Risk management is the identification and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures, legal liabilities, credit risk, natural causes and disasters, deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. There are two types of events i.e. negative events can be classified as risks while positive events are classified as opportunities. Several risk management standards have been developed including the Project Management Institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, actuarial societies, ISO standards. Methods and goals vary according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project management, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments, or public health and safety.
Strategies to manage threats include avoiding the threat, reducing the negative effect or probability of the threat, transferring all or part of the threat to another party, retaining some or all of the potential or actual consequences of a particular threat, the opposites for opportunities. Certain aspects of many of the risk management standards have come under criticism for having no measurable improvement on risk. For example, one study found. A used vocabulary for risk management is defined by ISO Guide 73:2009, "Risk management. Vocabulary."In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the risks with the greatest loss and the greatest probability of occurring are handled first, risks with lower probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled in descending order. In practice the process of assessing overall risk can be difficult, balancing resources used to mitigate between risks with a high probability of occurrence but lower loss versus a risk with high loss but lower probability of occurrence can be mishandled.
Intangible risk management identifies a new type of a risk that has a 100% probability of occurring but is ignored by the organization due to a lack of identification ability. For example, when deficient knowledge is applied to a situation, a knowledge risk materializes. Relationship risk appears. Process-engagement risk may be an issue; these risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost-effectiveness, service, reputation, brand value, earnings quality. Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity. Risk management faces difficulties in allocating resources; this is the idea of opportunity cost. Resources spent on risk management could have been spent on more profitable activities. Again, ideal risk management minimizes spending and minimizes the negative effects of risks. According to the definition to the risk, the risk is the possibility that an event will occur and adversely affect the achievement of an objective.
Therefore, risk itself has the uncertainty. Risk management such as COSO ERM, can help; each company may have different internal control components. For example, the framework for ERM components includes Internal Environment, Objective Setting, Event Identification, Risk Assessment, Risk Response, Control Activities and Communication, Monitoring. For the most part, these methods consist of the following elements, more or less, in the following order. Identify, characterize threats assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats determine the risk identify ways to reduce those risks prioritize risk reduction measures The International Organization for Standardization identifies the following principles of risk management:Risk management should: create value – resources expended to mitigate risk should be less than the consequence of inaction be an integral part of organizational processes be part of decision making process explicitly address uncertainty and assumptions be a systematic and structured process be based on the best available information be tailorable take human factors into account be transparent and inclusive be dynamic and responsive to change be capable of continual improvement and enhancement be continually or periodically re-assessed According to the standard ISO 31000 "Risk management – Principles and guidelines on implementation," the process of risk management consists of several steps as follows: This involves: the social scope of risk management the identity and objectives of stakeholders the basis upon which risks will be evaluated, constraints.
Defining a framework for the activity and an agenda for identification developing an analysis of risks involved in the process mitigation or solution of risks using available technological and organizational resources After establishing the context, the next step in the
Nuclear warfare is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy. Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction. A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects from the fallout released, could lead to a "nuclear winter" that could last for decades, centuries, or millennia after the initial attack; some analysts dismiss the nuclear winter hypothesis, calculate that with nuclear weapon stockpiles at Cold War highs, although there would be billions of casualties, billions more rural people would survive. However, others have argued that secondary effects of a nuclear holocaust, such as nuclear famine and societal collapse, would cause every human on Earth to starve to death. So far, two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the United States near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, a uranium gun-type device was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type device was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
These two bombings resulted in the deaths of 120,000 people. After World War II, nuclear weapons were developed by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China, which contributed to the state of conflict and extreme tension that became known as the Cold War. In 1974, in 1998, two countries that were hostile toward each other, developed nuclear weapons. Israel and North Korea are thought to have developed stocks of nuclear weapons, though it is not known how many; the Israeli government has never admitted or denied to having nuclear weapons, although it is known to have constructed the reactor and reprocessing plant necessary for building nuclear weapons. South Africa manufactured several complete nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but subsequently became the first country to voluntarily destroy their domestically made weapons stocks and abandon further production. Nuclear weapons have been detonated on over 2,000 occasions for testing demonstrations. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a major nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers was thought to have declined.
Since concern over nuclear weapons has shifted to the prevention of localized nuclear conflicts resulting from nuclear proliferation, the threat of nuclear terrorism. The possibility of using nuclear weapons in war is divided into two subgroups, each with different effects and fought with different types of nuclear armaments; the first, a limited nuclear war, refers to a small-scale use of nuclear weapons by two belligerents. A "limited nuclear war" could include targeting military facilities—either as an attempt to pre-emptively cripple the enemy's ability to attack as a defensive measure, or as a prelude to an invasion by conventional forces, as an offensive measure; this term could apply to any small-scale use of nuclear weapons that may involve military or civilian targets. The second, a full-scale nuclear war, could consist of large numbers of nuclear weapons used in an attack aimed at an entire country, including military and civilian targets; such an attack would certainly destroy the entire economic and military infrastructure of the target nation, would have a devastating effect on Earth's biosphere.
Some Cold War strategists such as Henry Kissinger argued that a limited nuclear war could be possible between two armed superpowers. Some predict, that a limited war could "escalate" into a full-scale nuclear war. Others have called limited nuclear war "global nuclear holocaust in slow motion", arguing that—once such a war took place—others would be sure to follow over a period of decades rendering the planet uninhabitable in the same way that a "full-scale nuclear war" between superpowers would, only taking a much longer path to the same result; the most optimistic predictions of the effects of a major nuclear exchange foresee the death of many millions of victims within a short period of time. More pessimistic predictions argue that a full-scale nuclear war could bring about the extinction of the human race, or at least its near extinction, with only a small number of survivors and a reduced quality of life and life expectancy for centuries afterward. However, such predictions, assuming total war with nuclear arsenals at Cold War highs, have not been without criticism.
Such a horrific catastrophe as global nuclear warfare would certainly cause permanent damage to most complex life on the planet, its ecosystems, the global climate. If predictions about the production of a nuclear winter are accurate, it would change the balance of global power, with countries such as Australia, New Zealand, China and Brazil predicted to become world superpowers if the Cold War led to a large-scale nuclear attack. A study presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in December 2006 asserted that a small-scale regional nuclear war could produce as many direct fatalities as all of World War II and disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. In a regional nuclear conflict scenario in w
Survival Under Atomic Attack
Survival Under Atomic Attack was the title of an official United States government booklet released by the Executive Office of the President, the National Security Resources Board, the Civil Defense Office. Released at the onset of the Cold War era, the pamphlet was in line with rising fears that the Soviet Union would launch a nuclear attack against the United States, outlined what to do in the event of an atomic attack. Published in 1950 by the Government Printing Office, one year after the Soviet Union detonated their first atomic bomb, the booklet explains how to protect oneself, one's food and water supply, one's home, it covered how to prevent burns and what to do if exposed to radiation. Because much of the book is arranged around calculations of the effects of the small fission weapons of the time, much of the information could be viewed as out of date in terms of nuclear weapons, however the most numerous nuclear weapons in both the US & USSR/Russian arsenal are and remain 100 kiloton in yield due to the flexibility that MIRVs offer.
It was published before studies of the effects of nuclear weapons on civilian areas had taken place. The U. S Strategic bombing survey had assessed the civilian response in Hiroshima and Nagasaki beginning as early as August–September 1945 and its report was "Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts, supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved...". Secondly, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was active from 1946 to 1975 studying the effects of the two bombs on survivors in both cities and thus represented four years of post-bombing study at the time of publication; the four pages in the center of the brochure were designed to be torn out. "Remove this sheet and keep it with you until you've memorized it." Atomic Weapons Will Not Destroy The Earth Atomic bombs hold more death and destruction than man before has wrapped up in a single package, but their over-all power still has definite limits. Not hydrogen bombs will blow the earth apart or kill us all by radioactivity.
Doubling Bomb Power Does Not Double Destruction Modern A-bombs can cause heavy damage 2 miles away, but doubling their power would extend that range only to 2.5 miles. To stretch the damage range from 2 to 4 miles would require a weapon more than 8 times the rated power of present models. Radioactivity Is Not The Bomb's Greatest Threat In most atom raids and heat are by far the greatest dangers that people must face. Radioactivity alone would account for only a small percentage of all human deaths and injuries, except in underground or underwater explosions. Radiation Sickness Is Not Always Fatal In small amounts, radioactivity is harmful; when serious radiation sickness follows a heavy dosage, there is still a good chance for recovery. 1. Try To Get Shielded If you have time, get down in a basement or subway. Should you unexpectedly be caught out-of-doors, seek shelter alongside a building, or jump in any handy ditch or gutter. 2. Drop Flat On Ground Or Floor To keep from being tossed about and to lessen the chances of being struck by falling and flying objects, flatten out at the base of a wall, or at the bottom of a bank.
3. Bury Your Face In Your Arms; that will protect your face from flash burns, prevent temporary blindness and keep flying objects out of your eyes. 4. Don't Rush Outside Right After A Bombing After an air burst, wait a few minutes go help to fight fires. After other kinds of bursts wait at least 1 hour to give lingering radiation some chance to die down. 5. Don't Take Chances With Food Or Water In Open Containers To prevent radioactive poisoning or disease, select your food and water with care; when there is reason to believe they may be contaminated, stick to canned and bottled things if possible. 6. Don't Start Rumors In the confusion that follows a bombing, a single rumor might touch off a panic that could cost your life. 1. Strive For "Fireproof Housekeeping" Don't let trash pile up, keep waste paper in covered containers; when an alert sounds, do all you can to eliminate sparks by shutting off the oil burner and covering all open flames. 2. Know Your Own Home Know, the safest part of your cellar, learn how to turn off your oil burner and what to do about utilities.
3. Have Emergency Equipment And Supplies Handy Always have a good flashlight, a radio, first-aid equipment and a supply of canned goods in the house. 4. Close All Windows And Doors And Draw The Blinds If you have time when an alert sounds, close the house up tight in order to keep out fire sparks and radioactive dusts and to lessen the chances of being cut by flying glass. Keep the house closed until all danger is past. 5. Use the Telephone Only For True Emergencies Do not use the phone unless necessary. Leave the lines open for real emergency traffic. List of books about nuclear issues Continuity of government Duck and Cover Fallout Protection Nuclear warfare Protect and Survive Survivalism United States Civil Defense Survival under Atomic Attack. 1951, Reprint by City of Boston, Department of Civil Defense via us.archive.org Shelter from Atomic Attack in Existing Buildings, 1952, archive.org Ten for Survival: Survive Nuclear Attack, 1961, archive.org
The Contingency Plan
The Contingency Plan is the overall title of a pair of plays by the British playwright Steve Waters that opened at the Bush Theatre on 22 April 2009. The two full-length plays are On the Resilience, they are both set in the United Kingdom in the near future. Both involve Will Paxton and Sarika Chatterjee. Paxton is a scientist who has returned from research in Antarctica with a new understanding of glacial melting due to climate change and the corresponding possibilities of a rise in sea levels and of coastal flooding. Michael Billington wrote of the pair of plays that their "flaws pale beside Waters' massive achievement, to have made the most important issue of our times into engrossing theatre."In the original performances Will was played by Geoffrey Streatfeild and Sarika by Stephanie Street. On the Beach, which takes its name from the 1974 song by Neil Young involves Will's relationship with his father Robin. Robin had unexpectedly retired from his own promising career as an Antarctic glaciologist shortly before Will's birth, moved his family to an isolated house above a coastal salt marsh in Norfolk.
Will has returned home to introduce Sarika to his parents, to tell his father the painful news that he is leaving research to enter government service. In Resilience and Sarika are jockeying for influence in a new Tory government with Colin Jenks. Jenks is a former collaborator of Will's father who has become an important scientific advisor to Chris Casson, the Minister for Climate Change, to Tessa Fortnum, the Minister for Resilience; the second acts of both plays occur on an evening. In the first play and his wife Jenny must decide whether to evacuate. In the second, the two Ministers are in conflict about whether to order mass evacuations, are receiving conflicting advice from Will and Colin Jenks; the Contingency Plan was published in 2009. The play was shortlisted for the John Whiting Award in 2010. Since the original production, staged readings of The Contingency Plan have been performed in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia. An adaptation of the play was broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Radio 3 in December, 2009.
Butler, Robert. "First climate change play started with James Lovelock". The Ashden Directory; the Asheden Trust. Interview with Steve Waters about The Contingency Plan. "The Contingency Plan is a triumph". The Evening Standard. 7 May 2009. Waters has done a huge number of things right here, not least in leavening his all-too-believable Armageddon scenario with dialogue crackling with sardonic humour. "The Contingency Plan". The Bush Theatre. Retrieved 2015-11-21
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, disclosure, modification, recording or destruction of information. The information or data may take e.g. electronic or physical. Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality and availability of data while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity; this is achieved through a multi-step risk management process that identifies assets, threat sources, potential impacts, possible \controls, followed by assessment of the effectiveness of the risk management plan. To standardize this discipline and professionals collaborate and seek to set basic guidance and industry standards on password, antivirus software, encryption software, legal liability and user/administrator training standards; this standardization may be further driven by a wide variety of laws and regulations that affect how data is accessed, processed and transferred.
However, the implementation of any standards and guidance within an entity may have limited effect if a culture of continual improvement isn't adopted. At the core of information security is information assurance, the act of maintaining the confidentiality and availability of information, ensuring that information is not compromised in any way when critical issues arise; these issues include but are not limited to natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft. While paper-based business operations are still prevalent, requiring their own set of information security practices, enterprise digital initiatives are being emphasized, with information assurance now being dealt with by information technology security specialists; these specialists apply information security to technology. It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with some memory; such devices can range from non-networked standalone devices as simple as calculators, to networked mobile computing devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
IT security specialists are always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that attempt to acquire critical private information or gain control of the internal systems; the field of information security has grown and evolved in recent years. It offers many areas for specialization, including securing networks and allied infrastructure, securing applications and databases, security testing, information systems auditing, business continuity planning, electronic record discovery, digital forensics. Information security professionals are stable in their employment; as of 2013 more than 80 percent of professionals had no change in employer or employment over a period of a year, the number of professionals is projected to continuously grow more than 11 percent annually from 2014 to 2019. Information security threats come in many different forms.
Some of the most common threats today are software attacks, theft of intellectual property, identity theft, theft of equipment or information and information extortion. Most people have experienced software attacks of some sort. Viruses, phishing attacks, Trojan horses are a few common examples of software attacks; the theft of intellectual property has been an extensive issue for many businesses in the IT field. Identity theft is the attempt to act as someone else to obtain that person's personal information or to take advantage of their access to vital information. Theft of equipment or information is becoming more prevalent today due to the fact that most devices today are mobile, are prone to theft and have become far more desirable as the amount of data capacity increases. Sabotage consists of the destruction of an organization's website in an attempt to cause loss of confidence on the part of its customers. Information extortion consists of theft of a company's property or information as an attempt to receive a payment in exchange for returning the information or property back to its owner, as with ransomware.
There are many ways to help protect yourself from some of these attacks but one of the most functional precautions is user carefulness. Governments, corporations, financial institutions and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, products and financial status. Should confidential information about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor or a black hat hacker, a business and its customers could suffer widespread, irreparable financial loss, as well as damage to the company's reputation. From a business perspective, information security must be balanced against cost. For the individual, information security has a significant effect on privacy, viewed differently in various cultures. Possible responses to a security threat or risk are: reduce/mitigate – implement safeguards and countermeasures to eliminate vulnerabilities or block threats assign/transfer – place the cost of the threat onto another entity or organization such as purchasing insurance or outsourcing accept – evaluate if the cost of the countermeasure outweighs the possible cost of loss due to the threat Since the earl
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....