Toronto Blue Jays
The Toronto Blue Jays are a Canadian professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario. The Blue Jays compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; the team plays its home games at the Rogers Centre. The "Blue Jays" name originates from the bird of the same name, blue is the traditional colour of two of Toronto's other professional sports teams: the Maple Leafs and the Argonauts. In addition, the team was owned by the Labatt Brewing Company, makers of the popular beer Labatt's Blue. Colloquially nicknamed the "Jays", the team's official colours are royal blue, navy blue and white. An expansion franchise, the club was founded in Toronto in 1977. Based at Exhibition Stadium, the team began playing its home games at the SkyDome upon its opening in 1989. Since 2000, the Blue Jays have been owned by Rogers Communications and in 2004, the SkyDome was purchased by that company, which renamed it Rogers Centre, they are the second MLB franchise to be based outside the United States, the only team based outside the U.
S. after the first Canadian franchise, the Montreal Expos, became the Washington Nationals in 2005. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Blue Jays went through struggles typical of an expansion team finishing in last place in its division. In 1983, the team had its first winning season and two years they became division champions. From 1985 to 1993, they were an AL East powerhouse, winning five division championships in nine seasons, including three consecutive from 1991 to 1993. During that run, the team became back-to-back World Series champions in 1992 and 1993, led by a core group of award-winning All-Star players, including Hall of Famer Roberto Alomar, Joe Carter, John Olerud, Devon White; the Blue Jays became the first team outside the US to appear in and win a World Series, the fastest AL expansion team to do so, winning in its 16th year. After 1993, the Blue Jays failed to qualify for the playoffs for 21 consecutive seasons, until clinching a playoff berth and division championship in 2015.
The team clinched a second consecutive playoff berth in 2016, after securing an AL wild card position. Both years, the Jays lost the AL Championship Series; the Blue Jays are one of two MLB teams under corporate ownership, with the other being the Atlanta Braves. The Blue Jays played their first game on April 7, 1977 against the Chicago White Sox before a home crowd of 44,649; the game is now best remembered for the minor snowstorm which began just before the game started. Toronto won the snowy affair 9–5, led by Doug Ault's two home runs; that win would be one of only 54 of the 1977 season, as the Blue Jays finished last in the AL East, with a record of 54–107. After the season, assistant general manager Pat Gillick succeeded Peter Bavasi as general manager of the team, a position he would hold until 1994. In 1978, the team improved their record by five games, but remained last, with a record of 59–102. In 1979, after a 53–109 last place finish, shortstop Alfredo Griffin was named American League co-Rookie of the Year.
In addition, the Blue Jays' first mascot, BJ Birdy, made its debut in 1979. In 1980, Bobby Mattick became manager, succeeding the Blue Jays' original manager. In Mattick's first season as manager, although they remained at the bottom, Toronto reached the 70-win mark, finishing with a record of 67–95, a 14-win improvement on 1979. Jim Clancy led with 13 wins and John Mayberry became the first Jay to hit 30 home runs in a season. In the strike-divided season of 1981, the Blue Jays finished in last place in the AL East in both halves of the season, they were a dismal 16–42 in the first half, but improved finishing the 48-game second half at 21–27, for a combined record of 37–69. Under new manager Bobby Cox, Toronto's first solid season came in 1982 as they finished 78–84, their pitching staff was led by starters Dave Stieb, Jim Clancy, Luis Leal, the outfield featured a young Lloyd Moseby and Jesse Barfield. 1982 was the Blue Jays' first season outside the bottom, as they finished sixth in the East out of seven teams.
In 1983, the Blue Jays compiled their first winning record, 89–73, finishing in fourth place, nine games behind the eventual World Series champions, the Baltimore Orioles. First baseman Willie Upshaw became the first Blue Jay to have at least 100 RBIs in a season; the Blue Jays' progress continued in 1984, finishing with the same 89–73 record, but this time in a distant second place behind another World Series champion, the Detroit Tigers. After 1984, Alfredo Griffin went to the Oakland Athletics, thus giving a permanent spot to young Dominican shortstop Tony Fernández, who would become a fan favourite for many years. In 1985, Toronto won its first championship of any sort: the first of their six American League East division titles; the Blue Jays featured a balanced offence. Tony Fernández excelled in his first full season, veteran pitcher Doyle Alexander led the team with 17 wins, including a division-clinching complete game win, their mid-season call up of relief pitcher Tom Henke proved to be important.
They finished two games in front of the New York Yankees. The Blue Jays faced the Kansas City Royals in the American League Championship Series, took a three games to one lead. However, Kansas City won three consecutive games to win the series 4–3, on the way to their first World Series championship. After the playoffs, AL Manager of the Year, Bobby Cox left the Blue Jays to become general manager of the Atlanta Braves, the team
The Minnesota Twins are an American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The team competes in the Central division of the American League, is named after the Twin Cities area comprising Minneapolis and St. Paul; the franchise won the World Series in 1924 as the Washington Senators, in 1987 and 1991 as the Twins. The franchise moved from Washington, D. C. to Minnesota at the start of the 1961 season. The Twins played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 to 2009; the team played its inaugural game at Target Field on April 12, 2010. Through the 2017 season, the team has fielded 18 American League batting champions; the team has hosted five All-Star Games: 1937 and 1956 in Washington, D. C, 1965, 1985 and 2014 in Minneapolis-St. Paul; the team was founded in Washington, D. C. in 1901 as one of the eight original teams of the American League, named the Washington Senators or Washington Nationals. The team endured long bouts of mediocrity immortalized in the 1955 Broadway musical Damn Yankees.
The Washington Senators spent the first decade of their existence finishing near the bottom of the American League standings. Their fortunes began to improve with the arrival of 19-year-old pitcher, Walter Johnson, in 1907. Johnson blossomed in 1911 with 25 victories, although the Senators still finished the season in seventh place. In 1912, the Senators improved as their pitching staff led the league in team earned run average and in strikeouts. Johnson won 33 games while teammate Bob Groom added another 24 wins to help the Senators finish the season in second place. Manager Clark Griffith joined the team in 1912 and became the team's owner in 1920; the Senators continued to perform respectably in 1913 with Johnson posting a career-high 35 victories, as the team once again finished in second place. The Senators fell into another period of decline for the next decade; the team had a period of prolonged success in the 1920s and 1930s, led by Walter Johnson, as well as additional Hall-of-Famer Bucky Harris, Goose Goslin, Sam Rice, Heinie Manush, Joe Cronin.
In particular, a rejuvenated Johnson rebounded in 1924 to win 23 games with the help of his catcher, Muddy Ruel, as the Senators won the American League pennant for the first time in the history of the franchise. The Senators faced John McGraw's favored New York Giants in the 1924 World Series; the two teams traded wins forth with three games of the first six being decided by one run. In the deciding 7th game, the Senators were trailing the Giants 3 to 1 in the 8th inning when Bucky Harris hit a routine ground ball to third which hit a pebble and took a bad hop over Giants third baseman Freddie Lindstrom. Two runners scored on the play. An aging Walter Johnson came in to pitch the ninth inning, held the Giants scoreless into extra innings. In the bottom of the twelfth inning with Ruel at bat, he hit a high, foul ball directly over home plate; the Giants' catcher, Hank Gowdy, dropped his protective mask to field the ball but, failing to toss the mask aside, stumbled over it and dropped the ball, thus giving Ruel another chance to bat.
On the next pitch, Ruel hit a double and proceeded to score the winning run when Earl McNeely hit a ground ball that took another bad hop over Lindstrom's head. This would mark the only World Series triumph for the franchise during their 60-year tenure in Washington; the following season they repeated as American League champions but lost the 1925 World Series to the Pittsburgh Pirates. After Walter Johnson's retirement in 1927, he was hired as manager of the Senators. After enduring a few losing seasons, the team returned to contention in 1930. In 1933, Senators owner Clark Griffith returned to the formula that worked for him nine years prior: 26-year-old shortstop Joe Cronin became player-manager; the Senators posted a 99–53 record and cruised to the pennant seven games ahead of the New York Yankees, but in the 1933 World Series the Giants exacted their revenge winning in five games. Following the loss, the Senators sank all the way to seventh place in 1934 and attendance began to fall. Despite the return of Harris as manager from 1935–42 and again from 1950–54, Washington was a losing ball club for the next 25 years contending for the pennant only during World War II.
Washington came to be known as "first in war, first in peace, last in the American League", with their hard luck being crucial to the plot of the musical and film Damn Yankees. Cecil Travis, Buddy Myer, Roy Sievers, Mickey Vernon, Eddie Yost were notable Senators players whose careers were spent in obscurity due to the team's lack of success. In 1954, the Senators signed future Hall of Fame member Harmon Killebrew. By 1959 he was the Senators’ regular third baseman and led the league with 42 home runs earning him a starting spot on the American League All-Star team. After Griffith's death in 1955, his nephew and adopted son Calvin took over the team presidency. Calvin sold Griffith Stadium to the city of Washington and leased it back leading to speculation that the team was planning to move as the Boston Braves, St. Louis Browns and Philadelphia Athletics had all done in the early 1950s. By 1957, after an early flirtation with San Francisco, Griffith began courting Minneapolis–St. Paul, a prolonged process that resulted in his rejecting the Twin Cities' first offer before agreeing to relocate.
The American League opposed the move at first, but in 1960 a deal was reached
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
What's My Line?
What's My Line? is a panel game show that ran in the United States on the CBS Television Network from 1950 to 1967, with several international versions and subsequent U. S. revivals. The game requires celebrity panelists to question a contestant in order to determine his or her employment, i.e. "line," with panelists being called on to identify a weekly celebrity "mystery guest" while blindfolded. It is the longest-running U. S. primetime network television game-show. Moderated by John Charles Daly and with regular panelists Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, Bennett Cerf, What's My Line? won three Emmy Awards for "Best Quiz or Audience Participation Show" in 1952, 1953, 1958 and the Golden Globe for Best TV Show in 1962. After its nullification by CBS in 1967, it returned in syndication as a daily production, moderated by Wally Bruner and by Larry Blyden, which ran from 1968 to 1975. There have been several international versions, radio versions, a live stage version. In 2013, TV Guide ranked it #9 in its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever.
Produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS Television, the show was called Occupation Unknown before deciding on the name What's My Line? The original series, broadcast live, debuted on Thursday, February 2, 1950, at 8:00 p.m. ET. After airing alternate Wednesdays alternate Thursdays on October 1, 1950, it had settled into its weekly Sunday 10:30 p.m. ET slot where it would remain until the end of its network run on September 3, 1967. Starting in July 1959 and continuing for 8 straight years, until July 1967, when John Daly was due to appear in Moscow, the show would record episodes onto Quadruplex videotape for playback at a future date; this was state-of-the-art technology, Daly praised it upon his return from Moscow. In such instances, there would be two shows a day; the cast and crew began taking "Summer breaks" from the show in July 1961, through July 1967. The host called the moderator, was veteran radio and television newsman John Charles Daly. Clifton Fadiman, Eamonn Andrews, Random House co-founding publisher and panelist Bennett Cerf substituted on the four occasions when Daly was unavailable.
The show featured a panel of four celebrities. On the initial program of February 2, 1950, the panel was former New Jersey governor Harold Hoffman, columnist Dorothy Kilgallen, poet Louis Untermeyer, psychiatrist Richard Hoffmann; the panel varied somewhat in the following weeks, but after the first few broadcasts, during the show's earliest period the panel consisted of Kilgallen, actress Arlene Francis and comedy writer Hal Block. At various times, a regular panelist might take a vacation or be absent from an episode due to outside commitments. On these occasions, a guest panelist would take their spot; the most frequent guest panelist was Arlene Francis's husband Martin Gabel, who appeared 112 times over the years. Publisher Bennett Cerf replaced Untermeyer as a regular panelist in 1951, comedian Steve Allen replaced Block in 1953. Allen left in 1954 to launch The Tonight Show, he was replaced by comedian Fred Allen, who remained on the panel until his death in 1956. Following Fred Allen's death, he was not replaced on a permanent basis.
For the majority of the show's network run, between 1956 and 1965, the panel therefore consisted of Kilgallen, Francis and a fourth guest panelist. After Kilgallen's death in 1965, she was not replaced with a permanent panelist. For the show's final two years, the panel consisted of Cerf and two guests. Regular announcers included Lee Vines, who served from 1950 to 1955, Hal Simms, who served from 1955 to 1961, Ralph Paul, whose tenure was confined to 1961, Johnny Olson the best known of Goodson-Todman's television announcers, whose tenure began in 1961 and ran till 1967. What's My Line? was a guessing game in which the four panelists attempted to determine the occupation of a guest. In the case of the famous mystery guest each week, the panel sought to determine the identity of the contestant. Panelists were required to probe by asking only yes-no questions. A typical episode featured two standard rounds plus one mystery guest round. On the occasions on which there were two mystery guests, the first would appear as the first contestant.
For the first few seasons, the contestant would first meet the panel up close, for a casual inspection, the panel was allowed one initial guess. Beginning in 1955 Daly greeted and seated the contestant, who met the panel at the end of the game. Additionally, starting April 17, 1955, the panel stopped taking initial guesses; the contestant's line was revealed to the studio and home audiences, Daly would tell the panel whether the contestant was salaried or self-employed, from 1960 on, dealt in a product or a service. A panelist chosen by Daly would begin the game. If his question elicited a yes answer, he continued questioning; when a question was answered no, questioning passed to the next panelist and $5 was added to the prize. The amount of the prize was tallied by Daly. A contestant won the top prize of $50 by giving ten no answers, or if time ran out, with Daly flipping all the cards; as Daly noted, "Ten flips and they are a flop!" Daly explained, after the show had finished its run on CBS, the maximum payout of $50 was to ensure the game was played only for enjoyment, that there could never be the appearance of impropriet
Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex encompasses 13 counties within the U. S. state of Texas. Residents of the area refer to it as DFW, or the Metroplex, it is the economic and cultural hub of the region of North Texas, it is the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States. The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex's population is 7,399,662 according to the 2017 U. S. Census estimate, making it the largest metropolitan area in both Texas and the South, the fourth-largest in the U. S. and the seventh-largest in the Americas. In 2016, DFW ascended to the number one spot in the nation in year-over-year population growth. In 2016, the metropolitan economy surpassed Houston to become the fourth-largest in the nation the region boasts a GDP of just over $613.4 billion in 2019. As such, the metropolitan area's economy is ranked 10th largest in the world; the region's economy is based on banking, telecommunications, energy and medical research, transportation and logistics. In 2017, Dallas–Fort Worth is home to 24 Fortune 500 companies, the third-largest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the nation, behind New York City and Chicago.
The metroplex encompasses 9,286 square miles of total area: 8,991 sq mi is land, while 295 sq mi is water, making it larger in area than the states of Rhode Island and Connecticut combined. A portmanteau of metropolis and complex, the term metroplex is credited to Harve Chapman, an executive vice president with Dallas-based Tracy-Locke, one of three advertising agencies that worked with the North Texas Commission on strategies to market the region; the NTC copyrighted the term "Southwest Metroplex" in 1972 as a replacement for the previously-ubiquitous "North Texas", which studies had shown lacked identifiability outside the state. In fact, only 38 percent of a survey group identified Dallas and Fort Worth as part of "North Texas", with the Texas Panhandle a perceived correct answer, being the northernmost region of Texas. Collin County Dallas County Denton County Ellis County Hood County Hunt County Johnson County Kaufman County Parker County Rockwall County Somervell County Tarrant County Wise County Note: Cities and towns are categorized based on the latest population estimates from the North Central Texas Council of Governments.
No population estimates are released for census-designated places, which are marked with an asterisk. These places are categorized based on their 2010 census population. Places designated "principal cities" by the Office of Management and Budget are italicized.1,000,000+ Dallas 500,000–999,999 Fort Worth 200,000–499,999 Arlington Plano Irving Garland 100,000–199,999 Grand Prairie McKinney Frisco Mesquite Carrollton Denton Richardson Lewisville As of the 2010 United States census, there were 6,371,773 people. The racial makeup of the MSA was 50.2% White, 15.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 5.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.0% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.5% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $48,062, the median income for a family was $55,263. Males had a median income of $39,581 versus $27,446 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $21,839. The Dallas–Fort Worth, TX–OK Combined Statistical Area is made up of 20 counties in north central Texas and one county in southern Oklahoma.
The statistical area includes seven micropolitan areas. As of the 2010 Census, the CSA had a population of 6,817,483; the CSA definition encompasses 14,628 sq mi of area, of which 14,126 sq mi is land and 502 sq mi is water. Metropolitan Statistical Areas Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Sherman-Denison Micropolitan Statistical Areas Athens Bonham Corsicana Durant, OK Gainesville Mineral Wells Sulphur Springs Note: The Granbury micropolitan statistical area was made part of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area effective 2013; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,487,956 people, 2,006,665 households, 1,392,540 families residing within the CSA. The racial makeup of the CSA was 70.41% White, 13.34% African American, 0.59% Native American, 3.58% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.62% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.83% of the population. It is home to the fourth-largest Muslim population in the country; the median income for a household in the CSA was $43,836, the median income for a family was $50,898.
Males had a median income of $37,002 versus $25,553 for females. The per capita income for the CSA was $20,460; the metroplex overlooks prairie land with a few rolling hills dotted by man-made lakes cut by streams and rivers surrounded by forest land. The metroplex is situated in the Texas blackland prairies region, so named for its fertile black soil found in the rural areas of Collin, Ellis, Hunt and Rockwall counties. Many areas of Denton, Parker and Wise counties are locat