is water area, composing 62.66% of the nation's total water area. The contiguous United States would be placed 5th in the list of sovereign states and dependencies by area.

In land area only, the country ranks third, ahead behind Russia and China. Brazil is 431.000 km2 larger than the contiguous United States, but smaller than the entire United States, while Russia and China are the only three countries larger than both. The 2010 census population of this area was 306,675,006, comprising 99.33% of the nation's population, a density of 103.639 inhabitants/sq mi, compared to 87.264/sq mi for the nation as a whole. While conterminous U. S. has the precise meaning of contiguous U. S. other terms used to describe the 48 contiguous states have a greater degree of ambiguity. Because Alaska is part of North America, the term continental United States includes that state, so the term is qualified with the explicit inclusion of Alaska to resolve any ambiguity. On May 14, 1959, the United States Board on Geographic Names issued the following definitions based on the reference in the Alaska Omnibus Bill, which defined the continental United States as "the 49 States on the North American Continent and the District of Columbia..."

The Board reaffirmed these definitions on May 13, 1999. However before Alaska became a state, it was properly included within the continental U. S. due to being an incorporated territory. The term mainland United States is referred to any U. S. state located on the landmass continent of North America, which excludes Hawaii, off-shore insular areas, nearby adjacent islands such as the Aleutian Islands, San Juan Islands, the Channel Islands. CONUS, a technical term used by the U. S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, NOAA/National Weather Service, others, has been defined both as the continental United States, as the 48 contiguous states; the District of Columbia is not always mentioned as being part of CONUS. OCONUS is derived from CONUS with O for outside added, thus referring to Outside of Continental United States; the term lower 48 is used to refer to the conterminous United States. The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of lower 48 when the 48 states are meant, unless used in the context of Alaska.

All of Hawaii is in fact south of the southernmost point of the conterminous United States, in Florida. During World War II, the first four numbered Air Forces of the United States Army Air Forces were said to be assigned to the Zone of the Interior by the American military organizations of the time—the future states of Alaska and Hawaii each only organized incorporated territories of the Union, were covered by the Eleventh Air Force and Seventh Air Force during the war. Alaskans and off-shore territories have unique labels for the contiguous United States because of their own locations relative to them. Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3, 1959. Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States West Coast by the Canadian province of British Columbia; the term Lower 48 has, for many years, been a common Alaskan equivalent for "contiguous United States". Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21, 1959.

It is the southernmost and so far, the latest state to join the Union. Not part of any continent, Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,200 miles from North America and halfway to Asia. In Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms the Mainland or U. S. Mainland are used to refer to the 49 states in North America. Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico are U. S. citizens and are free to move to the United States. A Stateside Puerto Rican is a term for residents in a U. S. state who were trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico. Apart from off-shore U. S. islands, a few continental portions of the contiguous U. S. are accessible by road only by traveling through Canada

Cliff Owen

Cliff Owen was a British film and TV director best known for his comedy The Wrong Arm of the Law which starred Peter Sellers. Owen was born in London, he died in Oxfordshire in November 1993 aged 74. Brighton Rock - 3rd assistant director Noose - 2nd assistant director Under Capricorn - 2nd assistant director The Hasty Heart - 3rd assistant director Landfall - 2nd assistant director The Magic Box - assistant director Young Wives' Tale - 2nd assistant director Castle in the Air - assistant director Father's Doing Fine - assistant director The Yellow Balloon - assistant director Valley of Song - assistant director London Playhouse - director The Seventh Dungeon - director Boyd Q. C. - director The New Adventures of Martin Kane - director Shadow Squad - producer ITV Play of the Week - director The Third Man - director Knight Errant Limited - director On Trial - director Offbeat - director On Trial: The Dilke Case - director Drama 61-67 - producer, director A Prize of Arms - director The Wrong Arm of the Law - director The Victorians - director A Little Big Business - director The Sullavan Brothers - director Melina Mercouri's Greece - director That Riviera Touch - director Welcome, Mr. Beddoes aka A Man Could Get Killed - co-director The Magnificent Two - director The Vengeance of She - director The Avengers - director Rogues' Gallery - director ITV Playhouse - director Confession - director The Adventures of Don Quick - director Steptoe and Son - director Ooh...

You Are Awful - director No Sex Please, We're British - director Closed Up-Tight - director The Bawdy Adventures of Tom Jones - director Cliff Owen on IMDb Cliff Owen at BFI

Telephone numbers in South Korea

Telephone numbers in South Korea are organized and assigned using the following scheme. International call out: 00N followed by the distant country code and telephone number. Calling into Korea: +82 XX XXXX YYYY; the leading "0" is dropped. Some 1566/1577/1588 telephone numbers cannot be dialed from overseas. Domestic long distance call: 0NN followed by the 0XX area code and XXXX YYYY number. See Domestic long-distance service code and Area code. Call to cellular: 01N XXXX YYYY; when phone call is made between unified 010-number subscribers, leading 010 can be dropped. Special service call: 0N0 XXXX YYYY For example. Dialing from mobile phones to any type of phone except 010 numbers, the area code must be included. In 1998, telephone numbers in Seoul starting with 2 and 6 added more digit. Before area codes were shortened from 4 digit to 2~3 digit in June 2000, there were 1 digit exchange number with some 2 digit exchange numbers so some phone numbers like 0347-61-XXXX, 0443-2-XXXX or 0525-40-XXXX existed.

001 - KT international call 002 - LG U+ international call 003xx - International call over Internet Protocol or international special services 00365 - Onse Telecom international call over Internet Protocol 005 - SK Broadband international call 006 - SK Telink international call 007xx - International call over Internet Protocol or international special services 00700 - SK Telink international call over Internet Protocol 00727 - KT international call over Internet Protocol 00766 - SK Broadband international call over Internet Protocol 00794 - Operator Service 008 - Onse Telecom international call 010 - Mobile 011 - Mobile 012 - Machine to machine 013xx - Mobile special net 014xx - Point-to-Point Protocol Access number 015 - Mobile services: Paging services 016 - Mobile 017 - Mobile 018 - Mobile 019 - Mobile 030 - UMS 050 - Personal number service 050x - Anonymous virtual number service 060 - Telephone based intelligent service 070 - Internet phone 080 - Toll-free call Before June 2000, South Korea used two- to four-digit area codes.

02 - Seoul and parts of Gyeonggi-do 031 - Gyeonggi-do 032 - Incheon and parts of Gyeonggi-do 033 - Gangwon-do 041 - Chungcheongnam-do 042 - Daejeon and a part of Chungcheongnam-do 043 - Chungcheongbuk-do 044 - Sejong City 049 - Kaesong Industrial Region 051 - Busan 052 - Ulsan 053 - Daegu and a part of Gyeongsangbuk-do 054 - Gyeongsangbuk-do 055 - Gyeongsangnam-do and a few neighborhoods of Ulsan 061 - Jeollanam-do 062 - Gwangju 063 - Jeollabuk-do 064 - Jeju-do It is not necessary to dial any carrier prefix before making a domestic long-distance call. These prefixes are needed only when you want to choose a different carrier other than your default long-distance carrier. 081 - KT 082 - LG U+ 083 - Onse Telecom 084 - SK Broadband 085xx - 086 - SK Telink 087 - 088 - 100 - KT customer center 101 - LG U+ customer center 105 - Ship wireless service 106 - SK Broadband customer center 107 - LG U+ report 108 - SK Broadband business customer center 109 - KT report 111 - NIS 112 - Police 113 - Spy reporting Area Code + 114 - Directory assistance 115 - KT Telegram 116 - KT standard time service 117 - School Violence Hotline 118 - Cyber terrorism report 119 - Fire brigade, ambulance 120 - Lifestyle service 121 - Water utility report 122 - Coast guard emergency 123 - KEPCO electric report 125 - Smuggling report 127 - Narcotics report 128 - Pollution report 129 - Coordination with social welfare service 1300 - Postal services 1301 - Prosecutor service Area Code + 131 - Weather forecasting 132 - Civil Action 1330 - KNTO tourist information 1331 - Human Rights Board 1332 - Finance Board 1333 - Transport information 1335 - Information communication service center 1336 - Infringement of personal information board 1337 - Military Safety Board 1338 - Communications service center and report 1339 - Emergency medical treatment 134 - Tourist information 1345 - Immigration Contact Center 1350 - Labor Board 1355 - National Pension Service 1357 - Small and medium enterprise s