This is a list of airline codes. The table lists IATA's two-character airline designators, ICAO's three-character airline designators and the airline call signs. Historical assignments are included. IATA airline designators, sometimes called IATA reservation codes, are two-character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association to the world's airlines; the standard is described in IATA's Standard Schedules Information Manual and the codes themselves are described in IATA's Airline Coding Directory. The IATA codes based on the ICAO designators which were issued in 1947 as two-letter airline identification codes. IATA expanded the two-letter-system with codes consisting of a letter and a digit after ICAO had introduced its current 3-letter-system in 1982; until only combinations of letters were used. Airline designator codes follow the format xx, i.e. two alphanumeric characters followed by an optional letter. Although the IATA standard provides for three-character airline designators, IATA has not used the optional third character in any assigned code.
This is because some legacy computer systems the "central reservations systems", have failed to comply with the standard, notwithstanding the fact that it has been in place for 20 years. The codes issued to date comply with IATA Resolution 762; these codes thus comply with the current airline designator standard, but use only a limited subset of its possible range. There are three types of designator: numeric/alpha and controlled duplicate. IATA airline designators are used to identify an airline for commercial purposes in reservations, tickets, air waybills and in telecommunications. A flight designator is the concatenation of the airline designator, xx, the numeric flight number, n, plus an optional one-letter "operational suffix". Therefore, the full format of a flight designator is xxn. After an airline is delisted, IATA can make the code available for reuse after six months and can issue "controlled duplicates". Controlled duplicates are issued to regional airlines whose destinations are not to overlap, so that the same code is shared by two airlines.
The controlled duplicate is denoted here, in IATA literature, with an asterisk. An example of this is the code "7Y", which refers to both Mid Airlines, a charter airline in Sudan, Med Airways, a charter airline in Lebanon. IATA issues an accounting or prefix code; this number is used on tickets as the first three characters of the ticket number. The ICAO airline designator is a code assigned by the International Civil Aviation Organization to aircraft operating agencies, aeronautical authorities, services related to international aviation, each of whom is allocated both a three-letter designator and a telephony designator; these codes are unique by airline, unlike the IATA airline designator codes. The designators are listed in ICAO Document 8585: Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services. ICAO codes have been issued since 1947; the ICAO codes were based on a two-letter-system and were identical to the airline codes used by IATA. After an airline joined IATA its existing ICAO-two-letter-code was taken over as IATA code.
Because both organizations used the same code system, the current terms ICAO code and IATA code did not exist until the 1980s. They were called two-letter-airline-designators. At this time it was impossible to find out whether an airline was an IATA member or not just by looking at its code. In the 1970s the abbreviation BA was the ICAO code and the IATA code of British Airways while non-IATA-members like Court Line used their 2-letter-abbreviation as ICAO code only. In 1982 ICAO introduced the current three-letter-system due to the increasing number of airlines. After a transitional period of five years it became the official new ICAO standard system in November 1987 while IATA kept the older 2-letter-system, introduced by ICAO in 1947. Certain combinations of letters, for example SOS, are not allocated to avoid confusion with other systems. Other designators those starting with Y and Z, are reserved for government organizations; the designator YYY is used for operators. An example is: Operator: American Airlines Three-letter designator: AAL Telephony designator: AMERICANA timeline of the airline designators used by American Airlines: Most airlines employ a call sign, spoken during airband radio transmissions.
As by ICAO Annex 10 chapter 188.8.131.52.2.1 a call sign shall be one of the following types: Type A: the characters corresponding to the registration marking of the aircraft. Type B: the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency, followed by the last four characters of the registration marking of the aircraft. Type C: the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency, followed by the flight identification; the one most used within commercial aviation is type C. The flight identification is often the same as the flight number, though this is not always the case. In case of call sign confusion a different flight identification can be chosen, but the flight number will remain the same. Call sign confusion happens when two or more flights with similar flight numbers fly close to each other, e.g. KLM 645 and KLM 649 or Speedbird 446 and Speedbird 664; the flight number is published in an airline's public timetable and appears on the arrivals and departure scr
Smyrna is a town in Rutherford County, Tennessee. Smyrna's population was 39,974 at the 2010 census and 43,063 in 2013. In 2007, U. S. News & World Report listed Smyrna as one of the best places in the United States to retire. On June 2nd 2016 Blue Angels #6 crashed in Smyrna when practicing for the Great Tennesse Air show, killing pilot capt Jeff Kuss; the town of Smyrna has its European-American roots in the early 19th century and began as an agrarian community. It was important during the Civil War because its railroad station lies between Nashville and Chattanooga. One of the major events of the war for the town involved the Confederate States hero Sam Davis, after being charged with spying, gave up his life instead of giving any information to the Union Army, he was captured November 20, 1863, was hanged by Union forces on November 27 of that year. The Sam Davis Plantation, located on 160 acres of well-maintained farmland, is the town's most important historical site. Smyrna was incorporated in 1869 but its charter was rescinded by the state several years later.
In 1915, the town adopted a commission-mayor form of government. In 1941 during World War II, Sewart Air Force Base was established here and served as a B-17 Flying Fortress and B-24 advanced training facility. During the 1950s and 1960s, the military personnel and dependents totaled more than 10,000 persons stationed at the base; the base was scheduled for closing in 1971. Most of the property was divided among the State of Tennessee, Rutherford County, the Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority. On its portion, the state opened and operates a Tennessee Army National Guard base and the Tennessee Rehabilitation Center. Much of the additional land was developed as the Smyrna/Rutherford County Airport Authority in 1990. During the 1970s, many new industries moved to the area; the city began a period of growth stimulated by production of such companies as Better Built Aluminum, Cumberland Swan, Square D building plants. In the early 1980s, planning began to build a Nissan Motors manufacturing plant and, in 1983, the first vehicle was produced.
The Nissan plant now employs around 8,400 workers, has a production capacity of 640,000 vehicles annually, covers an area of 5,200,000 sq ft. In 2012, Smyrna began manufacturing the Nissan Leaf. On March 14, 2000, the mayor and board of commissioners adopted a new charter; the city now operates under the city manager form of government, whereby the commissioners hire a city manager for daily operations. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.0 square miles, of which 22.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Portions of the Percy Priest Lake reservoir lies within the town limits; the two main waterways are Stewarts Creek. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,569 people, 9,608 households, 7,061 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,119.8 people per square mile. There were 10,016 housing units at an average density of 438.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.23% White, 7.82% African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.81% from other races, 1.56% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.31% of the population. There were 9,608 households out of which 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 35.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $44,405, the median income for a family was $51,550. Males had a median income of $37,130 versus $27,325 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,704. About 6.7% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.
The Nissan Smyrna assembly plant is the biggest in USA, making 640,000 cars per year. It began in 1983, has made more than 10 million cars since then. Batteries for the Leaf began in 2012. Smyrna serves as the US production site for the Nissan Leaf. Nissan's goal is that the plant in Smyrna will produce 150,000 cars, 200,000 electric car batteries per year; the top employers in the city are: Nissan: 8,400 Asurion: 1,165 Vi-Jon: 737 Stonecrest Medical Center: 550 Taylor Farms: 550 Square D/Schneider Electric: 474Prior to their dissolution, RegionsAir and Capitol Air were headquartered in Smyrna. Smyrna has a public golf course, 7 miles of greenway trails and an outdoor water park. A public fitness center located in Town Center includes an Olympic-sized swimming pool. Smyrna is served by the Rutherford County Schools school district. Cedar Grove Elementary David Youree Elementary School John Colemon Elementary School Smyrna Elementary School Smyrna Primary School Stewartsboro Elementary School Stewarts Creek Elementary School Rock Springs Middle School Rocky Fork Middle School Smyrna Middle School Stewarts C
Contour Airlines is a regional airline based in Smyrna, United States. It started operations in 1982 as an on-demand charter service for passengers and freight in the southern United States, as well as a full-service fixed-base operation and Federal Aviation Administration certificated repair station, its main base is Smyrna Airport. Contour Airlines shares management and ownership with Contour Aviation, which provides charter, aircraft management, government services, maintenance and overhaul services. Contour Airlines known as Corporate Flight Management, operated scheduled flights from Branson, Missouri to a number of destinations starting in 2011 under the Branson Air Express brand. Service ended in 2012, but flights to Chicago and Austin started in 2014 as Buzz Airways, using BAe Jetstream 41 aircraft. Service from Branson ended in November 2016. CFM began service from Pikeville, Kentucky to Nashville on October 27, 2014 under the Appalachian Air brand; this service ended in July 2015. Contour Airlines commenced flights between Bowling Green and Atlanta, seasonal service to Destin-Fort Walton Beach, utilizing Jetstream 41 turboprop aircraft, in the summer of 2016.
Flights from Bowling Green to Atlanta were discontinued in January 2017 due to insufficient demand, but seasonal service to Destin-Fort Walton Beach continues. By 2018, Contour will have replaced Via Air on the Charlotte to Beckley to Parkersburg segments, will add Charlotte to Tampa service to provide one-stop service to Florida Contour Airlines operates Essential Air Service flights serving Official website
Bombardier Challenger 300
The Challenger 300 is a 3,100 nmi range business jet made by Bombardier Aerospace. Announced at the 1999 Paris Air Show, it made its maiden flight on 14 August 2001, received its Canadian type approval on 31 May 2003 and was introduced on 8 January 2004; the Challenger 350 is a improved 3,200 nmi range variant which first flew on 2 March 2013 and was approved on 11 June 2014. By December 2017, over 650 were delivered including over 200 Challenger 350; the baseline Challenger 300 was launched at the 1999 Paris Air Show as the Bombardier Continental. An all-new design, it received Transport Canada type approval on 31 May 2003, followed on 4 June by US FAR 25 certification and on 31 July by European JAR 25 approval. Assembled in Wichita, Kansas, it entered commercial service on 8 January 2004 with Flexjet; the new design is not developed from its variants. Its supercritical wings have a fixed leading-edge and a 27% sweep angle, its 1.15 m winglets reduce cruise lift-induced drag by 17%. It climbs to FL410 in 18 min with a 455 kg fuel burn at MTOW/ISA, where at a 14,330 kg weight it burns 680 kg /h at Mach 0.8 / 445 kn tas, 875 kg /h at Mach 0.83 / 465 kn tas.
The fuselage and the wing are semi-monocoque aluminum structures, the winglets are composite. Outboard ailerons are manually actuated and rudder are hydraulic with a mechanical backup, fly-by-wire spoilers augment roll control, act as speedbrakes and dump lift on the ground, hydraulic single-slotted fowler flap have four positions: 0/10/20/30°; the Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 avionics include four LCD displays, an EICAS and Maintenance Diagnostics Computer, an EGPWS, a TCAS II and an ELT. The improved variant first flew on March 2, 2013, was unveiled at the next May EBACE and was due to enter service in May 2014. Hot-section modifications and a FADEC push gave the Honeywell HTF7350 7.3% more takeoff thrust at 7,323 lbf with the same flat rating and reliability. Combined with a more luxurious interior with 20% taller cabin windows, it costs $1 million more at $25.9 million. It received its type certification from Transport Canada on June 11, 2014, from the FAA on June 25 and from the EASA on September 2.
Canted winglets have a less acute angle that reduces transonic drag and enlarge the span by 5.2 ft, increasing wing area and aspect ratio. At a weight of 30,200 lb it cruises at Mach 0.80 / 455 kn TAS and is advertised as burning 1,535 lb per hour. Bombardier maintenance program runs $277 per inspection intervals are at 600 hr; the avionics include four Adaptive LCD Displays, Dual FMS with LPV and RNP approaches capability, SVS, a MultiScan, Weather Radar, Dual IRS, dual SBAS GPS, integrated EFIS and dual VHF and HF radios. It is able to carry eight passengers over a 3,200 nmi / 5,926 km range at a Mach 0.80 long-range cruise. It is manufactured in Canada. In November 2014, for nearly one million hours of operations, the 448 Challenger 300 in service had a 99.79% dispatch reliability rate. At the end of 2015, 550 Challenger 300/350 were in service: 402 in North America, 75 in Western Europe, 37 in Latin America, 12 in Eastern Europe, seven in India, six in Africa and China, four in Asia Pacific and one the in Middle East.
In 2017, facing competition, Bombardier discounted the price of the Challenger 300/350 by $7 million to match the Embraer Legacy 500's $20 million price. Over 200 Challenger 350 were delivered by December 2017, for over 650 challenger 300 Series deliveries. Aircraft of comparable role and era Cessna Citation X Dassault Falcon 2000 Embraer Legacy 600 / 650 Gulfstream G280 Hawker 4000 Official website Fred George. "Bombardier Challenger 300". Business & Commercial Aviation. Still the one to beat Matt Thurber. "Pilot Report: Bombardier Challenger 350". AIN online. Mike Gerzanics. "Flight test: Bombardier Challenger 350". Flightglobal
A fixed-base operator is an organization granted the right by an airport to operate at the airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instruction, similar services. In common practice, an FBO is the primary provider of support services to general aviation operators at a public-use airport and is located either on airport leasehold property or, in rare cases, adjacent to airport leasehold property as a "through the fence operation". In many smaller airports serving general aviation in remote or modest communities, the town itself may provide fuel services and operate a basic FBO facility. Most FBOs doing business at airports of high to moderate traffic volume are non-governmental organizations, i.e. either or publicly held companies. Though the term fixed-base operator originated in the United States, the term is becoming more common in the international aviation industry as business and corporate aviation grows.
The term has not been defined as an international standard, but there have been recent uses of the term in International Civil Aviation Organization publications such as Implementing the Global Aviation Safety Roadmap. After the end of World War I in November 1918, civil aviation in the United States was unregulated and was made up of "barnstormers," who were transient pilots flying inexpensive military surplus aircraft from city to city landing in farm fields on the outskirts of a town because airports were scarce at that time; these traveling aviators offered airplane rides and aerobatic flight demonstrations, they collaborated as "flying circuses" and performed impromptu airshows for the townsfolk, charging whatever the local economic conditions would allow. As a result and early flight instructors moved around with the aircraft and had no established business in any one location. With passage of the Air Commerce Act of 1926 and its resulting requirements for the licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance requirements, regulations in training standards, the transient nature of civil aviation was curtailed.
The pilots and mechanics who made their living on the road began establishing permanent businesses, termed fixed-base operations, at the growing number of airports appearing throughout the United States as a way to distinguish permanent businesses from the transient businesses common prior to 1926. Fixed-base operators support a wide range of aeronautical activities which may include one or more of the following: Sale of aviation fuel – piston aircraft fuel and/or turbine aircraft fuel Line services for general aviation aircraft Air taxi and air charter operations Scheduled or nonscheduled air carrier services and support services Pilot training Aircraft rental and sightseeing Aircraft sales and service Aircraft storage Repair and Aircraft maintenance. Sale of aircraft parts Aerial photography Crop dusting and aerial applications Aerial advertising and Aerial surveyThough not required, fixed-base operators also provide at least basic auxiliary services to pilots, flight crew, passengers such as restroom facilities, telecommunication services, waiting areas.
General aviation FBOs sometimes provide Courtesy Cars that can be used for free or little cost by flight crews for short trip from the airport and the surrounding city area. Larger and better equipped FBOs may additionally offer food vending and restaurant facilities, ground transportation arrangements taxi/limousine, shuttle van, flight planning and weather information areas, rest lounges and showers, aviation supplies shop, access to in-flight catering, accommodations reservations or concierge services for both crew and passengers through a customer service representative. At medium and large airports, FBOs are affiliated with one of the major aviation fuel suppliers and display the fuel supplier's sign prominently. At smaller airports, the FBO is the airport operator or a flying club. Within the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration regulates some activities that may comprise an FBO such as the authorization or repair stations, flight training, air taxi/air carrier services, but the overarching term "FBO" has no regulatory standards through the federal government.
That said, the FAA has defined an FBO as "a commercial entity providing aeronautical services such as fueling, storage and flight instruction, etc. to the public."The United States Department of Transportation, in cooperation with the FAA, has the duty of establishing minimum standards for commercial aeronautical activities and recommends implementation of these standards by the airport operator or agency referred to as the airport sponsor. The United States FBO Industry is represented nationally by the National Air Transportation Association or NATA, but is partly represented by both the National Business Aviation Association and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; the number of U. S. businesses meeting the minimum criteria as an FBO is 3,138 as of April 2009 according to a survey conducted by Aviation Resource Group International. The number has decreased since the 2006 survey. FBOs are taking some time to grow in the Asian continent, but they have appeared most notably in Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and the Philippines.
This is due to the immaturity of the private and corporate aviation sector in Asia where there still exist few of these aircraft when compared to the United States and Europe. However sever
Bombardier Global Express
The Bombardier Global Express is a large cabin, 6,000 nmi / 11,100 km range business jet manufactured by Bombardier Aerospace. Announced in October 1991, it first flew on 13 October 1996 and received its type certification on 31 July 1998. Powered by two BMW-Rolls-Royce BR710s, it shares its fuselage cross section with the Canadair Challenger and Regional Jets with a new wing and tail; the shorter range Global 5000 is smaller and the Global 6000 is updated and has been modified for military missions. The Global 5500/6500 with new Rolls-Royce Pearl engines with lower fuel burn and more range were unveiled in May 2018; the larger and stretched Global 7500/8000 have longer ranges. Bombardier Aerospace began studies in 1991 and the Global Express was announced on 28 October 1991 at the NBAA convention. Full-scale cabin mockup was exhibited at the NBAA convention in September 1992. Conceptual design started in early 1993 and the programme was launched on 20 December 1993; the aircraft high-speed configuration was frozen in June 1994 and the low-speed configuration was established in August 1994.
The first flight occurred on 13 October 1996. After four prototypes flew 2,200 h, Canadian type certification was granted on 31 July 1998 before European and US approvals, service entry in 1999; the aircraft is assembled at the Downsview Airport in Toronto. It is flown for final completion to Montreal, Georgia, or Cahokia, Illinois; the major external supplier is Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries which builds the wing and centre fuselage sections at its Toronto facility. Bombardier subsidiaries have three specific roles in the project: Canadair is the design leader and manufactures the nose. In 2015, Bombardier announced it would reduce production because of lower demand, caused by slowing economy and geopolitics in markets such as Latin America and China; the Global Express winglets. It is powered by two BMW-Rolls-Royce BR710 turbofans with FADEC; the flightdeck features a six screen Honeywell Primus 2000 XP EFIS suite. Turbulence is attenuated by the flexible wing, it shares its fuselage cross section with the Canadair Bombardier CRJ with a new T-tail.
The Global is the business jet with the second largest cabin after the Gulfstream G650. It can accommodate 12 to 16 passengers in three cabin sections: a forward four-chair club section, a central four-seat conference grouping and an aft three-place divan facing two chairs. Most have crew rest chair and crew lavatory; the 10.3-psi cabin pressurization maintains a 4,500-ft. Cabin altitude up to FL 5,680 ft. at the FL 510 ceiling. It can fly intercontinental ranges without refuelling or between most two points in the world with only one stop. In this class the Global Express competes with the Airbus Corporate Jet, Boeing Business Jet and Gulfstream G550/650. Missions are 3.5 to 4.5 h long for 1,500 to 2,000 nmi, but can extend to 10 hr at Mach 0.85 or 12 h at Mach 0.82-0.83, 13 h at most with clear weather at the destination and multiple alternates nearby. It burns 5,000 lb. of fuel for the first hour, 4,000 lb the second, 3,000 lb the third and 2,500 lb during the final hour. A checks come at 750 h intervals and C checks have been extended from 15 to 30 months in 2012.
The average trip lengths for most operators is 2.5 hours where the aircraft will cruise between Mach 0.85 and Mach 0.89, making it one of the fastest long range jets available today. The maximum certified altitude is 51,000 ft and the typical approach speed is 108 kn requiring 2,600 ft of runway for landing; the Global Express and Global 6000 type certificate designation is BD-700-1A10 while the Global 5000 is BD-700-1A11. The Global 5000 was announced on 25 October 2001 and launched on 5 February 2002 with letters of intent for 15 aircraft with a 87,700 lb MTOW and a 4,800 nmi range at Mach 0.85. The first aircraft flew on 7 March 2003, it was introduced in April 2005, there were 224 in service in 2018. In April 2008, Bombardier lifted its MTOW to 92,500 lb to increase Mach.85 range to 5,200 nmi. Its cabin is 5.9 ft shorter than the Global 6000 with a 5,800–7,000 lb lower MTOW depending on service bulletins, for a 5,000–5,400 nmi range at LRC. The spec basic operating weight is 50,350 lb but are closer to 51,600 lb.
Early models kept the Global Express Honeywell Primus 2000XP avionics, updated with Rockwell Collins Fusion avionics since 2012. It can carry between eight and 19 passengers, the new seat converts to a full berth, it was priced at $40M in 2008, it has forward and aft lavatories, the crew rest area was removed, but could be restored. The tail fuel tank is removed and fuel is limited in the wings, some avionics are rearranged to gain usable cabin length and the interior completions allowance is 3,200 kg. At high-speed cruise, it burns 5,000 lb of fuel in the first hour 4,000 lb the second hour and 3,000 lb for the third hour. In 2018, Early models with Honeywell avionics are sold for $10-20 million, while post-2012 aircraft with the modern Cockpit can fetch $22-36 million. Major inspection every 180 months cost $800,000-1.2 million and two 8,000h engine overhauls can run $4 million. The cheaper and more efficient Gulfstream G450 or
Bombardier Challenger 600 series
The Bombardier Challenger 600 series is a family of business jets. It was first produced by Canadair, produced from 1986 by Canadair as a division of Bombardier Aerospace; as of December 2017, close to 1,100 Challenger 600 Series have been delivered. Including the Challenger 300 and Challenger 850, the 1,600 Bombardier Challengers in-service had logged 7.3 million hours and over 4.3 million flights by early 2017. Circa 1974, Bill Lear conceptualised the LearStar 600 business jet powered by Garrett TFE731-1s; as Lear lacked the capabilities to launch it, Canadair backed it at the end of 1975. Canadair evolved the design to a large airframe with a new supercritical wing, new avionics and engines, for new FAR part 25 standards: an ambitious task. In April 1976, Canadair acquired the 63 by 53.3 ft long and wide LearStar 600 concept: the most attractive Mach 0.85, 7,240 km range executive jet for 14 passengers a freighter for a 3,400 kg payload with a front door, or a less interesting commuter airliner for 30 passengers in 2-1 seating.
The configuration was frozen in August and a 1/25 model was tested in the National Aeronautical Establishment transonic wind tunnel. Backed by the Federal Government, the programme was launched on 29 October 1976 with firm orders and deposits for 53 aircraft. After disagreements, Bill Lear was phased out and in March 1977 it was renamed the Challenger 600; the original conventional tailplane was in the engine exhaust path and it was changed for a T-tail. The wide cargo door was designed for the launch customer with an order for 25 units; as FedEx had experienced problems with the General Electric CF34s, they favoured the Lycoming ALF 502D but those had delivery troubles and lacked performance. By spring 1977, Canadair began constructing three prototypes. FedEx cancelled its orders due to the US Airline Deregulation Act, the specific aircraft in production were sold to other customers. A full-scale fuselage mockup was shown at the 1977 Paris Air Show before a European and North American tour and 106 units had been sold by the end of 1977.
Airframe structural testing began in February 1979 and operational test cycling started in December 1979, simulating 72,638 flight hours by February 1985 while predicted lifetime was 30,000 hours. By March 1978, the first prototype was finished and the assembly of the two other had debuted. At nineteen months after the program was launched, 116 orders had been confirmed; the first prototype was rolled out on 25 May 1978, to be used in verifying flight characteristics and performance. The flight test and certification program would be conducted at Mojave Kern County Airport instead of Canada due to better weather conditions. On 8 November 1978, the prototype aircraft first flew, from Quebec; the second and third prototypes flew in 1979. A test flight on 3 April 1980 in the Mojave Desert resulted in disaster, the aircraft crashing due to the failure of the release mechanism to detach the recovery chute after a deep stall, killing one of the test pilots. Despite the crash, both Transport Canada and the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States certified the aircraft in 1980, albeit with restrictions to pilots including a limited maximum takeoff weight.
A program to reduce the aircraft's weight was implemented to improve the aircraft's range. The name LearStar was not new to this concept, since Bill Lear had long before used the name for his conversion of Lockheed Lodestars into business transports. Canadair's top management was of the opinion. Lear did not have an expert grasp of aeronautical engineering. Thus, he had only been able to pay a California aeronautical consultant to do some preliminary design explorations. However, Canadair planned to use Lear's name and skills at self-promotion to secure extensive financial guarantees for a business jet project from the Canadian Federal government; this proved an effective choice: future Prime Minister Jean Chrétien refers to the effect of personal contact with Lear on his decision to direct financial support to Canadair's program. At the time of these events, Chrétien was successively President of the Treasury Board, Minister of Industry and Commerce, Minister of Finance, in the Canadian Federal government.
Due to the use of letters of comfort, the extent of the Ministry's financial commitments for Canadair could be kept from parliament and the public for several years. These financial guarantees were used as an academic example of insufficient monitoring and lax controls in government support of industry; the cabin has a forward galley, two seating sections: a four-chair club section conference grouping or divans and an aft lavatory. While the Challenger is similar in configuration to previous aircraft of its type, some of its features stand out; the Challenger was one of the first bizjets designed with a supercritical wing. Challengers can be identified visually by their distinctive double slotted hinged flap design, where the fairings can be seen below the wings, a sight much more common on commercial airliners. CL-600 Original production version, powered by Lycoming ALF 502 turbofans of 7500 lbf thrust each. Built from 1978 to 1982 CL-600S Three CL-600s retrofitted with the winglets introduced on the CL-601-1A.
Canadair CC-144 12 aircraft purchased by the Royal Canadian Air Force, including the CE-144 and CX-144 Canadair CE-144 Three Electronic warfare / EW trainers converted to/from basic CC-144. Canadair CX-144 Second prototype, a CL-600-1A11, c/n