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Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. The French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy was the first to formulate such models in the 19th century. Modeling an object as a continuum assumes that the substance of the object fills the space it occupies. Modeling objects in this way ignores the fact that matter is made of atoms, so is not continuous. Fundamental physical laws such as the conservation of mass, the conservation of momentum, the conservation of energy may be applied to such models to derive differential equations describing the behavior of such objects, some information about the particular material studied is added through constitutive relations. Continuum mechanics deals with physical properties of solids and fluids which are independent of any particular coordinate system in which they are observed; these physical properties are represented by tensors, which are mathematical objects that have the required property of being independent of coordinate system.

These tensors can be expressed in coordinate systems for computational convenience. Materials, such as solids and gases, are composed of molecules separated by space. On a microscopic scale, materials have discontinuities. However, certain physical phenomena can be modeled assuming the materials exist as a continuum, meaning the matter in the body is continuously distributed and fills the entire region of space it occupies. A continuum is a body that can be continually sub-divided into infinitesimal elements with properties being those of the bulk material; the validity of the continuum assumption may be verified by a theoretical analysis, in which either some clear periodicity is identified or statistical homogeneity and ergodicity of the microstructure exists. More the continuum hypothesis/assumption hinges on the concepts of a representative elementary volume and separation of scales based on the Hill–Mandel condition; this condition provides a link between an experimentalist's and a theoretician's viewpoint on constitutive equations as well as a way of spatial and statistical averaging of the microstructure.

When the separation of scales does not hold, or when one wants to establish a continuum of a finer resolution than that of the representative volume element size, one employs a statistical volume element, which, in turn, leads to random continuum fields. The latter provide a micromechanics basis for stochastic finite elements; the levels of SVE and RVE link continuum mechanics to statistical mechanics. The RVE may be assessed only in a limited way via experimental testing: when the constitutive response becomes spatially homogeneous. For fluids, the Knudsen number is used to assess to what extent the approximation of continuity can be made. Consider car traffic on a highway, with just one lane for simplicity. Somewhat and in a tribute to its effectiveness, continuum mechanics models the movement of cars via a partial differential equation for the density of cars; the familiarity of this situation empowers us to understand a little of the continuum-discrete dichotomy underlying continuum modelling in general.

To start modelling define that: x measures distance along the highway. Cars do not disappear. Consider any group of cars: from the particular car at the back of the group located at x = a to the particular car at the front located at x = b; the total number of cars in this group N = ∫ a b ρ d x. Since cars are conserved d N / d t = 0, but via the Leibniz integral rule d N d t = d d t ∫ a b ρ d x = ∫ a b ∂ ρ ∂ t d x + ρ d b d t −

Lindsay Meggs

Lindsay Ross Meggs is an American college baseball coach, the head coach at the University of Washington in Seattle since July 2009. Born in San Jose, Meggs graduated from Saratoga High School in Saratoga and played college baseball at UCLA, starting at third base all four years, he was honorable mention All-Conference in 1983, drafted after both his junior and senior years. Selected in the 15th round of the 1984 MLB Draft, Meggs signed with the Kansas City Royals and enjoyed a brief professional career before returning to UCLA to complete his degree. After his playing career ended, Meggs began coaching at De Anza College in Cupertino, serving as an assistant for a season in 1988 before moving south to California Lutheran University in Thousand Oaks for another season. Meggs earned his first head coaching opportunity at Oxnard College where he worked for one year in 1990 moved to Long Beach City College for three seasons. At LBCC, his teams made the playoffs each year. Meggs moved north to Cal State Chico in 1994.

The Wildcats were a Division II national power under him, winning two national championships, appearing seven times in the Division II College World Series, claiming eight conference titles. Meggs was Division II National Coach of the Year twice, regional and conference coach of the year seven times each; the Wildcats' home venue, Ray Bohler Field, was renovated in 1997 and became the 4,200-seat Nettleton Stadium. Meggs' success at Chico State landed him a Division I job at Indiana State in Terre Haute, where he worked for three years; the Sycamores were 33–21 overall and finished second in the Missouri Valley Conference after being picked to finish sixth in the preseason. Four players were named first team All-Conference that season, with five others earning other conference awards. Meggs was named MVC Coach of the Year for his efforts. In 2009, Meggs was introduced as the new head coach at Washington on July 27. In his first season in 2010, the Huskies were 28–28, an improvement of five wins over the previous season.

Among his efforts at Washington has been seeking additional personal general enhancements to Husky Ballpark and the Huskies' indoor facilities. After the 2012 season, three additional years were added to his contract, through 2018. Following Washington's runner-up finish in the conference in 2014, Meggs was named Pac-12 coach of the year. Picked in the preseason to finish low in the standings, the Huskies posted a 21-9 record in conference and made their first post-season appearance in a decade. Although ranked in the national top ten for much of the season, Washington was overlooked as a regional host. In the NCAA regional at the University of Mississippi in Oxford, Washington was the runner-up, losing two close games to the host Rebels. Both games with Ole Miss were decided by one run and both had over 9,300 in attendance at Swayze Field.. That summer, Meggs was granted a six-year contract extension worth $2.2 million. Source: NCAC disbanded after 1998 season. Washington profile

Martin Aitchison

Martin Henry Hugh Aitchison was an illustrator for the Eagle comic from 1952 to 1963, one of the main illustrators for Ladybird Books from 1963 to 1990. Aitchison was born in Worcestershire, he was educated at Ellesmere College in Shropshire, leaving aged 15 to attend the Birmingham School of Art and Slade School of Art. He married fellow art student Dorothy Self, he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1939. He was deaf, excluding him from active service in the Second World War, but he worked for Vickers Aircraft as a technical illustrator, he produced drawings for the bouncing bomb designed by Barnes Wallis for the Dam Busters air raid. He became a freelance commercial artist after the war, his earliest work was for Hulton Press' Lilliput magazine. He drew for Girl, filling in for Ray Bailey on "Kitty Hawke and her All-Girl Air Crew", illustrating "Flick and the Vanishing New Girl" in the first Girl annual, he began to work for the Eagle in 1952, drawing the French Foreign Legion strip "Luck of the Legion", written by Geoffrey Bond, for nearly ten years, including spin-off strips in ABC Film Review in 1952.

He drew spy series "Danger Unlimited" and adaptations of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World and C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower stories for the Eagle, "Arty and Crafty", written by Geoffrey Bond, for Eagle's junior companion paper Swift, his work for comics displayed his talents in an exuberant and creative medium, working from imagination. He joined Ladybird Books in 1963, joined Harry Wingfield in illustrating many titles in its new Key Words Reading Scheme books known as Peter and Jane, which were used to teach so many British children to read; the consistency, naturalistic style and attention to detail of the artist made him a favourite with the prolific British publisher and over a period of a quarter of a century, he illustrated at least 100 different titles. Martin Aitchison was not the only artist to make the switch from The Eagle to Ladybird, he left Ladybird in 1987, retired - apart from drawing a new comic strip, "Justin Tyme - ye Hapless Highwayman", written by Geoffrey Bond, his son Jim, for the fanzine Eagle Times from 1998 to 2004.

He died on 22 October 2016 at the age of 96. "Kitty Hawke and her All-Girl Air Crew", Girl "Flick and the Vanishing New Girl, Girl Annual No 1 "Luck of the Legion" written by Geoffrey Bond, Eagle Vol 3 No 5 – Vol 12 No 37, Eagle Annual No 3-10 "Danger Unlimited", Eagle Vol 12 No 33 – Vol 13 No 9 "The Lost World", Eagle Vol 13 No 10 – Vol 13 No 29 "Hornblower R. N.", Eagle Vol 13 No 28 – Vol 14 No 9 "Warrior with Tin Legs", Eagle Annual No 11 "Justin Tyme - Ye Hapless Highwayman", Eagle Times Vol 11 No 4 - Vol 17 No 1 Biography Eagle artists: Martin Aitcheson, Eagle Times, 8 January 2008 Eagle writers - Geoffrey Bond aka Alan Jason, Eagle Times, 31 December 2009 Martin Aitcheson at Martin Aitcheson on Lambiek Comiclopedia Official website Martin Aitchison remembered

Open Letter on the Position and Status of Serbs in Croatia

The Open Letter on the Position and Status of Serbs in Croatia was sent to the addresses of prominent Croatians and Serbians in September 2008. The letter spoke about the adverse social and economic circumstances in which Croatian Serbs had lived; the letter was a result of extensive studies about respect for minority rights in Croatia, which were initiated by the Serb Democratic Forum and other partner NGOs of the Forum, like UNHCR, University of Zagreb and other Serbian NGOs. The study drew attention to problems such as long-term trials, verbal insults, physical attacks, the devastation of buildings and religious objects belonging to the Serbian minority; some media, such as Jutarnji list, published criticisms of the implementation of the Erdut Agreement. The study found that Večernji list are at the forefront of hate speech in the media; the study addressed the phenomenon of nationalist singer Marko Perković. According to the study, Serbs in Croatia are marginalized, their ethnic identity is stigmatized, the blame is placed on them for the 1991-95 war.

It highlighted that the regions where Serbs have lived for centuries have been devastated and economically neglected. The letter said that there have been some developments in human and minority rights, but it warned of a lack of implementation of good legislation; the letter noted that Serbs in Croatia still do not have equal opportunities for socialization or the same level of human rights, ethnic or professional recognition in areas where they have returned to live recently. The letter stated that for positive change to occur it would be necessary for the majority population to perceive the minority population as having a richness of living environment and not as presenting a threat to society; the Serb Democratic Forum did not invite the Independent Democratic Serb Party to sign the open letter, taking the view that, as part of the government, they hold some responsibility for the marginalization of the Serbian minority. This subsequently led to clashes between the Serb Democratic Forum, the Independent Democratic Serb Party and the Party of Danube Serbs.

Ivo Banac Sead Berberović Alen Budaj Slobodan Budak Ivan Zvonimir Čičak Silvije Degen Zora Dirnbach Srđan Dvornik Davor Gjenero Drago Hedl Salomon Jazbec Boris Jurinić (member of the Council for Development of Civil Society of the Croatian Government in the Ministry of Culture Petar Kuzmić Dražen Lalić Svetozar Livada Predrag Matvejević Jovan Mirić Aleksandar Novković Jaroslav Pecnik Drago Pilsel Žarko Puhovski Simo Rajić Slobodan Šnajder Lordan Zafranović Zdravko Zima Daniel Žderić

July 2005 Afghan captive incident

In October 2005 two soldiers were investigated for beating captives held in Forward Operating Base Ripley, July 2005, in Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan. The two soldiers were Specialist James R. Hayes. On January 30, 2006 Myricks and Hayes were found guilty of one count of conspiracy to maltreat and two counts of maltreatment in the beating of Afghani captives. Myricks was reduced in rank to private, sentenced to six months imprisonment. Hayes was reduced in rank to private, sentenced to four months imprisonment. David R. Irvine, a former Law Professor and retired Brigadier General compared Myricks sentence for beatings to the lack of charges against commissioned officers in earlier murder incidents. "That no senior officers have been as dealt with as junior enlisted personnel is a travesty. Chief Warrant Officer Welshofer received the merest tap on the wrist for negligent homicide. Colonel Teeples has a new job as the Executive Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Three junior enlisted soldiers, convicted for their roles at Abu Ghraib, were imprisoned for ten and three years—and they didn’t kill anyone.

Sgt. Kevin Myricks, convicted of punching detainees in Afghanistan, was sentenced to six months’ confinement and reduced in rank to private." According to the BBC News: "The charges against the soldiers came in October, close on the heels of accusations that US forces had burned the bodies of Taleban fighters, an act considered sacrilege in Islam."


Stoneholm is a historic house at 188 Ames Street in Sharon, Massachusetts. The 2-1/2 story stone house was built c. 1848, is a distinctive Victorian house, exhibiting Second Empire and Italianate details executed in granite from the local Moyles Quarry near Borderland State Park. Built for Horace Augustus Lothrop; the house has a mansard roof with flared eaves, with cupola. The main facade is divided into three bays, with the entry in the central bay, sheltered by a wraparound single-story porch; the center bay on the second level has a pair of round-arch windows, a feature echoed in the roof dormer directly above. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. National Register of Historic Places listings in Norfolk County, Massachusetts