The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985. The original model was part of a wave of 16- and 32-bit computers that featured 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-based GUIs, improved graphics and audio over 8-bit systems; this wave included the Atari ST—released the same year—Apple's Macintosh, the Apple IIGS. Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Amiga differed from its contemporaries through the inclusion of custom hardware to accelerate graphics and sound, including sprites and a blitter, a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS; the Amiga 1000 was released in July 1985, but a series of production problems kept it from becoming available until early 1986. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became one of the leading home computers of the late 1980s and early 1990s with four to six million sold; the A3000, introduced in 1990, started the second generation of Amiga systems, followed by the A500+, the A600 in March 1992.
As the third generation, the A1200 and the A4000 were released in late 1992. The platform became popular for gaming and programming demos, it found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, show control business, leading to video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. The Amiga's native ability to play back multiple digital sound samples made it a popular platform for early tracker music software; the powerful processor and ability to access several megabytes of memory enabled the development of several 3D rendering packages, including LightWave 3D, Aladdin4D, TurboSilver and Traces, a predecessor to Blender. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility add-on, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software. Poor marketing and the failure of the models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles and the dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.
Commodore went bankrupt in April 1994 after the Amiga CD32 model failed in the marketplace. Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line, including Genesi, Eyetech, ACube Systems Srl and A-EON Technology. AmigaOS has influenced replacements and compatible systems such as MorphOS, AmigaOS 4 and AROS. "The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that nobody—including Commodore's marketing department—could articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics and video. Nine years vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas." Jay Miner joined Atari in the 1970s to develop custom integrated circuits, led development of the Atari 2600's TIA. As soon as its development was complete, the team began developing a much more sophisticated set of chips, CTIA, ANTIC and POKEY, that formed the basis of the Atari 8-bit family.
With the 8-bit line's launch in 1979, the team once again started looking at a next generation chipset. Nolan Bushnell had sold the company to Warner Communications in 1978, the new management was much more interested in the existing lines than development of new products that might cut into their sales. Miner wanted to start work with the new Motorola 68000, but management was only interested in another 6502 based system. Miner left the company, for a time, the industry. In 1979, Larry Kaplan founded Activision. In 1982, Kaplan was approached by a number of investors. Kaplan hired Miner to run the hardware side of the newly formed company, "Hi-Toro"; the system was code-named "Lorraine" in keeping with Miner's policy of giving systems female names, in this case the company president's wife, Lorraine Morse. When Kaplan left the company late in 1982, Miner was promoted to head engineer and the company relaunched as Amiga Corporation. A breadboard prototype was completed by late 1983, shown at the January 1984 Consumer Electronics Show.
At the time, the operating system was not ready, so the machine was demonstrated with the Boing Ball demo. A further developed version of the system was demonstrated at the June 1984 CES and shown to many companies in hopes of garnering further funding, but found little interest in a market, in the final stages of the North American video game crash of 1983. In March, Atari expressed a tepid interest in Lorraine for its potential use in a games console or home computer tentatively known as the 1850XLD, but the talks were progressing and Amiga was running out of money. A temporary arrangement in June led to a $500,000 loan from Atari to Amiga to keep the company going; the terms required the loan to be repaid at the end of the month, otherwise Amiga would forfeit the Lorraine design to Atari. During 1983, Atari lost over $1 million a week, due to the combined effects of the crash and the ongoing price war in the home computer market. By the end of the year, Warner was desperate to sell the company.
In January 1984, Jack Tramiel resigned from Commodore due to internal battles over the future direction of the company. A number of Commodore employees followed him to Tramiel Technology; this included a number of the senior technical staff, where they began development of a 68000-based machine of the
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft. It was released as Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market on November 15, 2001, in North America, followed by Australia and Japan in 2002, it is classified as a sixth generation console, competing with Sony's PlayStation 2 and Nintendo's GameCube. It was the first console produced by an American company since the Atari Jaguar ceased production in 1996. Announced in 2000, the Xbox was graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featuring a 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor, a processor that could be found on a standard PC, it was noted for its PC-like size and weight, was the first console to feature a built-in hard disk. In November 2002, Microsoft launched Xbox Live, a fee-based online gaming service that enabled subscribers to download new content and connect with other players through a broadband connection. Unlike online services from Sega and Sony, Xbox Live had support in the original console design through an integrated Ethernet port.
The service gave Microsoft an early foothold in online gaming and would help the Xbox become a competitor in the sixth-generation of consoles. The popularity of blockbuster titles such as Bungie's Halo 2 contributed to the popularity of online console gaming, in particular first-person shooters. Despite this, being in second position by the sales numbers—ahead of Nintendo's GameCube and Sega's Dreamcast—sales of the Xbox were always well behind Sony's PlayStation 2. Xbox's successor and the next console in the series, the Xbox 360, was launched in November 2005 as part of the seventh generation; the Xbox was discontinued soon after, beginning with Japan, Microsoft's worst-performing market, in 2005. Other countries followed suit in 2006; the last Xbox game in Europe was Xiaolin Showdown, released in June 2007, the last game in North America was Madden NFL 09 from EA Sports, released in August 2008. Support for out-of-warranty Xbox consoles was discontinued on March 2, 2009. Support for Xbox Live on the console ended on April 15, 2010.
In 1998, four engineers from Microsoft's DirectX team, Kevin Bachus, Seamus Blackley, Ted Hase and DirectX team leader Otto Berkes, disassembled some Dell laptop computers to construct a prototype Microsoft Windows-based video game console. The team hoped to create a console using a standardized set of hardware to compete with Sony's upcoming PlayStation 2, luring game developers away from the Windows platform; the team approached Ed Fries, the leader of Microsoft's game publishing business at the time, pitched their "DirectX Box" console based on the DirectX graphics technology developed by Berkes's team. Fries decided to support the team's idea of creating a Windows DirectX based console. During development, the original DirectXbox name was shortened to Xbox. Microsoft's marketing department did not like the Xbox name, suggested many alternatives. During focus testing, the Xbox name was left on the list of possible names to demonstrate how unpopular the Xbox name would be with consumers. However, consumer testing revealed that Xbox was preferred by far over the other suggested names and "Xbox" became the official name of the product.
It was Microsoft's first video game console after collaborating with Sega to port Windows CE to the Dreamcast console. Microsoft delayed the console, first mentioned publicly in late 1999 during interviews with Microsoft's then-CEO Bill Gates. Gates stated: "we want Xbox to be the platform of choice for the best and most creative game developers in the world"; the Xbox was announced at the Game Developers Conference on March 10, 2000. Audiences were impressed by the console's technology. At the time of Gates's announcement, Sega's Dreamcast sales were diminishing and Sony's PlayStation 2 was just going on sale in Japan. Gates was in talks with Sega's late chairman Isao Okawa about the possibility of Xbox compatibility with Dreamcast games, but negotiations fell apart over whether or not the Dreamcast's SegaNet online service should be implemented; the Xbox was unveiled to the public by Gates and guest professional wrestler The Rock at CES 2001 in Las Vegas on January 3, 2001. Microsoft announced Xbox's release prices at E3 2001 in May.
Most Xbox launch titles were unveiled at E3, most notably Halo: Combat Evolved and Dead or Alive 3. Due to the immense popularity of gaming consoles in Japan, Microsoft delayed the release of the Xbox in Europe to focus on the Japanese video game market. Although delayed, the European release proved to be more successful than the launch of the Xbox in Japan; some of Microsoft's plans proved effective. In preparation for its launch, Microsoft acquired Bungie and used Halo: Combat Evolved as its launch title. At the time, GoldenEye 007 for the Nintendo 64 had been one of the few hit FPS games to appear on a console, as well as titles such as Perfect Dark and Medal of Honor. Halo: Combat Evolved proved a good application to drive the Xbox's sales. In 2002, Microsoft made the second place slot in consoles sold in North America; the Xbox Live service gave Microsoft an early foothold in online gaming and would help the Xbox become a relevant competitor to other sixth-generation consoles. In 2002, the Independent Television Commission banned a television advertisement for the Xbox in the United Kingdom after complaints that it was "offensive, shocking and in bad taste".
It depicted a mother giving birth to a baby boy, fired like a projectile through a window aging as he flies through the air. The advertisement ends with an old man crash-landing into his own grave and the slogan, "Life is short. Play more." The Xbox's successor, the Xbox 360, was announced on May 12, 2005 on MTV. It was the first n
High color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory such that each pixel is represented by two bytes. The color is represented by all 16 bits, but some devices support 15-bit high color. More high color has been used by Microsoft to distinguish display systems that can make use of more than 8-bits per color channel from traditional 8-bit per color channel formats; this is a distinct usage from the 15-bit or 16-bit formats traditionally associated with the phrase high color. In 15-bit high color, one of the bits of the two bytes is ignored or set aside for an alpha channel, the remaining 15 bits are split between the red and blue components of the final color, like this: Each of the RGB components has 5 bits associated, giving 2⁵ = 32 intensities of each component; this allows 32768 possible colors for each pixel. The popular Cirrus Logic graphics chips of the early 1990s made use of the spare high-order bit for their so-called "mixed" video modes: with bit 15 clear, bits 0 through 14 would be treated as an RGB value as described above, while with bit 15 set, bit 0 through 7 would be interpreted as an 8-bit index into a 256-color palette This would have enabled display of high-quality color images side by side with palette-animated screen elements, but in practice, this feature was hardly used by any software.
When all 16 bits are used, one of the components gets an extra bit, allowing 64 levels of intensity for that component, a total of 65536 available colors. This can lead to small discrepancies in encoding, e.g. when one wishes to encode the 24-bit colour RGB with 16 bits. Forty in binary is 00101000; the red and blue channels will take the five most significant bits, will have a value of 00101, or 5 on a scale from 0 to 31. The green channel, with six bits of precision, will have a binary value of 001010, or 10 on a scale from 0 to 63; because of this, the colour RGB will have a slight purple tinge. Note that 40 on a scale from 0 to 255 is 15.7%. Green is chosen for the extra bit in 16 bits because the human eye has its highest sensitivity for green shades. For a demonstration, look at the following picture where dark shades of red and blue are shown using 128 levels of intensities for each component. Readers with normal vision should see the individual shades of green easily, while the shades of red should be difficult to see, the shades of blue are indistinguishable.
More some systems support having the extra bit of colour depth on the red or blue channel in applications where that colour is more prevalent. There is no need for a color look up table when in high color mode, because there are enough available colors per pixel to represent graphics and photos reasonably satisfactorily. However, the lack of precision decreases image fidelity. 24-bit color 30/36/48-bit color Color depth Planar Packed pixel List of monochrome and RGB palettes — 15-bit RGB and 16-bit RGB sections
Continental Circus (album)
Continental Circus is the original soundtrack album of the 1972 French documentary film of the same name directed by Jérôme Laperrousaz. Released in April 1972 on Philips Records, the album is credited to "Gong avec Daevid Allen" and was recorded and mixed in two days in the spring of 1971, a few months before the band's 1971 album Camembert Electrique was made. Laperrousaz was a close friend and supporter of Allen and his partner Gilli Smyth and the film, starring Jack Findlay and Giacomo Agostini, is about motorcycle road racing; the track "What Do You Want?" is the same piece as "Fohat Digs Holes in Space" on Camembert Electrique, but the version here lacks the intro, has different lyrics and is played slower. The track entitled "Continental Circus World" consists of dialogue and sound effects from the film, backed with a looped excerpt from "Blues for Findlay", the album's only new composition; the album features English drummer Pip Pyle who had joined the band, having been introduced to Daevid Allen by Robert Wyatt during the recording of Allen's debut solo album, Banana Moon, in February.
For legal reasons, Allen gave his writing credits on the album to his partner Gilli Smyth. He did this for Magick Brother & a few other releases. Various bootleg versions of the album exist on CD which include live and studio tracks from the same period. Daevid Allen – guitar, vocals Gilli Smyth – space whisper Didier Malherbe – sax, flute Christian Tritsch – bass Pip Pyle – drums
Taito Legends is a compilation of 29 arcade games released for the PlayStation 2, Microsoft Windows. The games were developed by Taito Corporation; the European release was published by Empire Interactive, who had licensed the games from Taito and developed the compilation. Although they did not get official credit for it in the American versions, Sega published the North American and South American releases. Extra features include interviews with some of the game designers, original sales flyers, arcade cabinet art. Two follow-up compilations were issued. While the Western Taito Legends consists of 29 arcade games, the Japanese Taito Memories includes only 25 arcade games per volume, omitting Jungle Hunt, Colony 7, The Electric Yo-Yo, Zoo Keeper and Tube It. Between 2005 and 2007, in total four similar compilations had been released by Taito for the PlayStation 2 in its home market of Japan: Taito Memories Volume 1 Taito Memories Volume 2 Taito Memories II Volume 1 Taito Memories II Volume 2 The games on this compilation are emulations of their respective arcade originals.
These games place a gun cursor on the screen, which the player can move around with the analog stick, or mouse. The games that had to be altered due to licensing issues are Rainbow Islands. Elements of Jungle Hunt had to be altered such as the design of the Tarzan like character and the signature Tarzan yell due to licensing issues with Edgar Rice Burroughs estate. Rainbow Islands had to alter its music for the re-release due to licensing. Taito Legends received positive reviews with a score of 74.06% for the Xbox version, 71.68% for the PlayStation 2 version, 75.17% for the Windows version on GameRankings. IGN praised the collection for a superb presentation, as well as the large amount of bonus material, but criticized some titles in the collection as "worthless filler". Other criticisms are the lack of online leaderboards, the omission of Arkanoid and Chase H. Q. the lack of light gun support for Operation Wolf, Operation Thunderbolt, Space Gun, the lack of control configuration, for the controls being "flipped", making it uncomfortable and unnatural to many, less-adaptable players.
Only the Windows version fixes the error regarding the collection's control scheme. Xplosiv pages: PS2, Empire support pages: PC, PC xplosiv, PS2 Xplosiv, Xbox Empire XPLOSIV UNVEILS TAITO LEGENDS LINE-UP Empire Interactive announces the much-anticipated Taito Legends
Active shutter 3D system
An active shutter 3D system is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. It works by only presenting the image intended for the left eye while blocking the right eye's view presenting the right-eye image while blocking the left eye, repeating this so that the interruptions do not interfere with the perceived fusion of the two images into a single 3D image. Modern active shutter 3D systems use liquid crystal shutter glasses; each eye's glass contains a liquid crystal layer which has the property of becoming opaque when voltage is applied, being otherwise transparent. The glasses are controlled by a timing signal that allows the glasses to alternately block one eye, the other, in synchronization with the refresh rate of the screen; the timing synchronization to the video equipment may be achieved via a wired signal, or wirelessly by either an infrared or radio frequency transmitter. Historic systems used spinning discs, for example the Teleview system. Active shutter 3D systems are used to present 3D films in some theaters, they can be used to present 3D images on CRT, plasma, LCD, projectors and other types of video displays.
Although all ordinary unmodified video and computer systems can be used to display 3D by adding a plug-in interface and active shutter glasses, disturbing levels of flicker or ghosting may be apparent with systems or displays not designed for such use. The rate of alternation required to eliminate noticeable flicker depends on image brightness and other factors, but is well over 30 image pair cycles per second, the maximum possible with a 60 Hz display. A 120 Hz display, allowing 60 images per second per eye, is accepted as flicker-free. Unlike red/cyan color filter 3D glasses, LC shutter glasses are color neutral, enabling 3D viewing in the full color spectrum, though the ColorCode anaglyph system does come close to providing full color resolution. Unlike in a Polarized 3D system, where the horizontal spacial resolution is halved, the active shutter system can retain full resolution for both the left and right images. Like any system, manufacturers of televisions may choose not to implement the full resolution for 3D playback but use halved vertical resolution instead.
Flicker can be noticed except at high refresh rates, as each eye is receiving only half of the monitor's actual refresh rate. However, modern LC glasses work in higher refresh rates and eliminate this problem for most people; until the method only worked with CRT monitors. Many projectors DLP-based ones, support 3D out of the box. LC shutter glasses are shutting out light half of the time; this gives an effect similar to watching TV with sunglasses on, which causes a darker picture to be perceived by the viewer. However, this effect can produce a higher perceived display contrast when paired with LCDs because of the reduction in backlight bleed. Since the glasses darken the background, contrast is enhanced when using a brighter image; when used with LCDs, extreme localized differences between the image to be displayed in one eye and the other may lead to crosstalk, due to LCD panels' pixels sometimes being unable to switch, for example from black to white, in the time that separates the left eye's image from the right one.
Recent advancements in the panel's response time, has led to displays that rival or surpass passive 3D systems. Frame rate has to be double that of a non-3D, anaglyph, or polarized 3D systems to get an equivalent result. All equipment in the chain has to be able to process frames at double rate. Despite a progressive fall in prices, due to the intrinsic use of electronics, they remain more expensive than anaglyph and polarized 3D glasses; because of their integrated electronics and batteries, early shutter glasses were heavy and expensive. However, design improvements have resulted in newer models that are cheaper, lightweight and able to be worn over prescription lenses. From brand to brand, shutter glasses use different synchronization protocols; therefore glasses that use the same kind of synchronization system will be incompatible across different makers. However, efforts are being made to create a universal 3D shutter glass. Crosstalk is the leakage of frames between left right eye. LCDs have exhibited this problem more than plasma and DLP displays, due to slower pixel response time.
LCDs that utilize a strobe backlight, such as nVidia's LightBoost, reduce crosstalk. This is done by turning off the backlight between refreshes, while waiting for the shutter glasses to switch eyes, for the LCD panel to finish pixel transitions. In March 2011 Panasonic Corporation, together with XPAND 3D, have formulated the M-3DI Standard, which aims to provide industry-wide compatibility and standardization of LC Shutter Glasses; this movement aims to bring about compatibility among manufacturers of 3D TV, notebook, home projection, cinema with standardized LC shutter glasses that will work across all 3D hardware seamlessly. The current standard is Full HD 3D Glasses. Field Sequential has been used in video games, VHS and VHD movies and is referred to as HQFS for DVDs, these systems use wired or wireless LCS glasses; the Sensio format was used w