A fence known as a receiver, mover, or moving man, is an individual who knowingly buys stolen goods in order to resell them for profit. The fence acts as a middleman between thieves and the eventual buyers of stolen goods who may not be aware that the goods are stolen; as a verb, the word describes the behaviour of the thief in the transaction: The burglar fenced the stolen radio. This sense of the term came from thieves' slang, first attested c. 1700, from the notion of such transactions providing a defence against being caught. The term remains in common use in all major dialects of modern English, all of which spell it with a "c" though the source word in some dialects is now spelled defense; the fence is able to make a profit with stolen merchandise because he/she is able to secretly pay thieves a low price for "hot" goods that cannot be sold on the open markets. The thieves who patronize the fence are willing to accept a low profit margin in order to reduce their risks by "washing their hands" of the black market loot and disassociating themselves from the criminal act that procured it.
After the sale, the fence recoups their investment by disguising the stolen nature of the goods and reselling the goods as near to the white market price as possible without drawing suspicion. This process relies on a legal business in order to "launder" the stolen goods by intermixing them with legally-purchased items of the same type. Fencing is illegal in all countries, but proving a violation of anti-fencing laws can be difficult; the fence is able to make a profit with stolen merchandise because he is able to pay thieves a low price for stolen goods. Thieves agree to this because their alternatives may present a greater risk of the thief being caught; as well, selling stolen goods takes a great deal of time and effort, as the thief would have to try to contact a number of potential buyers and show them the merchandise. Some habitual thieves are so well known to police that if the thief were to attempt to sell any used goods, this would draw the attention of law enforcement; the fence disguises the stolen nature of the goods, if possible, so that he or she can sell them closer to the market price.
Depending on the stolen item, the fence may attempt to remove, deface, or replace serial numbers on the stolen item before reselling it. In some cases, fences will transport the stolen items to a different city to sell them, because this lessens the likelihood that the items will be recognized. For some types of stolen goods, fences disassemble the good and sell the individual parts, because the sale of parts is less risky. For example, a stolen car or bicycle may be disassembled. Another tactic used by some fences is to retain stolen items for some time before selling them, which lessens the likelihood that the burglary victims or police will be looking for the items in auctions and pawnshops. Fencing is conducted through legal businesses; some fences maintain a legitimate-seeming "front". Depending on the type of stolen merchandise a fence deals in, "front" businesses might be discount stores, used goods stores, a coin and gem store, auction house, flea market, or auto salvage yards; the degree of illicit activity in each "front" business may differ from fence to fence.
While one fence's salvage yard may consist of stolen auto parts, another fence's used goods store might consist of legitimately purchased used goods, with the stolen merchandise acting as a minor, but profitable, sideline. The prices fences pay thieves depend both on norms and on legitimate market rates for the items in question. Vulnerable sellers, such as drug addicts or casual thieves, may receive less than 20% of an item's value. Higher prices, sometimes as high as 50% of an item's value in a legal market, can be commanded by a professional thief one who concentrates on valuable items. At the same time, fences will take advantage of thieves by deceiving them about the value of an individual item and the relevant market conditions. For example, a fence may falsely tell a petty thief that the market for the type of good which the thief is selling is flooded with this type of merchandise, to justify paying out a lower price. Research on fences shows that they view themselves as entrepreneurs, relying on networking with and patronage by prominent criminals to become successful in their word-of-mouth-based "wheeling and dealing".
They occupy the middle ground between the legitimate world. Some active fences go farther in their business, maintaining longstanding contacts and teaching thieves how to practice their craft, whether by identifying specific products or by teaching them tools of the trade. There are a number of different types of fences. One way of categorizing fences is by the type of good in which they trade, such as jewels, power tools, or electronics. Another way of categorizing fences is by their level of involvement in buying and selling stolen goods. At the lowest level, a hustler or drug dealer may accept stolen goods. At the highest level would be a fence whose main criminal income comes from buying and selling stolen items. At the broadest level, two tiers of fences can be distinguished; the lower level of fences are those who directly buy stolen goods from burglars. At a higher level are the "m
In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law, a criminal law, or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong; the purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, such as obtaining a passport or travel document, driver's license. Examples include mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort. While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim.
Proving fraud in a court of law is said to be difficult. That difficulty is found, for instance, in that each and every one of the elements of fraud must be proven, that the elements include proving the states of mind of the perpetrator and the victim, that some jurisdictions require the victim to prove fraud by clear and convincing evidence; the remedies for fraud may include rescission of a fraudulently obtained agreement or transaction, the recovery of a monetary award to compensate for the harm caused, punitive damages to punish or deter the misconduct, others. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction. In common law jurisdictions, as a criminal offence, fraud takes many different forms, some general and some specific to particular categories of victims or misconduct; the elements of fraud as a crime vary.
The requisite elements of the most general form of criminal fraud, theft by false pretense, are the intentional deception of a victim by false representation or pretense with the intent of persuading the victim to part with property and with the victim parting with property in reliance on the representation or pretense and with the perpetrator intending to keep the property from the victim. Section 380 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for fraud in Canada: 380; every one who, by deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means, whether or not it is a false pretence within the meaning of this Act, defrauds the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, of any property, money or valuable security or any service, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years, where the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or the value of the subject-matter of the offence exceeds five thousand dollars. In addition to the penalties outlined above, the court can issue a prohibition order under s. 380.2.
It can make a restitution order under s. 380.3. The Canadian courts have held that the offence consists of two distinct elements: A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. In the absence of deceit or falsehood, the courts will look objectively for a "dishonest act"; the Supreme Court of Canada has held that deprivation is satisfied on proof of detriment, prejudice or risk of prejudice. Deprivation of confidential information, in the nature of a trade secret or copyrighted material that has commercial value, has been held to fall within the scope of the offence; the proof requirements for criminal fraud charges in the United States are the same as the requirements for other crimes: guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Throughout the United States fraud charges can be misdemeanors or felonies depending on the amount of loss involved. High value frauds can include additional penalties. For example, in California losses of $500,000 or more will result in an extra two, three, or five years in prison in addition to the regular penalty for the fraud.
The U. S. government's 2006 fraud review concluded that fraud is a under-reported crime, while various agencies and organizations were attempting to tackle the issue, greater co-operation was needed to achieve a real impact in the public sector. The scale of the problem pointed to the need for a small but high-powered body to bring together the numerous counter-fraud initiatives that existed. Although elements may vary by jurisdiction and the specific allegations made by a plaintiff who files a lawsuit that alleged fraud, typical elements of a fraud case in the United States are that: Somebody misrepresents a material fact in order to obtain action or forbearance by another person.
Contraband (American Civil War)
Contraband was a term used in the United States military during the American Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces. In August 1861, the Union Army determined that the US would no longer return escaped slaves who went to Union lines and classified them as "contraband of war", or captured enemy property, they soon began to pay them wages. The former slaves set up camps near Union forces, the Army helped support and educate both adults and children among the refugees. Thousands of men from these camps enlisted in the United States Colored Troops when recruitment started in 1863. At war's end, more than 100 contraband camps existed in the South, including the Freedmen's Colony of Roanoke Island, where 3500 former slaves worked to develop a self-sufficient community; the status of southern-owned slaves after Confederate states had engaged in the American Civil War became an issue early in 1861, not long after hostilities began. At Fort Monroe in Virginia's Hampton Roads, Major General Benjamin Butler, learned that three slaves had made their way across Hampton Roads harbor from Confederate-occupied Norfolk County, presented themselves at Union-held Fort Monroe.
General Butler refused to return the escaped slaves to slaveholders. This amounted to classifying them as "contraband," although the first use of that terminology in military records appears to have been by another officer.. The three slaves, Frank Baker, James Townsend and Sheppard Mallory, had been leased by their masters to the Confederate Army to help construct defense batteries at Sewell's Point, across the mouth of Hampton Roads from the Union-held Fort Monroe, they escaped at night and rowed a skiff to Old Point Comfort, where they sought asylum at Fort Monroe. Prior to the War, the owners of the slaves would have been entitled to request their return and would have done so under the federal 1850 Fugitive Slave Act. But, Virginia had declared. General Butler, educated as an attorney, took the position that, if Virginia considered itself a foreign power to the U. S. he was under no obligation to return the three men. When Confederate Major John B. Cary requested their return, Butler refused the request.
Because the practice recognized the seceded states as foreign entities, President Abraham Lincoln disapproved of it. Gen. Butler did not pay the escaped slaves wages for work that they began to undertake, he continued to refer to them as slaves. On September 25, 1861, the Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles issued a directive to give "persons of color known as contrabands", in the employment of the Union Navy pay at the rate of $10 per month and a full day's ration. Three weeks the Union Army followed suit, paying male "contrabands" at Fort Monroe $8 a month and females $4, specific to that command. In August, the US Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1861, which declared that any property used by the Confederate military, including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces; the next March, its Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves forbade returning slaves to Confederate masters or the military. The word spread among southeastern Virginia's slave communities. While becoming a "contraband" did not mean full freedom, many slaves considered it a step in that direction.
The day after Butler's decision, many more escaped slaves found their way to Fort Monroe and appealed to become contraband. As the number of former slaves grew too large to be housed inside the Fort, the contrabands erected housing outside the crowded base from the burned ruins of the City of Hampton, they called their new settlement Grand Contraband Camp. By the end of the war in April 1865, less than four years an estimated 10,000 escaped slaves had applied to gain "contraband" status, with many living nearby. Across the South, Union forces managed more than 100 contraband camps, although not all were as large. From a camp on Roanoke Island that started in 1862, Horace James developed the Freedmen's Colony of Roanoke Island. Appointed by the Union Army, James was a Congregational chaplain who, with the freedmen, tried to create a self-sustaining colony at the island. Near Fort Monroe, but outside its protective walls, the pioneering teacher Mary S. Peake began to teach both adult and child contrabands to read and write.
She was the first black teacher hired by the American Missionary Association, which sent numerous Northern white teachers to the South to teach. This area of Elizabeth City County became part of the campus of Hampton University, a black college. Defying a Virginia law against educating slaves and other teachers held classes outdoors under a certain large oak tree. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was read to the contrabands and free blacks there, for which the tree was named the Emancipation Oak. For most of the contrabands, full emancipation did not take place until the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishing slavery was ratified in late 1865. General Butler's written statements and communications with the War Department requesting guidance on the issue of fugitive slaves did not use the term "contraband." As late as August 9, 1861, he used the term "slaves" for fugitives. On August 10, 1861, Acting Master William Budd of the gunboat USS Resolute first used the term in an official US military record.
As early as 1812, the term, "contraband" was used in general language t
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Benjamin Franklin Butler was a major general of the Union Army, politician and businessman from Massachusetts. Born in New Hampshire and raised in Lowell, Butler is best known as a political major general of the Union Army during the American Civil War, for his leadership role in the impeachment of U. S. President Andrew Johnson, he was a colorful and controversial figure on the national stage and in the Massachusetts political scene, during his one term as Governor. Butler, a successful trial lawyer, served in the Massachusetts legislature as an antiwar Democrat and as an officer in the state militia. Early in the Civil War he joined the Union Army, where he was noted for his lack of military skill, his controversial command of New Orleans, which brought him wide dislike in the South and the "Beast" epithet, he helped create the legal idea of freeing fugitive slaves by designating them as contraband of war in service of military objectives, which led to a political groundswell in the North which included general emancipation and the end of slavery as official war goals.
His commands were marred by financial and logistical dealings across enemy lines, some of which took place with his knowledge and to his financial benefit. Butler was dismissed from the Union Army after his failures in the First Battle of Fort Fisher, but soon won election to the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts; as a Radical Republican he opposed President Johnson's Reconstruction agenda, was the House's lead manager in the Johnson impeachment proceedings. As Chairman of the House Committee on Reconstruction, Butler authored the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 and coauthored the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1875. In Massachusetts, Butler was at odds with more conservative members of the political establishment over matters of both style and substance. Feuds with Republican politicians led to his being denied several nominations for the governorship between 1858 and 1880. Returning to the Democratic fold, he won the governship in the 1882 election with Democratic and Greenback Party support.
He ran for President on the Greenback ticket in 1884. Benjamin Franklin Butler was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, the sixth and youngest child of John Butler and Charlotte Ellison Butler, his father served under General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and became a privateer, dying of yellow fever in the West Indies not long after Benjamin was born. He was named after Founding Father Benjamin Franklin, his elder brother, Andrew Jackson Butler, would serve as a colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War and joined him in New Orleans. Butler's mother was a devout Baptist who encouraged him to read the Bible and prepare for the ministry. In 1827, at the age of nine, Butler was awarded a scholarship to Phillips Exeter Academy, where he spent one term, he was described by a schoolmate as "a reckless, headstrong, boy", got into fights. Butler's mother moved the family in 1828 to Lowell, where she operated a boarding house for workers at the textile mills, he attended the public schools there, from which he was expelled for fighting, the principal describing him as a boy who "might be led, but could not be driven."
He attended Waterville College in pursuit of his mother's wish that he prepare for the ministry, but rebelled against the idea. In 1836, Butler sought permission to go instead to West Point for a military education, but did not receive one of the few places available, he continued his studies at Waterville, where he sharpened his rhetorical skills in theological discussions, began to adopt Democratic political views. He graduated in August 1838. Butler returned to Lowell, where he read law as an apprentice with a local lawyer, he was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1840, opened a practice in Lowell. After an extended courtship, Butler married Sarah Hildreth, a stage actress and daughter of Dr. Israel Hildreth of Lowell, on May 16, 1844, they had four children: Paul, Blanche and Ben-Israel. Butler's business partners included Sarah's brother Fisher, her brother-in-law, W. P. Webster. Butler gained a reputation as a dogged criminal defense lawyer who seized on every misstep of his opposition to gain victories for his clients, became a specialist in bankruptcy law.
His trial work was so successful that it received regular press coverage, he was able to expand his practice into Boston. Butler's success as a lawyer enabled him to purchase shares in Lowell's Middlesex Mill Company when they were cheap. Although he represented workers in legal actions, he sometimes represented mill owners; this adoption of both sides of an issue manifested. He first attracted general attention by advocating the passage of a law establishing a ten-hour day for laborers, but he opposed labor strikes over the matter, he instituted a ten-hour work day at the Middlesex Mills. During the debates over the ten-hour day a Whig-supporting Lowell newspaper published a verse suggesting that Butler's father had been hanged for piracy. Butler sued the paper's editor and publisher for that and other allegations, printed about himself; the editor was convicted and fined $50. Butler blamed the Whig judge, Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, for the acquittal, inaugurating a feud between the two that would last for decades and color Butler's reputation in the state.
Butler, as a Democrat, supported the Compromise of 1850 and spoke out against the abolition of slavery. However, at the
Hampton is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 137,436; as one of the seven major cities that compose the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is on the southeastern side of the Virginia Peninsula. Hampton traces its history to the city's Old Point Comfort, the home of Fort Monroe for 400 years, named by the 1607 voyagers, led by Captain Christopher Newport, who first established Jamestown as an English colonial settlement. Since consolidation in 1952, Hampton has included the former Elizabeth City County and the incorporated town of Phoebus, consolidated by a mutual agreement. After the end of the American Civil War, historic Hampton University was established opposite from the town on the Hampton River, providing an education for many newly-freed former slaves and for area Native Americans. In the 20th century, the area became the location of Langley Air Force Base, NASA Langley Research Center, the Virginia Air and Space Center.
Hampton features many miles of waterfront and beaches. For residents and visitors alike, the city features a wide array of business and industrial enterprises and residential areas, historical sites. Most the new Peninsula Town Center development opened in May 2010 on the site of the former Coliseum Mall. Located in the area adjacent to the Hampton Coliseum and the Convention Center, the new urbanism-type project features a wide mix of retail stores and other attractions. Development of new residential development and additional public facilities are underway at Buckroe Beach, long a noted resort area. Located on the Hampton Roads Beltway, it hosts the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel on Interstate 64. First opened in 1957, it was the world's first bridge-tunnel, crossing the mouth of the Hampton Roads harbor, which serves as the gateway to the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean from the eastern United States' largest ice-free harbor and its tributary rivers. Expanded in the 1970s, the HRBT remains deepest such facility.
In December 1606, three ships carrying men and boys left England on a mission sponsored by a proprietary company. Lead by Captain Christopher Newport, they sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to North America. After a long voyage, they first landed at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay on the south shore at a place they named Cape Henry. During the first few days of exploration, they identified the site of Old Point Comfort as a strategic defensive location at the entrance to the body of water that became known as Hampton Roads; this is formed by the confluence of the Elizabeth and James rivers. The latter is the longest river in Virginia. Weeks on May 14, 1607, they established the first permanent English settlement in the present-day United States about 25 miles further inland from the Bay which became the site of fortifications during the following 200 years. South, near the entrance to Hampton River, the colonists seized the Native American community of Kecoughtan under Virginia's Governor, Sir Thomas Gates.
The colonists established their own small town, with a small Anglican church, on July 9, 1610. This came to be known as part of Hampton.. Hampton was named for Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, an important leader of the Virginia Company of London, for whom the Hampton River, Hampton Roads and Southampton County were named; the area became part of Elizabeth Cittie in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. By 1680, the settlement was known as Hampton, it was incorporated as a town in 1705 and became the seat of Elizabeth City County. In the latter part of August 1619, an English ship flying a Dutch flag, the White Lion, appeared off shore from Point Comfort, its cargo included 20 plus Africans captured from the slave ship Sao Joao Bautista. These were the first Africans to come ashore on English-occupied land in what would become the United States. John Rolfe, the widower of Pocahontas, wrote in a letter that he was at Point Comfort and witnessed the arrival of the first Africans.
Although these first Bantu men from Angola were considered indentured servants, their arrival marked the beginning of slavery in North America. Two of the first Africans to arrive at Old Point Comfort in 1619 were Isabella, their child, the first of African descent born in North America, was born baptized January 1624. Shortly after the War of 1812, the US Army built a more substantial stone facility at Old Point Comfort, it was called Fort Monroe in honor of President James Monroe. The new installation and adjacent Fort Calhoun were completed in 1834. Fort Monroe and the surrounding area played several important roles during the American Civil War. Although most of Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands, it became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies and the Emancipation Proclamation. After the War, former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis was imprisoned in the area now known as the Casemate Museum on the base.
To the south of Fort Monroe, the Town of Hampton had the misfortune to be burned during both the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War. From the ruins of Hampton left by evacuating Confederate
The Axis powers known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not coordinate their activity; the Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Benito Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis"; the simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan. Italy joined the Pact in 1937; the "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the so-called "Pact of Steel", with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany and Japan. At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of Europe, North Africa, East Asia.
There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, with more between Germany and Italy. The war ended in 1945 with the dissolution of their alliance; as in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, with some nations switching sides or changing their degree of military involvement over the course of the war. The term "axis" was first applied to the Italo-German relationship by the Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini in September 1923, when he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's Germania Repubblica that "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin". At the time, he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume; the term was used by Hungary's prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany and Italy in the early 1930s. Gömbös' efforts did affect the Italo-Hungarian Rome Protocols, but his sudden death in 1936 while negotiating with Germany in Munich and the arrival of Kálmán Darányi, his successor, ended Hungary's involvement in pursuing a trilateral axis.
Contentious negotiations between the Italian foreign minister, Galeazzo Ciano, the German ambassador, Ulrich von Hassell, resulted in a Nineteen-Point Protocol, signed by Ciano and his German counterpart, Konstantin von Neurath, in 1936. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued a strategic alliance of Italy with Germany against France since the early 1920s. Prior to becoming head of government in Italy as leader of the Italian Fascist movement, Mussolini had advocated alliance with defeated Germany after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 settled World War I, he believed. In early 1923, as a goodwill gesture to Germany, Italy secretly delivered weapons for the German Army, which had faced major disarmament under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1923, Mussolini offered German Chancellor Gustav Stresemann a "common policy": he sought German military support against potential French military intervention over Italy's diplomatic dispute with Yugoslavia over Fiume, should an Italian seizure of Fiume result in war between Italy and Yugoslavia.
The German ambassador to Italy in 1924 reported that Mussolini saw a nationalist Germany as an essential ally for Italy against France, hoped to tap into the desire within the German army and the German political right for a war of revenge against France. During the Weimar Republic, the German government did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. General Hans von Seeckt supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland between them and restore the German-Russian border of 1914. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy; the Reichswehr Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, remilitarization of the Rhineland.
Since the 1920s Italy had identified the year 1935 as a crucial date for preparing for a war against France, as 1935 was the year when Germany's obligations under the Treaty of Versailles were scheduled to expire. Meetings took place in Berlin in 1924 between Italian General Luigi Capello and prominent figures in the German military, such as von Seeckt and Erich Ludendorff, over military collaboration between Germany and Italy; the discussions concluded that Germans still wanted a war of revenge against France but were short on weapons and hoped that Italy could assist Germany. However at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany: that Italy "must... tow them, not be towed by them". Italian foreign minister Dino Grandi in the early 1930s stressed the importance of "decisive weight", involving Italy's relations between France and Germany, in which he recognized that Italy was not yet a major power, but perceived that Italy did have