Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Transantarctic Mountains comprise a mountain range of uplifted sedimentary rock in Antarctica which extend, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land. These mountains divide West Antarctica, they include a number of separately named mountain groups, which are again subdivided into smaller ranges. The range was first sighted by James Clark Ross in 1841 at what was named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honor, it was first crossed during the British National Antarctic Expedition of 1901-1904. The mountain range stretches between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea the entire width of Antarctica, hence the name. With a total length of about 3,500 km, the Transantarctic Mountains are one of the longest mountain ranges on Earth; the Antarctandes are longer, having in common with the Transantarctic Mountains the ranges from Cape Adare to the Queen Maud Mountains, but extending thence through the Whitmore Mountains and Ellsworth Mountains up the Antarctic Peninsula.
The 100–300 km wide range forms the boundary between East Antarctica and West Antarctica. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet bounds the TAM along their entire length on the Eastern Hemisphere side, while the Western Hemisphere side of the range is bounded by the Ross Sea in Victoria Land from Cape Adare to McMurdo Sound, the Ross Ice Shelf from McMurdo Sound to near the Scott Glacier, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet beyond; the summits and dry valleys of the TAM are some of the few places in Antarctica not covered by ice, the highest of which rise more than 4,500 metres above sea level. The McMurdo Dry Valleys lie near McMurdo Sound and represent a special Antarctic phenomenon: landscapes that are snow and ice free due to the limited precipitation and ablation of ice in the valleys; the highest mountain of the TAM is 4,528 m high Mount Kirkpatrick in the Queen Alexandra Range. Isolated peaks surrounded by ice are referred to as nunataks. Penguins and sea birds live along the Ross Sea coastline in Victoria Land, while life in the interior of the Transantarctic Range is limited to bacteria, lichens and fungi.
Forests once covered Antarctica, including Southern Beech. However, with the gradual cooling associated with the break-up of Gondwana, these forests disappeared, it is believed. The Transantarctic Mountains were first seen by Captain James Ross in 1841 from the Ross Sea; the range is a natural barrier. The first crossing of the Transantarctic Mountains took place during the 1902-1904 British National Antarctic Expedition at the Ross Ice Shelf. A reconnaissance party under the command of Albert Armitage reached 2700 m altitude in 1902; the following year a party under expedition leader Robert Falcon Scott crossed into East Antarctica at a location now known as Ferrar Glacier, named after the geologist of the expedition. They explored part of Victoria Land on the Antarctic Plateau before returning via the same glacier. In 1908, Ernest Shackleton's party crossed the mountains through the Beardmore Glacier. Robert Scott returned to that same glacier in 1911, while Roald Amundsen crossed the range via the Axel Heiberg Glacier.
Much of the range remained unexplored until the late 1940s and 1950s, when missions such as Operation Highjump and the International Geophysical Year made extensive use of aerial photography and concentrated on a thorough investigation of the entire continent. The name "Transantarctic Mountains" was first applied to this range in a 1960 paper by geologist Warren B. Hamilton, following his IGY fieldwork, it was subsequently recommended by the US-ACAN committee, a US authority for geographic names, in 1962. This purely descriptive label is internationally accepted at present; the Leverett Glacier in the Queen Maud Mountains is the planned route through the TAM for the overland supply road between McMurdo Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. The Transantarctic Mountains are older than other mountain ranges of the continent that are volcanic in origin; the range was uplifted during the opening of the West Antarctic Rift to the east, beginning about 65 million years ago in the early Cenozoic.
The mountains consist of sedimentary layers lying upon a basement of gneisses. The sedimentary layers include the Beacon Supergroup sandstones and coal deposited beginning in the Silurian period and continuing into the Jurassic. In many places the Beacon Supergroup has been intruded by dikes and sills of Jurassic age Ferrar Dolerite. Many of the fossils found in Antarctica are from locations within these sedimentary formations. Ice from the East Antarctic ice sheet flows through the Transantarctic Mountains via a series of outlet glaciers into the Ross Sea, Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctic Ice Sheet; these glaciers flow perpendicular to the orientation of the range and define subranges and peak groups. It has been thought that many of these outlet glaciers follow the traces of large-scale geologic faults; however the ice flow theories will be reevaluated in light of new data from recent ice-penetrating radar surveys which revealed the presence of three unknown deep subglacial valleys affecting the "mountainous subglacial topography beneath the ice divide".
These geographic features are to have a significant impact on models and calculations related to ice flow through the Transantarctic Mountain region. In geographic order from the Ross Sea towards the Weddell Sea: Lillie Glacier Concord Mountains Cape Adare Admiralty Mountains Cap
Himachal Pradesh is a state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is bordered by states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west, Haryana on the southwest, Uttarakhand on the southeast, Tibet on the east. At its southernmost point, it touches the state of Uttar Pradesh; the state's name was coined by acharya Diwakar Datt Sharma, one of the state's eminent Sanskrit scholars. The predominantly mountainous region comprising the present day Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited since pre-historic times having witnessed multiple waves of migration from other areas. Through its history, the region was ruled by local kingdoms some of which accepted suzerainty of larger empires. Prior to India's independence from the British, Himachal comprised the hilly regions of Punjab Province of British India. After independence, many of the hilly territories were organized as the Chief Commissioner's province of Himachal Pradesh which became a union territory. In 1966, hilly areas of neighboring Punjab state were merged into Himachal and it was granted full statehood in 1972.
Himachal Pradesh is spread across valleys with many perennial rivers flowing through them. 90% of the state's population lives in rural areas. Agriculture, horticulture and tourism are important constituents of the state's economy; the hilly state is universally electrified with 99.5% of the households having electricity as of 2016. The state was declared India's second open-defecation free state in 2016. According to a survey of CMS - India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India's least corrupt state. Tribes such as the Koli, Dagi, Dasa, Khasa and Kirat inhabited the region from the prehistoric era; the foothills of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh were inhabited by people from the Indus valley civilization which flourished between 2250 and 1750 B. C; the Kols or Mundas are believed to be the original migrants to the hills of present day Himachal Pradesh followed by the Bhotas and Kiratas. During the Vedic period, several small republics known as Janapada existed which were conquered by the Gupta Empire.
After a brief period of supremacy by King Harshavardhana, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some Rajput principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate a number of times. Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 10th century. Timur and Sikander Lodi marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles. Several hill states paid regular tribute to the Mughals; the Kingdom of Gorkha conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal in 1768. They began to expand their territory; the Kingdom of Nepal annexed Sirmour and Shimla. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra, they managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh in 1809. After the defeat, they began to expand towards the south of the state.
However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846, during the First Anglo-Sikh War. They came into direct conflict with the British along the tarai belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj; the British emerged as the paramount power in the region. In the revolt of 1857, or first Indian war of independence, arising from a number of grievances against the British, the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country, they and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained less inactive. Some, including the rulers of Chamba, Bilaspur and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt; the British territories came under the British Crown after Queen Victoria's proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule. During World War I all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials.
Among these were the states of Kangra, Datarpur, Rajgarh, Chamba, Suket and Bilaspur. After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh was organized on 15 April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states in the promontories of the western Himalayas; these were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947. The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur Act, 1954. Himachal became a Part'C' state on 26 January 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed; the Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory on 1 November 1956; some areas of Punjab State— namely Simla, Kangra and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara and Una kanungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District—were merge
Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast. Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22–23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 of fresh water, it contains more water than the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m, Baikal is the world's deepest lake, it is considered among the world's clearest lakes and is considered the world's oldest lake – at 25–30 million years. It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area. Like Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal was formed as an ancient rift valley, having the typical long, crescent shape with a surface area of 31,722 km2. Baikal is home to thousands of species of plants and animals, many of which exist nowhere else in the world; the lake was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. It is home to Buryat tribes who reside on the eastern side of Lake Baikal, raising goats, cattle and horses, where the mean temperature varies from a winter minimum of −19 °C to a summer maximum of 14 °C.
The region to the east of Lake Baikal is referred to as Transbaikalia, the loosely defined region around the lake is sometimes known as Baikalia. Lake Baikal is in a rift valley, created by the Baikal Rift Zone, where the Earth's crust is pulling apart. At 636 km long and 79 km wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km2, is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m; the bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km of sediment, placing the rift floor some 8–11 km below the surface, the deepest continental rift on Earth. In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about 2 cm per year; the fault zone is seismically active. The lake is divided into three basins: North and South, with depths about 900 m, 1,600 m, 1,400 m, respectively. Fault-controlled accommodation zones rising to depths about 300 m separate the basins; the North and Central basins are separated by Academician Ridge, while the area around the Selenga Delta and the Buguldeika Saddle separates the Central and South basins.
The lake drains into the Angara tributary of the Yenisei. Notable landforms include Cape Ryty on Baikal's northwest coast. Baikal's age is estimated at 25–30 million years, making it the most ancient lake in geological history, it is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, as its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. Russian, U. S. and Japanese cooperative studies of deep-drilling core sediments in the 1990s provide a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 6.7 million years. Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected in the near future. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which direct and indirect evidence of gas hydrates exists; the lake is surrounded by mountains. The Baikal Mountains on the north shore, the Barguzin Range on the northeastern shore, the taiga are technically protected as a national park, it contains 27 islands. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers; the main ones draining directly into Baikal are the Selenga River, the Barguzin River, the Upper Angara River, the Turka River, the Sarma River, the Snezhnaya River.
It is drained through the Angara River. Baikal is one of the clearest lakes in the world. During the winter in open sections the water transparency can be as much as 30–40 m, but during the summer it is 5–8 m. Baikal is rich in oxygen in deep sections, which separates it from distinctly stratified bodies of water such as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea. In Lake Baikal, the water temperature varies depending on location and time of the year. During the winter and spring, the surface freezes for about 4–5 months. On average, the ice reaches a thickness of 0.5 to 1.4 m, but in some places with hummocks, it can be more than 2 m. During this period, the temperature increases with depth in the lake, being coldest near the ice-covered surface at around freezing, reaching about 3.5–3.8 °C at a depth of 200–250 m. After the surface ice breaks up, the surface water is warmed up by the sun, in May–June, the upper 300 m or so becomes homothermic at around 4 °C because of water mixing; the sun continues to heat up the surface layer, at the peak in August can reach up to about 16 °C in the main sections and 20–24 °C in shallow bays in the southern half of the lake.
During this time, the pattern is inverted compared to the winter and spring, as the water temperature falls with increasing depth. As the autumn begins, the surface temperature falls again and a second homothermic period at around 4 °C of the upper circa 300 m occurs in October–November. In the deepest parts of the lake, from about 300 m, the temperature is stable at 3.1–3.4 °C with only minor annual variations. The average surface temperature has risen by
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
The Zambezi is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square kilometres less than half of the Nile's; the 2,574-kilometre-long river rises in Zambia and flows through eastern Angola, along the north-eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses the country to empty into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi's most noted feature is Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river, the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There are additional two smaller power stations along the Zambezi River in Zambia, one at Victoria Falls and the other one near Kalene Hill in Ikelenge District.
The river rises in a black marshy dambo in dense undulating miombo woodland 50 kilometres north of Mwinilunga and 20 kilometres south of Ikelenge in the Ikelenge District of North-Western Province, Zambia at about 1,524 metres above sea level. The area around the source is forest reserve and Important Bird Area. Eastward of the source, the watershed between the Congo and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, running nearly east-west and falling abruptly to the north and south; this distinctly cuts off the basin of the Lualaba from that of the Zambezi. In the neighborhood of the source the watershed is not as defined, but the two river systems do not connect; the region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 900–1200 m high, composed in the remote interior of metamorphic beds and fringed with the igneous rocks of the Victoria Falls. At Shupanga, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow sandstones, with an occasional band of limestone, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, these persist beyond Tete, where they are associated with extensive seams of coal.
Coal is found in the district just below Victoria Falls. Gold-bearing rocks occur in several places; the river flows to the southwest into Angola for about 240 kilometres is joined by sizeable tributaries such as the Luena and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west. It turns south and develops a floodplain, with extreme width variation between the dry and rainy seasons, it enters dense evergreen Cryptosepalum dry forest, though on its western side, Western Zambezian grasslands occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly 400 metres wide in the rainy season and flows with rapids ending in the Chavuma Falls, where the river flows through a rocky fissure; the river drops about 400 metres in elevation from its source at 1,500 metres to the Chavuma Falls at 1,100 metres, in a distance of about 400 kilometres. From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is uniform, dropping only by another 180 metres in a distance of around 800 kilometres; the first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the Kabompo River in the northwestern province of Zambia.
A major advantage of the Kabompo River was irrigation. The savanna through which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with Borassus fan palms. A little farther south is the confluence with the Lungwebungu River; this is the beginning of the Barotse Floodplain, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle. Thirty kilometres below the confluence of the Lungwebungu the country becomes flat, the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of 25 km in the rainy season. For more than 200 km downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life and culture. Eighty kilometres further down, the Luanginga, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the Luampa/Luena system. A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is Lealui, one of the capitals of the Lozi people who populate the Zambian region of Barotseland in Western Province.
The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the Kuomboka. After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240 km. Before this, the Ngonye Falls and subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river borders Namibia's Caprivi Strip; the strip projects from the main body of Namibia, results from the colonial era: it was added to German South-West Africa expressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi. Below the junction of the Cuando River and the Zambezi the river bends due east. Here, the river is broad and shallow, flows but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Falls plunge; the Victoria Falls are considered the boundary between the middle Zambezi.
Below them the river continues to flow due east for about 20
Perm Krai is a federal subject of Russia that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. The city of Perm is the administrative center. Population: 2,635,276. Komi-Permyak Okrug retained its autonomous status within Perm Krai during the transitional period of 2006–2008, it retained a budget separate from that of the krai, keeping all federal transfers. Starting in 2009, Komi-Permyak Okrug's budget became subject to the budgeting law of Perm Krai; the transitional period was implemented in part because Komi-Permyak Okrug relies on federal subsidies, an abrupt cut would have been detrimental to its economy. Perm Krai is located in the east of the East European Plain and the western slope of the Middle Ural Mountains. 99.8 % of its area is in 0.2 % in Asia. Length from north to south – 645 kilometres length from west to east – 417.5 kilometres The krai borders the Komi Republic in the north, Kirov Oblast in the northwest, the Udmurt Republic in the southwest, the Republic of Bashkortostan in the south, Sverdlovsk Oblast in the east.
The krai borders stretch for over 2,200 kilometres. The highest point is Mount Tulymsky Kamen at 1,496 metres. Rivers of Perm Krai belong to the largest tributary of Volga River. There are more than 29,000 rivers in Perm Krai; the total length of all rivers is more than 90,000 kilometres. Only two rivers in Perm Krai have lengths exceeding 500 kilometres, they are the Chusovaya River, 592 kilometres. There are about 40 rivers with lengths from 100 to 500 kilometres; the longest of them are: Sylva River — 493 km Kolva River — 460 km Vishera River — 415 km Yayva River — 403 km Kosva River — 283 km Kosa River — 267 km Veslyana River — 266 km Inva River — 257 km Obva River — 247 km There are many small rivers, but some of them have historical significance, for example Yegoshikha River, in mouth of which city Perm was founded. Perm krai has a continental climate. Winters are long and snowy, with average temperatures in January varying from −18 °C in the northeast part of krai to −15 °C in southwest part.
The record lowest recorded temperature was −53 °C. Perm Krai is rich with minerals, that can be explained its diverse relief in mountainous and flat parts. There are produced: oil, natural gas, diamonds, peat, building materials and others. Oil in its area was first discovered in 1929 near settlement Verhnechusovskie Gorodki. There are known more than 180 oil and gas fields. Among them are developed: 89 oil, 2 gas and 18 both oil and gas fields. Most of them are small and extracted in southern districts of krai. Northern fields a less developed because of deep lying of oil under salt layers. Coal has been mined in Perm Krai for more than 200 years. For a long time it played an important role in the energy balance in the region. Maximum mining was in 1960 and reached 12 million tones, after it mining decrease and there are no exploration of new fields; the Verkhnekamskoye deposit of potassium salts is one of the largest in the world. Its is approx. 1,800 km², the thickness of the salt layers reaches 514 m.
Forests cover about 71% of Perm krai's area. Predominant are coniferous forests, percentage of deciduous forests increase from north to south. There are 62 species of mammals, more than 270 species of birds, 39 species of fishes, 6 species of reptile and 9 species of amphibians. Three nature reserves are located in Perm Krai: Basegi, Preduralie. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Perm CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Perm Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Perm Krai is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Administratively, the krai is divided into thirty-three districts, fourteen cities of krai significance, one closed administrative-territorial formation. Six administrative districts are grouped into Komi-Permyak Okrug, an administrative unit with special status formed within Perm Krai as a result of the 2005 merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, both of which used to be the federal subjects. Municipally, the territories of all administrative districts and those of nine cities of krai significance are incorporated as municipal districts; the remaining five cities are incorporated as urban okrugs.
The Directorate of the Ministry for Internal Affairs in Perm Krai (ГУ МВД России по Пе