The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, jetties, anchor buoys, mooring buoys. A ship is secured to a mooring to forestall free movement of the ship on the water. An anchor mooring fixes a vessel's position relative to a point on the bottom of a waterway without connecting the vessel to shore; as a verb, mooring refers to the act of attaching a vessel to a mooring. The term stems from the Dutch verb meren, used in English since the end of the 15th century; these moorings are used instead of temporary anchors because they have more holding power, cause less damage to the marine environment, are convenient. Where there is a row of moorings they are termed a tier, they are occasionally used to hold floating docks in place. There are several kinds of moorings: Swing moorings known as simple or single-point moorings, are the simplest and most common kind of mooring. A swing mooring consists of a single anchor at the bottom of a waterway with a rode running to a float on the surface.
The float allows a vessel to connect to the anchor. These anchors are known as swing moorings because a vessel attached to this kind of mooring swings in a circle when the direction of wind or tide changes. For a small boat, this might consist of a heavy weight on the seabed, a 12 mm or 14 mm rising chain attached to the "anchor", a bridle made from 20 mm nylon rope, steel cable, or a 16 mm combination steel wire material; the heavy weight should be a dense material. Old rail wagon wheels are used in some places for this purpose. In some harbours heavy chain may be placed in a grid pattern on the sea bed to ensure orderly positioning of moorings. Ropes should be "non floating" to reduce likelihood of a boat's prop being fouled by one. Pile moorings are poles driven into the bottom of the waterway with their tops above the water. Vessels tie mooring lines to two or four piles to fix their position between those piles. Pile moorings are rare elsewhere. While many mooring buoys are owned, some are available for public use.
For example, on the Great Barrier Reef off the Australian coast, a vast number of public moorings are set out in popular areas where boats can moor. This is to avoid the massive damage. There are four basic types of permanent anchors used in moorings: Dead weights are the simplest type of anchor, they are made as a large concrete block with a rode attached which resists movement with sheer weight. In New Zealand old railway wheels are sometimes used; the advantages are that they are cheap. A dead weight mooring that drags in a storm still holds well in its new position; such moorings are better suited to rocky bottoms. The disadvantages are that they are heavy and awkward. Mushroom anchors are the most common anchors and work best for softer seabeds such as mud, sand, or silt, they are shaped like an upside-down mushroom which can be buried in mud or silt. The advantage is that it has up to ten times the holding-power-to-weight ratio compared to a dead weight mooring. Pyramid anchors are pyramid-shaped anchors known as Dor-Mor anchors.
They work in the upside-down position with the apex pointing down at the bottom such that when they are deployed, the weight of wider base pushes the pyramid down digging into the floor. As the anchors are encountered with lateral pulls, the side edges or corners of the pyramids will dig deeper under the floor, making them more stable. Screw-in moorings are a modern method; the anchor in a screw-in mooring is a shaft with wide blades spiraling around it so that it can be screwed into the substrate. The advantages include small size; the disadvantage is that a diver is needed to install and maintain these moorings. Multiple anchor mooring systems use two or more light weight temporary-style anchors set in an equilateral arrangement and all chained to a common center from which a conventional rode extends to a mooring buoy; the advantages are minimized mass, ease of deployment, high holding-power-to-weight ratio, availability of temporary-style anchors. A vessel can be made fast to any variety of shore fixtures from trees and rocks to specially constructed areas such as piers and quays.
The word pier is used in the following explanation in a generic sense. Mooring is accomplished using thick ropes called mooring lines or hawsers; the lines are fixed to deck fittings on the vessel at one end and to fittings such as bollards and cleats on the other end. Mooring requires cooperation between people on a vessel. Heavy mooring lines are passed from larger vessels to people on a mooring by smaller, weighted heaving lines. Once a mooring line is attached to a bollard, it is pulled tight. Large ships tighten their mooring lines using heavy machinery called mooring winches or capstans; the heaviest cargo ships may require more than a dozen mooring lines. Small vessels can be moored by four to six mooring lines. Mooring lines are made from manila rope or a synthetic material such as nylon. Nylon is easy to work with and lasts for years, but it is elastic; this elasticity has advantag
Inland Waterways Association
The Inland Waterways Association was formed in 1946 as a registered charity in the United Kingdom to campaign for the conservation, maintenance and sensitive development of British Canals and river navigations. Notable founding members included L. T. C. Rolt and Robert Aickman. In 1944, Tom Rolt published his book Narrow Boat, which reflected on his journey around the canals in 1939 in his boat Cressy; the book was popular and Rolt received a number of letters following its publication. This included a letter from Robert Aickman, a literary agent and aspiring author, who made the suggestion that a society to campaign for the regeneration of canals should be formed. Tom Rolt supported this idea and in August 1945, he Robert and their wives and Ray, met for the first time aboard Cressy at Tardebigge on the Worcester & Birmingham Canal; the couples developed a good working relationship with the inaugural meeting of The Inland Waterways Association taking place on 15 February 1946 London at Aickman’s flat in Gower Street, London.
Robert Aickman was appointed chairman, Charles Hadfield, vice-chairman, Tom Rolt honorary secretary and Frank Eyre treasurer. A pamphlet called "The Future of the Waterways" was produced by Rolt and the first action took place in 1947 when the Rolts aboard Cressy challenged the Great Western Railway who owned the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal and had replaced the Lifford drawbridge at Kings Norton Junction with a "temporary" fixed bridge that prevented navigation. After a question in Parliament by Lord Methuen, the bridge was raised to allow Cressy to pass. An Inland Waterways Exhibition was organised at Heal's Mansard Gallery in London, so successful that it was taken on a one month's tour of provincial art galleries. By now IWA had attracted a range of talent, including as president, the writer and parliamentarian Sir A. P. Herbert, as vice-president the naturalist Peter Scott. Scott's wife Elizabeth Jane Howard was part-time secretary, working in the Aickmans' flat in Gower Street; the council included Lord Bingham.
In the year 1948 that the canal system was nationalised, a more extensive campaign took place, in August, when the Ailsa Craig was hired for a six-week cruise of the northern canals, which included the last crossing of the Huddersfield Narrow Canal before its restoration in 2001. The first boat rally and festival was organized at Market Harborough in August 1950, a meeting place open to boats wide and narrow from south and north of England and off the busier commercial routes. 120 boats and 50,000 visitors attended and this laid the birth of the successful rallies that have been a feature of the IWA since. This was overshadowed by a row among the organizers. Tom Rolt had resigned as secretary some months before because of the pressure of his other work as a writer, though remaining an active member, his next book, The Inland Waterways of England was due to be published in August, though Rolt claims that it was a coincidence as he did not tell the publisher of the rally, organized. Aickman, through Eyre, attempted to prevent Rolt from attending the rally and promoting his book but this only led to the publisher Philip Unwin attending.
There had been personality conflicts with Aickman which had led Charles Hadfield to resign his position as vice-chairman as early as 1946, disagreements over policy. Aickman wanted to campaign to keep all of the waterways open, whereas Rolt had more sympathies with the traditional canal workers and realised that it was necessary to prioritize which canals could reasonably be kept open. Aickman engineered a change to the rules to require all members to conform to agreed IWA principles and in early 1951, Rolt and others were excluded from membership. During most of the 1950s IWA was campaigning in an era when the British Transport Commission saw the commercial use of the canal system as its main goal; the country did not have enough money to spend on canal maintenance let alone restoration. The canals the narrow system, had become inadequate for modern commerce and dropped into disuse. Early attempts at involvement in saving a canal, when the Basingstoke Canal had come up for sale in 1949, were flouted when a canal committee set up to save it saw their contributions used to support a private bid from their nominated bidder.
A more hopeful start was made on the lower reaches of the Warwickshire Avon, a river where commercial navigation had long since been stopped because of perennial flooding problems so it was not part of BTC's remit. Learning from the experience of the Basingstoke Canal, IWA advised the formation of a charitable trust and Douglas Barwell who had joined the Midland's branch with this in mind, took charge of the project of restoration. Local campaigns emerged with the threats to various canals, including the Oxford and Kennet and Avon. An all-party parliamentary committee was set up with 30 sympathetic MPs becoming honorary members of IWA. A fight to save the Stroudwater Canal was lost in Parliament. In March 1955, a Board of Survey reported and recommended the downgrading and possible disposal of 771 miles of waterway parts including some like the Huddersfield Narrow Canal, abandoned and closed to traffic. In response, IWA advocated a National Waterway Conservancy to look after all the waterways and pointed out that it is cheaper to restore and use waterways than to eliminate them.
A non-party parliamentary petition was organized. Opinions were changed so that by the autumn, when the annual BTC bill was placed before parliament, the announced measure was not included and the chair of BTC told MPs that he regretted that the board had not had a more independent basis; the campaign to save the Kennet and
British Waterways shortened to BW, was a statutory corporation wholly owned by the government of the United Kingdom. It served as the navigation authority for the majority of canals and a number of rivers and docks in England and Wales. On 2 July 2012 all of British Waterways' assets and responsibilities in England and Wales were transferred to the newly founded charity the Canal & River Trust. In Scotland, British Waterways continues to operate as a standalone public corporation under the trading name Scottish Canals; the British Waterways Board was established as a result of the Transport Act 1962 and took control of the inland waterways assets of the British Transport Commission in 1963. British Waterways was sponsored by the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs in England and Wales, by the Scottish Government in Scotland. British Waterways managed and maintained 2,200 miles of canals and docks within the United Kingdom including the buildings and landscapes alongside these waterways.
Half of the United Kingdom population lives within five miles of a canal or river once managed by British Waterways. In addition to the watercourses, British Waterways cared for and owned 2,555 listed structures including seventy scheduled ancient monuments. A further 800 areas have special designation and a further hundred are Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Through its charitable arm The Waterways Trust, British Waterways maintained a museum of its history at the National Waterways Museum's three sites at Gloucester Docks, Stoke Bruerne and Ellesmere Port. Since the transfer of the assets and responsibilities of British Waterways to the Canal & River Trust the Waterways Trust in England and Wales has merged with the Canal & River Trust, it continues, however, as an independent charity in Scotland. During the early 20th century, the canal network was in decline following a declining usage and increasing competition from the railways and road transport. Freight and other cargo was still carried on the canals, by now owned by the railway companies, until the 1950s.
When the railways were nationalised in 1948, the canals they owned transferred into a new British Transport Commission. The new commission focused on encouraging commercial traffic to the waterways, but with the construction and opening of motorways in 1959 and legislation such as the Clean Air Act 1956 affecting the coal carriers using the waterways, this stance could not be sustained; the last regular long distance narrow boat carrying contract, to a jam factory near London, ended in October 1970, although lime juice continued to be carried by narrow boat from Brentford to Boxmoor until 1981, aggregate from Thurmaston to Syston from 1976 until 1988. Under the Transport Act 1962, the British Transport Commission was split into several new organisations including the British Railways Board and the London Transport Board with the inland waterways of Britain becoming part of the new British Waterways Board. In the same year a remarkably harsh winter saw many boats frozen into their moorings, unable to move for weeks at a time.
This was one of the reasons given for the decision by BWB to formally cease most of its commercial narrow boat carrying on the canals. By this time the canal network had shrunk to just 2,000 miles, half the size it was at its peak in the early 19th century. However, the basic network was still intact with many of the closures affecting duplicate routes or branches; the Transport Act 1968 classified the nationalised waterways into three distinct categories as specified by BWB: Commercial - Waterways that could still support commercial traffic. British Waterways Board was required under the Act to keep Commercial and Cruising Waterways fit for their respective traffic and use. However, these obligations were subject to the caveat of being by the most economical means and BWB had no requirement to maintain Remainder waterways or keep them in a navigable condition; as a result, many remainder waterways could face abandonment or transference to the local authority who would contribute to the waterway's upkeep as part of the act.
Additionally, many of these remainder waterways were crossed by new roads and motorways without provision for boat navigation. As the century progressed leisure boating on the canals began to expand, with numbers reaching 20,000 by the early 1980s. Additionally, the work of voluntary restoration groups succeeded in restoring some waterways to their former condition. However, despite this steady progress throughout the 1970s and 1980s, organisations such as English Heritage criticised the newly named British Waterways for failing to provide "adequate training or access to professional advice on the conservation of historic structures". However, by the late 1990s the canal network and British Waterways were flourishing. By the early 2000s, boating numbers had overtaken the previous industrial revolution high and the canal network was classed as'safe' following the completion of all outstanding safety works. By 2009, British Waterways was looking for a means of gaining a larger and more secure supply of funding in order to plug a £30m shortfall in its budget, while utilisi
Canals of the United Kingdom
The canals of the United Kingdom are a major part of the network of inland waterways in the United Kingdom. They have a colourful history, from use for irrigation and transport, through becoming the focus of the Industrial Revolution, to today's role of recreational boating. Despite a period of abandonment, today the canal system in the United Kingdom is again in increasing use, with abandoned and derelict canals being reopened, the construction of some new routes. Most canals in England and Wales are maintained by the Canal & River Trust British Waterways, but a minority of canals are owned; the majority of canals in the United Kingdom can accommodate boats with a length of between 55 and 72 feet and are now used for leisure. There are a number of canals which are far larger than this including New Junction Canal and the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal which can allow use for boats with a length of up to 230 feet. One purpose built ship canal exists in the United Kingdom, the Manchester Ship Canal, incomparable with any other canal in the United Kingdom.
Upon opening in 1894 it was the largest ship canal in the world, permitted ships with a length of up to 600 feet to navigate its 36-mile route. Canals first saw use during the Roman occupation of the south of Great Britain, were used for irrigation; the Romans created several navigable canals, such as Foss Dyke, to link rivers, enabling increased transport inland by water. The United Kingdom's navigable water network grew; the canals were key to the pace of the Industrial Revolution: roads at the time were unsuitable for large volumes of traffic. A system of large pack horse trains had developed, but few roads were suitable for wheeled vehicles able to transport large amounts of materials quickly. Canal boats were much quicker, could carry large volumes, were much safer for fragile items. Following the success of first the Sankey Canal followed by the Bridgewater Canal, other canals were constructed between industrial centres and ports, were soon transporting raw materials and manufactured goods.
There were immediate benefits to households, as well as to commerce: in Manchester, the cost of coal fell by 75% when the Bridgewater Canal arrived. As the Industrial Revolution took hold in the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the technology allowed canals to be improved; the early canals contoured round hills and valleys ones went straighter. Locks took canals up and down hills, they strode across valleys on taller and longer aqueducts and through hills in longer and deeper tunnels. From the mid-19th century, railways began to replace canals those built with the standard narrow bridges and locks; as trains, road vehicles, became more advanced, they became cheaper than the narrow canal system, being faster, able to carry much larger cargoes. The canal network declined, many canals were bought by railway companies – in some cases to enable them to penetrate rival companies' areas transhipping to/from canal boats; some narrow canals became unusable, filled with weeds and rubbish, or converted to railways.
There was a late burst of wide-waterway building, of invention and innovation by people such as Bartholomew of the Aire and Calder company, who conceived the trains of nineteen coal-filled "Tom Pudding" compartment boats that were pulled along the Aire and Calder Navigation from the Yorkshire coalfields, lifted bodily to upturn their contents directly into seagoing colliers at Goole Docks. However, the last new canal before the end of the 20th century was the New Junction Canal in Yorkshire in 1905; as competition intensified, horse-drawn single narrowboats were replaced by steam and diesel powered boats towing an unpowered butty, many of the boatmen's families abandoned their shore homes for a life afloat, to help with boat handling and to reduce accommodation costs – the birth of the legendary "boatman's cabin" with bright white lace, gleaming brass and gaily-painted metalware. Constant lowering of tolls meant that the carriage of some bulky, non-perishable, non-vital goods by water was still feasible on some inland waterways – but the death knell for commercial carrying on the narrow canals was sounded in the winter of 1962–63, when a long hard frost kept goods icebound on the canals for three months.
A few of the remaining customers turned to road and rail haulage to ensure reliability of supply and never returned, though both rail and road had been disrupted by the frost and snow too. Other narrowboat traffic ceased with the change from coal to oil, the closure of canalside factories, run-down of British heavy industry; the last long-distance narrowboat traffics, coal from the Midlands to Dickinson's paper mills at Croxley and the Kearley & Tonge Jam Factory at Southall both ceased in 1970 – the Croxley mills had changed to oil and the Jam Factory closed for re-location. Regular narrowboat traffics continued, such as lime juice from Brentford to Boxmoor while aggregates were carried on the River Soar until 1988; some individual waterways remain viable, carrying many millions of tonnes per year and there are still hopes for development, but containerisation of ports and lorries has passed the waterways by. The last m
Court of Appeal (England and Wales)
The Court of Appeal is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales, second in the legal system of England and Wales only to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The COA was created in 1875, today comprises 39 Lord Justices of Appeal and Lady Justices of Appeal; the court has two divisions and Civil, led by the Lord Chief Justice and the Master of the Rolls respectively. Criminal appeals are heard in the Criminal Division, civil appeals in the Civil Division; the Criminal Division hears appeals from the Crown Court, while the Civil Division hears appeals from the County Court, High Court of Justice and Family Court. Permission to appeal is required from either the lower court or the Court of Appeal itself; the appeal system before 1875 was "chaotic". The superior courts system consisted of 12 different courts, with appeal on common law matters to the Court of Exchequer Chamber, chancery matters to the Court of Appeal in Chancery and other matters to the Privy Council; this was the subject of a review by the Judicature Commission, established in 1867 to consider the creation of a "Supreme Court".
The result was published in 1869. The recommendation was that there should be a common system of appeal from all of the High Court divisions, with a limited set of appeals allowed to the House of Lords; this reform was implemented by the Judicature Acts, with the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 giving an limitless right of appeal to the Lords. The new legal structure provided a single Court of Appeal, which heard appeals from all the various divisions of the new unified High Court of Justice, it only heard civil cases: opportunities for appealing in criminal cases remained limited until the 20th century. In its early days, the Court of Appeal divided its sittings between Westminster Hall for appeals from the Common Law divisions, Lincoln's Inn for Chancery, Probate and Admiralty appeals, with five Lords Justices. After the opening of the Royal Courts of Justice in 1882 the Court of Appeal transferred there, where it remains; as well as the Lords Justices, the Lord Chancellor, any previous Lords Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice, the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, the Vice-Chancellor of the Chancery Division and the Master of the Rolls could hear cases, although in practice only the Master of the Rolls did so.
The absence of limits on appeals to the House of Lords was the cause of much concern: it led to an additional set of expensive and time-consuming appeals from the Court of Appeal, which thus could not take decisions in the knowledge that they were final. The appeals from the County Courts were seen involving an appeal to the High Court of Justice and the bypassing of the Court of Appeal for a second set of appeals to the Lords; the Administration of Justice Act 1934, a short statute, solved both problems neatly by abolishing the appeal of County decisions to the High Court and instead sending them automatically to the Court of Appeal, by establishing that appeals to the Lords could only take place with the consent of the Court of Appeal or of the Lords themselves. A second set of reforms to the appeals system followed the report of the Evershed Committee on High Court Procedure in 1953, which recognised the high cost to the litigants of an additional set of appeals since the loser in a civil case paid the victor's legal bills.
Among the few changes that were made, the practice ceased of counsel reading out the judgment, cross-examinations and evidence given in the lower court. The process of "leapfrogging", which the Committee had recommended, was brought into force with the Administration of Justice Act 1969. A separate Court of Criminal Appeal had been established in 1908. In 1966 this was merged with its older namesake, establishing the present-day structure of a single Court of Appeal with two Divisions: Civil and Criminal. In the early 1960s there was discussion between judges and academics in the United Kingdom and the United States comparing the processes of appeal used in each nation. Although the British judges found the emphasis on written arguments unattractive, they did like the idea of pre-reading: that the court should read the pleadings of counsel, the case being appealed and the judgment from the lower court before delivering its judgment, but the idea was scrapped, despite a successful tryout in the Court of Appeal.
The court over which Lord Denning presided from 1962 to 1982 was under no pressure and had no inclination to modernise, with liaisons and management handled by clerks with little knowledge. This changed in 1981 with the appointment of a Registrar, John Adams, an academic and lawyer, who reformed the internal workings of the Court. In July 1996, Lord Woolf published Access to Justice, a report on the accessibility of the courts to the public. Woolf identified civil litigation as being characterised by excessive cost and complexity, succeeded in replacing the diverse rules with a single set of Civil Procedure Rules. Before Woolf had published his final report, Sir Jeffery Bowman, the retired senior partner of PriceWaterhouse, was commissioned to write a report on the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal. Bowman noted a growing workload and delays, with 14 months between setting down and disposing of a case in 70% of cases, the rest taking longer than that – some had taken five years, he recommended extending the requirement to ask leave to appeal to all appeal cases.