In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Pre-Christian Alpine traditions
The central and eastern Alps of Europe are rich in folklore traditions dating back to pre-Christian times, with surviving elements amalgamated from Germanic, Gaulish and Raetian culture. Ancient customs survived in the parts of Austria, Bavaria, Slovenia and northern Croatia and north eastern Italy in the form of dance, processions, rituals. The high regional diversity results from the isolation of Alpine communities. In the Alps, the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and paganism has been an ambivalent one, while some customs survived only in the remote valleys inaccessible to the churchs influence, other customs were actively assimilated over the centuries. In light of the rural population of the Alps, many customs have evolved into more modern interpretations. Around September 8, the feast of the Nativity of Mary, in Bavaria, women weave fir wreaths decorated with paper roses and small mirrors to ward off demons during the downhill journey. It has been suggested that this derives from end-of-summer festivals in honor of the Germanic goddess Iðunn, the word Krampus originates from the Old High German word for claw.
In the Alpine regions, the Krampus is a horned figure represented as accompanying Saint Nicholas. Krampus acts as an anti–Saint Nicholas, instead of giving gifts to children, gives warnings. This figure is believed to originate from stories of spirits such as kobolds or elves. Originally, the word Perchten referred to the masks representing the entourage of an ancient goddess, Frau Perchta. Some claim a connection to the Nordic goddess Freyja, though this is uncertain, the masks were displayed in processions during the last week of December and first week of January, and particularly on January 6. The costume consists of a wooden mask and brown or white sheeps skin. In recent times Krampus and Perchten have increasingly been displayed in a single event, Perchten are associated with midwinter and the embodiment of fate and the souls of the dead. The name originates from the Old High German word peraht, der Teufel is viewed to be the most schiach Percht and Frau Perchta to be the most schön Perchtin.
Chalandamarz is an ancient festival celebrated by the Romansh speaking part of the Swiss Canton Graubünden and it is celebrated on the first of March and marks the end of winter and the arrival of spring. Its object is to scare away the spirits of winter. The Badalisc is a mythological animal who lives in the woods of Andrista, in Val Camonica
Wayland the Smith
In Norse mythology, Wayland the Smith is a legendary master blacksmith, described by Jessie Weston as the weird and malicious craftsman, Weyland. In Old Norse sources, Völundr appears in Völundarkviða, a poem in the Poetic Edda, and in Þiðrekssaga, in Old English sources, he appears in Deor, Waldere and in Beowulf and the legend is depicted on the Franks Casket. He is mentioned in the German poems about Theoderic the Great as the Father of Witige, according to Völundarkviða, the king of the Sami people had three sons, Völundr and his two brothers Egil and Slagfiðr. In one version of the myth, the three lived with three Valkyries, Ölrún, Hervör alvitr and Hlaðguðr svanhvít. After nine years, the Valkyries left their lovers and Slagfiðr followed, never to return. In another version, Völundr married the swan maiden Hervör, and they had a son, Heime, in both versions, his love left him with a ring. In the former myth, he forged seven hundred duplicates of this ring, King Niðhad captured Völundr in his sleep in Nerike and ordered him hamstrung and imprisoned on the island of Sævarstöð.
There Völundr was forced to forge items for the king, völundrs wifes ring was given to the kings daughter, Böðvildr. In revenge, Völundr killed the kings sons when they visited him in secret, fashioned goblets from their skulls, jewels from their eyes, and he sent the goblets to the king, the jewels to the queen and the brooch to the kings daughter. When Bodvild took her ring to Wayland for mending, he took the ring and raped her and he escaped, using wings he made. Völundr made the magic sword Gram and the ring that Thorsten retrieved. The Old English poem Deor, which recounts the famous sufferings of various figures before turning to those of Deor, its author, begins with Welund, Welund tasted misery among snakes. The stout-hearted hero endured troubles had sorrow and longing as his companions cruelty cold as winter - he often found woe Once Nithad laid restraints on him and that went by, so can this. That went by, so can this, Weland had fashioned the mail shirt worn by Beowulf according to lines 450–455 of the epic poem of the same name, No need to lament for long or lay out my body.
If the battle takes me, send back this breast-webbing that Weland fashioned and Hrethel gave me, fate goes ever as fate must. The Franks Casket is one of a number of other Old English references to Wayland, whose story was well known and popular. Below the forge is the body of Niðhads son, who Wayland has killed, making a goblet from his skull. With his other hand Wayland offers the goblet, containing drugged beer, to Böðvildr, Niðhads daughter, another female figure is shown in the centre, perhaps Waylands helper, or Bodvild again
Central Europe lies between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of strategic awakening, with such as the CEI, Centrope. While the regions economy shows high disparities with regard to income, elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Roman Catholicism and Latin. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in connection with Western European development. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe and these phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments, in 1335 under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary.
They agreed to cooperate closely in the field of politics and commerce, in the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe, even in Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural. The concept of Central Europe was already known at the beginning of the 19th century, an example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch’s book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany, another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination. The bible of the concept was Friedrich Naumann’s book Mitteleuropa in which he called for a federation to be established after the war. The concept failed after the German defeat in World War I, the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era.
According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia are not considered by the author to be Central European because they are located mostly outside Central Europe. The author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, the interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, and the concept of Central Europe took a different character. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe, Hungary, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe, after the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept
Legends about Theoderic the Great
The Gothic King Theoderic the Great was remembered in Germanic legend as Dietrich von Bern. Dietrich figures in a number of surviving works, and it must be assumed that these draw on long-standing oral tradition, the majority of poems about Dietrich/Theoderic are composed in Middle High German, and are generally divided by modern scholars into historical and fantastical. The fantastical poems concern his battles with dwarfs, giants, in addition to these two categories of poems, he appears as a supporting character in some poems such as the Nibelungenlied and Biterolf und Dietleib. Despite the identification of Dietrich von Bern with Theoderic the Great throughout the entire Middle Ages, as the Encyclopædia Britannica states, the legendary history of Dietrich differs so widely from the life of Theoderic that it has been suggested that the two were originally unconnected. The most noticeable differences are, Dietrich is portrayed as an exile from an Italian kingdom which is rightfully his, Theoderic, in contrast, was an invader.
The historical Theoderics capital was Ravenna, not Verona, Ravenna does, Theoderics historical opponent Odoacer is replaced by Dietrichs uncle Ermenrich in all poems except for the Hildebrandslied. Odoacer is mentioned in one version of the Eckenlied, Dietrich is the contemporary of Etzel and of Ermenrich. The assumed real Theoderic was born shortly after Attilas death and well after Ermanarics, Theoderic the Great was an Arian and despised by the Church for a persecution resulting in the deaths of Boethius and Pope John I. Dietrich has many features, he fights against supernatural beings. Numerous theories have proposed to explain these differences. The change from invader to exile is sometimes explained as an attempt to justify Theoderics taking possession of Italy and Ermanaric as contemporaries is part of synchronization, a phenomenon frequently encountered in oral traditions. This can be seen in the way that other such as Wayland. Ritter-Schaumburg proposed that their narration relates instead to a contemporary of the famous Goth, moreover, he identified Berne as Bonn to which was ascribed, in the medieval age, an alternative name Verona of unknown origin.
According to Ritter-Schaumburg, Dietrich lived as a Frankish petty king in Bonn and this theory has found much opposition by other scholars. Another modern author, Rolf Badenhausen, starts from Ritter-Schaumburgs approach and he claims Berne, where Thidrek/Didrik started his rise, to be identical with Varne, in the district of the northern Rhine/Eiffel lands. Thidrek/Didrik could be identified with Theuderich son of Clovis I, a royal Frank mentioned with approval by Gregory of Tours and this theory is rejected by the majority of scholars, who see both theories as based on an overestimation of the exactness of history as preserved in oral traditions. One of the earliest mentions of Theoderic in legend is the Rök Stone, there he is mentioned in a stanza in Eddic meter, Þjóðríkr the bold, chief of sea-warriors, ruled over the shores of the Hreiðsea. Now he sits armed on his Goth, his shield strapped, Otto Höfler has proposed that Theoderic on the horse may be connected in some way to traditions of Theoderic as the Wild Huntsman, Heinzle rejects this interpretation
This mythology flourished among the Franks until the conversion of the Merovingian king Clovis I to Nicene Christianity, though there were many Frankish Christians before that. After that, their paganism was replaced by the process of Christianisation. Generally, Germanic gods were associated with local cult centres and their character and power were associated with specific regions. Other deities were known and feared and shared by cultures and tribes, although in different names, of the latter, the Franks may have had one omnipotent god Allfadir, thought to have lived in a sacred grove. Germanic peoples may have gathered where they believed him to live, according to Herbert Schutz, most of their gods were worldly, possessing form and having concrete relation to earthly objects, in contradistinction to the transcendent God of Christianity. Tacitus mentioned a goddess Nerthus being worshipped by the Germanic people, with the Germanic groups along the North Sea the Franks shared a special dedication to the worship of Yngvi, synonym to Freyr, whose cult can still be discerned in the time of Clovis.
The religion of Clovis before his adherence to Catholic faith has been disputed and it has been argued that the Frankish pantheon expressed a variation of the Germanic structure that was especially devoted to fertility gods. Rich pagan Franks were buried with movable wealth in graves surrounded by horse burials, in contrast to many other Germanic tribes, no Merovingians claimed to be descended from Wodan. Instead, the tradition of a cart pulled by bulls seems to be present from the early Merovingians on. The bulls that pulled the cart were taken as special animals, in the grave of Childeric I was found the head of a bull, craftily made out of gold. This may have represented the symbol of an old fertility ritual. This is supported by evidence of sacrifices in the fens of Drenthe associated with the Swifterbant culture, tacitus mentions rituals among the Germanic tribes of the North Sea area that include a fertility goddess Nerthus riding a chariot drawn by cows. The Merovingian kings riding through the country on an oxcart could be an imaginative reenactment the blessing journey of their divine ancestor.
The Frankish mythology that has survived in sources is comparable to that of the Aeneas and Romulus myths take in Roman mythology. Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks told a founding myth story to explain their connection with peoples of classical history, in the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. In just two generations from the fall of Troy they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine, an earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegars version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Francs and these stories have obvious difficulties if taken as fact. Historians, including eyewitnesses like Caesar, have given us accounts that places the Sicambri firmly at the delta of the Rhine, the myth does not come from the Sicambri themselves, but from Franks, and includes an incorrect geography
The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river. In 496, the Alemanni were conquered by Frankish leader Clovis, mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were gradually Christianized during the 7th century. The Pactus Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period, until the 8th century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was mostly nominal. But after an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed the Alamannic nobility, during the and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire the Alemannic counts became almost independent, and a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishopric of Constance. According to Asinius Quadratus their name means all men and it indicates that they were a conglomeration drawn from various Germanic tribes. Other sources say the name derives from alahmannen which means men of sanctuary and not all men. The Romans and the Greeks called them as such mentioned and this etymology has remained the standard derivation of the term.
Walafrid Strabo, a monk of the Abbey of St, the name of Germany and the German language in several languages is derived from the name of this early Germanic tribal alliance. For details, see Names of Germany, the Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213. At that time they dwelt in the basin of the Main. Cassius Dio portrays the Alemanni as victims of this treacherous emperor and they had asked for his help, says Dio, but instead he colonized their country, changed their place names and executed their warriors under a pretext of coming to their aid. When he became ill, the Alemanni claimed to have put a hex on him, Caracalla, it was claimed, tried to counter this influence by invoking his ancestral spirits. In retribution Caracalla led the Legio II Traiana Fortis against the Alemanni, the legion was as a result honored with the name Germanica. Not on good terms with Caracalla, Geta had been invited to a reconciliation, at which time he was ambushed by centurions in Caracallas army.
True or not, pursued by devils of his own, Caracalla left for the frontier, where for the rest of his short reign he was known for his unpredictable and arbitrary operations launched by surprise after a pretext of peace negotiations. If he had any reasons of state for such actions they remained unknown to his contemporaries, whether or not the Alemanni had been previously neutral, they were certainly further influenced by Caracalla to become thereafter notoriously implacable enemies of Rome. This mutually antagonistic relationship is perhaps the reason why the Roman writers persisted in calling the Alemanni barbari, most of the Alemanni were probably at the time in fact resident in or close to the borders of Germania Superior. At that time the frontier was being fortified for the first time
Old High German
Old High German is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the half of the 8th century. There are, however, a number of Elder Futhark inscriptions dating to the 6th century, as well as single words, during the migration period, the Elbe Germanic tribes settled in what became Alamannia, the Duchy of Bavaria and the Kingdom of Lombardy. Old High German comprises the dialects of these groups which underwent the Second Sound Shift during the 6th Century, namely all of Elbe Germanic, in the south, the Langobards, who had settled in Northern Italy, maintained their dialect until their conquest by Charlemagne in 774. This area did not become German-speaking again until the German eastward expansion of the early 12th century, though there was some attempt at conquest, Old High German literacy is a product of the monasteries, notably at St. Gallen and Fulda. Its origins lie in the establishment of the German church by Boniface in the mid 8th century, einhard tells how Charlemagne himself ordered that the epic lays should be collected for posterity.
It was the neglect or religious zeal of generations that led to the loss of these records, thus, it was Charlemagnes weak successor, Louis the Pious, who destroyed his fathers collection of epic poetry on account of its pagan content. Hrabanus Maurus, a student of Alcuins and abbot at Fulda from 822, was an important advocate of the cultivation of German literacy, among his students were Walafrid Strabo and Otfrid of Weissenburg. Notker Labeo towards the end of the Old High German period was among the greatest stylists in the language, the main difference between Old High German and the West Germanic dialects from which it developed is that it underwent the High German consonant shift. This is generally dated approximately to the late 5th and early 6th centuries—hence dating its start to around 500, the result of this sound change is that the consonantal system of German remains different from all other West Germanic languages, including English and Low German. Grammatically, Old High German remained very similar to Old English, Old Dutch, by the mid 11th century the many different vowels found in unstressed syllables had all been reduced to /ə/.
Since these vowels were part of the endings in the nouns and verbs. For these reasons,1050 is seen as the start of the Middle High German period, for this reason the dialects may be termed monastery dialects. It declined after the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by the Franks in 774 and it is classified as Upper German on the basis of evidence of the Second Sound Shift. The continued existence of a West Frankish dialect in the Western, claims that this might have been the language of the Carolingian court or that it is attested in the Ludwigslied, whose presence in a French manuscript suggests bilingualism, are controversial. The charts show the vowel and consonant systems of the East Franconian dialect in the 9th century and this is the dialect of the monastery of Fulda, and specifically of the Old High German Tatian. Old High German had five long vowels and six phonemic short vowels. Both occurred in stressed and unstressed syllables, All back vowels likely had front-vowel allophones as a result of Umlaut
The Hildebrandslied is a heroic epic poem written in Old High German alliterative verse. It is one of the earliest literary works in German, and it is the only surviving example in German of a genre which must have been important in the oral literature of the Germanic tribes. The opening lines of the set the scene, two warriors meet on a battlefield, probably as the champions of their two armies. As the older man, Hildebrand opens by asking the identity and he believes his father to be dead. Hildebrand responds by saying that Hadubrand will never fight such a close kinsman, Hadubrand takes this as a ruse to get him off guard and belligerently refuses the offer, accusing Hildebrand of deception, and perhaps implying cowardice. Hildebrand accepts his fate and sees that he cannot honourably refuse battle, he has no choice and they start to fight, and the text concludes with their shields smashed. But the poem breaks off, not revealing the outcome, the text consists of 68 lines of alliterative verse, though written continuously with no consistent indication of the verse form.
It breaks off in mid-line, leaving the poem unfinished at the end of the second page, however, it does not seem likely that much more than a dozen lines are missing. The poem starts, The text is highly problematic, both because of the circumstances of its transmission and because of the uniqueness of the work. Although the written text presents no gaps, a number of places have been identified where the text not to follow or there are incomplete lines of verse. Other apparent illogicalities suggest misattributed direct speech and lines out of order, the transpositions, apparent lacunae, and unwarranted insertions all indicate a text copied from an earlier manuscript by scribes with only a partial understanding of the poetic form. The mixture of dialects and other linguistic oddities found in the text could indicate that the poem was written to appear to be older than it was. The manuscript of the Hildebrandslied is now in the Murhardsche Bibliothek in Kassel and was discovered around 1715 by Johan Georg von Eckert and it is assumed to derive, like much else in the librarys collection, from the monastery of Fulda.
It is written on two leaves of parchment, the first and last in a theological codex, the codex itself was written in the first quarter of the 9th century, with the text of the Hildebrandslied added in the 830s on the two remaining blank leaves. There is no evidence to support the suggestion of a third leaf which would have contained the end of the poem. The manuscript is the work of two scribes, of whom the second wrote only 11 lines at the beginning of the second leaf, the hand is mainly Carolingian minuscule. A number of features, including the wynn-rune used for w suggest Old English influence, the manuscript pages now show a number of patches of discoloration. These are the results of attempts by scholars to improve the legibility of the text with chemical agents
The Nordendorf fibulae are two mid 6th to early 7th century Alamannic fibulae found in Nordendorf near Augsburg, Germany. Both fibulae are from the grave, a womans grave from an Alemannic cemetery of 448 row graves. They are labelled I and II, and were found in 1843 and 1844, both fibulae bear Elder Futhark runic inscriptions. The first inscription is longer, and especially famous because of the mention of theonyms of the South Germanic pantheon. The settlement to which the cemetery was attached was situated right on the important Via Claudia Augusta, the first fibula bears the following Elder Futhark inscription containing the names of Wodan, the chief god of the Alamanni, and Þonar, the thunder god. The awa leubwini is a dedication, Awa being a womans name, the second part, apparently added to the conventional dedication, is an exceptional testimony of continental Germanic paganism. The explicit mention of theonyms is extremely rare in all of the runic corpus, the prefix wigi- before the name of Þonar is interpreted either as from *wīgian to hallow or as from *wīgan to fight.
It would seem plausible for logaþore to be the name of god, yielding a divine triad. Both Lóðurr and Loki have been proposed but the reasoning is tenuous. K. Düwel interprets logaþore as magician and translates Wodan and Donar are magicians/sorcerers, on the other hand, the inscription may be an invocation of the gods beneficial or healing power by an adherent of the old faith. With the fibulas date falling precisely in the period of gradual Christianization of the Alamanni, the second fibula has a short, partly illegible inscription, read as. irl. ioel. This has been interpreted as birln io elk bear and elk, pforzen buckle Johann Nepomuk Franz Anton von Raiser
Joves Oak was a sacred tree of the Germanic pagans located in an unclear location around what is now the region of Hesse, Germany. According to the 8th century Vita Bonifatii auctore Willibaldi, the Anglo-Saxon missionary Saint Boniface, wood from the oak was reportedly used to build a church at the site dedicated to Saint Peter. Sacred trees and sacred groves were widely venerated by the Germanic peoples, according to Willibalds 8th century Life of Saint Boniface, the felling of the tree occurred during Bonifaces life earlier the same century at a location at the time known as Gaesmere. Although no date is provided, the felling may have occurred around 723 or 724, in the nineteenth century already Gaesmere was identified as Geismar in the Schwalm-Eder district, for instance by August Neander. There are a few dissenting voices, in his 1916 translation of Willibalds Vita Bonifacii, there are in Hesse several places named Geismar. Historian Thomas F. X. Noble describes the location of the tree felling as still unidentified, in the late 19th century and philologist Francis Barton Gummere identifies the Gaesemere of the attestation as Geismar, a district of Frankenberg located in Hesse.
However, most scholars agree that the site mentioned by Wilibald is Geismar near Fritzlar, neuber placed the Donar Oak im Kreise Fritzlar. While Gregor Richter, in 1906, noted that one scholar considered Hofgeismar as a possible location, the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde notes that for Willibald it was probably not necessary to specify the location any further because he presumed it widely known. This Geismar was close to Büraburg, a hill castle, one of the focal points of Bonifaces life, the scene is frequently repeated and reimagined. Roberto Muller, for instance, in a retelling of Bonifaces biography for adults, has the four parts of the tree fall down to the ground. Kirchengeschichte im Religionsunterricht, Basiswissen und Bausteine für die Klassen 5–10, zerstörung der Donar-Eiche in Geismar bei Fritzlar Demandt, Alexander. Geschichte der Spätantike, das Römische Reich von Diocletian bis Justinian 284-565 n, bonifatius erbaute aus dem Holz der Donar-Eiche die erste Petruskirche der späteren Stadt Fritzlar Dowden, Ken.
European Paganism, The Reality of Cult from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, Germanic Origins, A Study in Primitive Culture. Monumenta Germaniæ historica, Scriptores rerum germanicorum in usum scholarum separatim editi, bonifatius - mit Axt und Evangelium, eine Biographie in Briefen. Neander, Schneider, K. F. Th, general history of the Christian religion and church. Hessenland, Zeitschrift für die Kulturpflege des Bezirksverbandes Hessen, 253–55, ISBN9783406480195. in unmittelbare Nähe den Fränkischen Stützpunkt Büraburg-Fritzlar Riche, Pierre. The Carolingians, A Family Who Forged Europe, U of Pennsylvania P. ISBN9780812213423. Protected by Frankish forces, Boniface established a first monastery at Amoneburg and then, after destroying the sacred Donar Oak at Geismar, the Life of Saint Boniface by Willibald
Paganism is a term that derives from Latin word pagan, which means nonparticipant, one excluded from a more distinguished, professional group. The term was used in the 4th century, by early Christian community, the term competed with polytheism already in use in Judaism, by Philo in the 1st century. Pagans and paganism was a pejorative for the same polytheistic group, Paganism has broadly connoted religion of the peasantry, and for much of its history a derogatory term. Alternate terms in Christian texts for the group was hellene. In and after the Middle Ages, paganism was a pejorative that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion, there has been much scholarly debate as to the origin of the term paganism, especially since no one before the 20th century self-identified as a pagan. In the 19th century, paganism was re-adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. Forms of these religions, influenced by various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, exist today and are known as contemporary or modern paganism, while most pagan religions express a worldview that is pantheistic, polytheistic, or animistic, there are some monotheistic pagans.
It is crucial to stress right from the start that until the 20th century people did not call themselves pagans to describe the religion they practised, the notion of paganism, as it is generally understood today, was created by the early Christian Church. It was a label that Christians applied to others, one of the antitheses that were central to the process of Christian self-definition, as such, throughout history it was generally used in a derogatory sense. The term pagan is from Late Latin paganus, revived during the Renaissance and it is related to pangere and ultimately comes from Proto-Indo-European *pag-. The evolution occurred only in the Latin west, and in connection with the Latin church, Hellene or gentile remained the word for pagan, and paganos continued as a purely secular term, with overtones of the inferior and the commonplace. However, this idea has multiple problems, the words usage as a reference to non-Christians pre-dates that period in history. Second, paganism within the Roman Empire centered on cities, the concept of an urban Christianity as opposed to a rural paganism would not have occurred to Romans during Early Christianity.
Third, unlike words such as rusticitas, paganus had not yet acquired the meanings used to explain why it would have been applied to pagans. Paganus more likely acquired its meaning in Christian nomenclature via Roman military jargon, Early Christians adopted military motifs and saw themselves as Milites Christi. As early as the 5th century, paganos was metaphorically used to persons outside the bounds of the Christian community. In response, Augustine of Hippo wrote De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos, in it, he contrasted the fallen city of Man to the city of God of which all Christians were ultimately citizens. Hence, the invaders were not of the city or rural