A lawyer is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, counselor or solicitor or chartered legal executive. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, in practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the lawyer may vary from place to place. In Australia, the lawyer is used to refer to both barristers and solicitors. In Canada, the word lawyer refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called barristers and solicitors, however, in Quebec, civil law advocates often call themselves attorney and sometimes barrister and solicitor in English. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the activities that may only be performed by a person who is entitled to do so pursuant to the Act. Lawyer is not a protected title, in India, the term lawyer is often colloquially used, but the official term is advocate as prescribed under the Advocates Act,1961.
In Scotland, the word refers to a more specific group of legally trained people. It specifically includes advocates and solicitors, in a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals, in fact, there are regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have terms for the analogous concept. In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners. Several countries that originally had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, in countries with fused professions, a lawyer is usually permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a clients case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the province of the barrister in England.
However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved, in England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts
Go Down Moses
Go Down Moses is an American Negro spiritual. The opening verse as published by the Jubilee Singers in 1872, In the song Israel represents the African-American slaves while Egypt, going down to Egypt is derived from the Biblical origin, Moses was up on the mountain of God when God commanded him to go to Egypt. Although usually thought of as a spiritual, the earliest recorded use of the song was as an anthem for the Contrabands at Fort Monroe sometime before July 1862. Early authorities presumed it was composed by them, sheet music was soon after published, titled Oh. Let My People Go, The Song of the Contrabands, chaplain of the Contrabands, stated in the sheet music the song was from Virginia, dating from about 1853. Tubman began her underground railroad work in 1850 and continued until the beginning of the Civil War, jess Lee Brooks sings it in Preston Sturges film Sullivans Travels. Gregory Miller sang the song in the film Blackboard Jungle, a reference is made to the song in the film Ferris Buellers Day Off, when a bedridden Cameron Frye sings, When Cameron was in Egypts land, let my Cameron go.
Sergei Bodrov Jr. and Oleg Menshikov, who play the two characters in Sergei Bodrovs film Кавказский пленник dance to the Louis Armstrong version. The teen comedy film Easy A remixed this song with a fast guitar, the song was originally published as Original Soundtrack and is listed in IMDb. William Faulkner titled his short story collection/novel Go Down, Moses after the song. The song was famous by Paul Robeson whose voice and resonant as it was, was said by Robert OMeally to have assumed the might. On February 7,1958, the song was recorded in New York City and it was recorded by Doris Akers and the Sky Pilot Choir. The song has become a jazz standard, having been recorded by Grant Green, Fats Waller, Archie Shepp, Hampton Hawes. It is one of the five included in the oratorio A Child of Our Time, first performed in 1944. A Hebrew translation of the song is an element in the Passover seder in Israel. The song was recorded by Deep River Boys in Oslo on September 26,1960 and it was released on the extended play Negro Spirituals No.3.
The song heavily influences Get Down Moses, by Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros on their album Streetcore, in an ironic move, the song has been performed by the Russian Interior Ministry Choir. Jazz singer Tony Vittia released a version under the name Own The Night. The phrase Go Down Moses is featured in the chorus of the John Craigie song, the phrase Go Down Moses is sung by Pops Staples in the song The Weight in the The Last Waltz film by The Band
The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1,1863. It purported to change the legal status of more than 3 million enslaved people in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. It had the effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops. Eventually it reached and liberated all of the designated slaves and it was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in ten states, because it was issued under the Presidents authority to suppress rebellion, it necessarily excluded areas not in rebellion – it applied to more than 3 million of the 4 million slaves at the time. The Proclamation was based on the constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces.
The Proclamation was issued in January 1863 after U, the Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, and did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves. It made the eradication of slavery a war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union. Around 20,000 to 50,000 slaves in regions where rebellion had already been subdued were immediately emancipated. Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, specifically excluded were some regions already controlled by the Union army. On September 22,1862, Lincoln issued a warning that he would order the emancipation of all slaves in any state that did not end its rebellion against the Union by January 1,1863. None of the Confederate states restored themselves to the Union, and Lincolns order was signed, the Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners who envisioned a race war. It angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, and undermined elements in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy, the Proclamation lifted the spirits of African Americans both free and slave.
It led many slaves to escape from their masters and get to Union lines to obtain their freedom, the Emancipation Proclamation broadened the goals of the Civil War. While slavery had been an issue that led to the war. The Proclamation made freeing the slaves an explicit goal of the Union war effort, establishing the abolition of slavery as one of the two primary war goals served to deter intervention by Britain and France. The Emancipation Proclamation was never challenged in court, to ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U. S. Lincoln pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment. Congress passed it by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31,1865, the United States Constitution of 1787 did not use the word slavery but included several provisions about unfree persons
Benjamin Franklin Butler was an American lawyer, politician and businessman from Massachusetts. He was a colorful and often controversial figure on the stage and in the Massachusetts political scene. Butler, a trial lawyer, served in the Massachusetts legislature as an antiwar Democrat. His commands were marred by financial and logistical dealings across enemy lines, some of which took place with his knowledge. Butler was dismissed from the Union Army after his failures in the First Battle of Fort Fisher, as a Radical Republican he opposed President Johnsons Reconstruction agenda, and was the Houses lead manager in the Johnson impeachment proceedings. As Chairman of the House Committee on Reconstruction, Butler authored the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, in Massachusetts, Butler was often at odds with more conservative members of the political establishment over matters of both style and substance. Feuds with Republican politicians led to his being denied several nominations for the governorship between 1858 and 1880, returning to the Democratic fold, he won the governship in the 1882 election with Democratic and Greenback Party support.
He ran for President on the Greenback ticket in 1884, Benjamin Franklin Butler was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, the sixth and youngest child of John Butler and Charlotte Ellison Butler. He was named after Founding Father Benjamin Franklin and his elder brother, Andrew Jackson Butler, would serve as a colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War and joined him in New Orleans. Butlers mother was a devout Baptist who encouraged him to read the Bible, in 1827, at the age of nine, Butler was awarded a scholarship to Phillips Exeter Academy, where he spent one term. He was described by a schoolmate as a reckless, headstrong, Butlers mother moved the family in 1828 to Lowell, where she operated a boarding house for workers at the textile mills. He attended the schools there, from which he was almost expelled for fighting, the principal describing him as a boy who might be led. He attended Waterville College in pursuit of his mothers wish that he prepare for the ministry, in 1836, Butler sought permission to go instead to West Point for a military education, but did not receive one of the few places available.
He continued his studies at Waterville, where he sharpened his skills in theological discussions. Butler returned to Lowell, where he clerked and read law as an apprentice with a local lawyer and he was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1840, and opened a practice in Lowell. After an extended courtship, Butler married Sarah Hildreth, an actress and daughter of Dr. Israel Hildreth of Lowell. They had four children, Blanche and Ben-Israel, Butlers business partners included Sarahs brother Fisher, and her brother-in-law, W. P. Webster. Butler quickly gained a reputation as a criminal defense lawyer who seized on every misstep of his opposition to gain victories for his clients
The term skiff is used for a number of essentially unrelated styles of small boat. Traditionally these are coastal or river craft used for leisure or fishing and have a one-person or small crew, sailing skiffs have developed into high performance competitive classes. Ship comes from the Old English scip, which has the same Germanic predecessor, an even older root may be found in the Greek σκάφος. The term has been used for a number of styles of craft round the United Kingdom, often small river and they varied from double ended rowing boats to small sailing boats. There are references to skiffs on the River Thames as early as 1812 and 1824 at Oxford. In August 1815, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was taken on an expedition by skiff from Old Windsor to Lechlade by Charles Clairmont and he subsequently settled at Marlow where he regularly rowed his skiff through the locks. Shelley drowned sailing in a skiff off the coast of Italy and it was used in the Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott. The Thames skiff became formalised as a design in the early part of the 19th century.
It is a round-bottom clinker-built rowing boat that is very common on the River Thames. Although general usage has declined, skiffs are still used for leisure, during the year, skiffing regattas are held in various riverside towns in England—the major event being the Skiff Championships Regatta at Henley. Akin to the skiff is the Yoal or Yole which is a clinker built boat used for fishing in the Orkney, the boat itself is a version of the Norwegian Oselvar which is similar to a skiff in appearance, while the word is cognate with Yawl. The French Yole is a craft similar to the Thames Skiff and is translated as Skiff. In Dutch and German, Skiff means a single scull, in American usage, the term is used to apply to small sea-going fishing boats. It is referred to historically in literature in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville and The Old Man, the skiff could be powered by sails as well as oars. Originally designed to be powered by rowing, their form has evolved so that they are powered by outboard motors.
The design is still in use today for both work and pleasure craft. They can be made of wood or other materials, There is a similar style of craft in Central America and Mexico, generally called a panga. The term skiff has been applied to motorized boats of small size, the skiff with a sail has developed into specific sailing boats bearing the name skiff. In Sydney, the term was used for a number of racing classes and these were originally heavily crewed and canvassed boats that were relatively short for the canvas and crew carried and were developed from working boats of the time
Union (American Civil War)
The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket.
The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government.
The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force
A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against his or her will. Scholars use the generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour. However – and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word – slaves may have some rights and/or protections, Slavery began to exist before written history, in many cultures. A person could become a slave from the time of their birth, while slavery was institutionally recognized by most societies, it has now been outlawed in all recognized countries, the last being Mauritania in 2007. Nevertheless, there are still more slaves today than at any point in history. The most common form of the trade is now commonly referred to as human trafficking. Chattel slavery is still practiced by the Islamic State of Iraq.
An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo to strip a slain enemy, there is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than slave, should be used when describing the victims of slavery. Chattel slavery, called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought, although it dominated many societies in the past, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is very rare today. Even when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the system of any internationally recognized government. Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage is a form of labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents debt. It is the most widespread form of slavery today, debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia.
This may include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, Human trafficking primarily involves women and children forced into prostitution. And is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India, Brazil, in 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. A forced marriage may be regarded as a form of slavery by one or more of the involved in the marriage
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
United States Colored Troops
The United States Colored Troops were regiments in the United States Army composed primarily of African-American soldiers. Other people of color who were not of African descent, such as Native Americans Pacific Islanders, the USCT was the precursor to the Buffalo Soldier regiments in the American Old West. The U. S. Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1862 in July 1862 and it freed slaves whose owners were in rebellion against the United States, and Militia Act of 1862 empowered the President to use freed slaves in any capacity in the army. Lincoln opposed early efforts to recruit soldiers, although he accepted the Armys using them as paid workers. Native American played a significant role in the regiments of the American Civil War. In September 1862, Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, announcing that all slaves in rebellious states would be free as of January 1, recruitment of colored regiments began in full force following the Proclamation in January 1863. Regiments, including infantry, engineers, light artillery, approximately 175 regiments comprising more than 178,000 free blacks and freedmen served during the last two years of the war.
Their service bolstered the Union war effort at a critical time, by wars end, the men of the USCT made up nearly one-tenth of all Union troops. The USCT suffered 2,751 combat casualties during the war, disease caused the most fatalities for all troops, both black and white. USCT regiments were led by officers, while rank advancement was limited for black soldiers. The Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments in Philadelphia opened the Free Military Academy for Applicants for the Command of Colored Troops at the end of 1863. For a time, black soldiers received less pay than their white counterparts, notable members of USCT regiments included Martin Robinson Delany and the sons of Frederick Douglass. The courage displayed by colored troops during the Civil War played an important role in African Americans gaining new rights, before the USCT was formed, several volunteer regiments were raised from free black men, including freedmen in the South. In 1863 a former slave, William Henry Singleton, helped recruit 1,000 blacks from escaped slaves in New Bern and he became a sergeant in the 35th USCT.
Freedmen from the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, established in 1863 on the island, formed part of the Free North Carolina Colored Volunteers, nearly all of the volunteer regiments were converted into USCT units. In 1922 Singleton published his memoir of his journey from slavery to freedom, glad to participate in reunions, years at the age of 95, he marched in a Grand Army of the Republic event in 1938. Four regiments were considered Regular units, rather than auxiliaries and their veteran status allowed them to get valuable federal government jobs after the war, from which African Americans had usually been excluded in earlier years. But, the men received no recognition for combat honors
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Fort Monroe is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia—at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula. Surrounded by a moat, the star fort is the largest stone fort ever built in the United States. During the initial exploration by the mission headed by Captain Christopher Newport in the earliest days of the Colony of Virginia, beginning by 1609, defensive fortifications were built at Old Point Comfort during Virginias first two centuries. The first was a wooden stockade named Fort Algernourne, the much more substantial facility of stone to become known as Fort Monroe were completed in 1834. The principal facility was named in honor of U. S. President James Monroe, throughout the American Civil War, although most of Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands. It became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies, for two years thereafter, the former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, was imprisoned at the fort.
His first months of confinement were spent in a cell of the fort walls that is now part of its Casemate Museum. In the 20th century, it housed the Coast Artillery School and the United States Army Training, Fort Monroe was decommissioned on September 15,2011, and many of its functions were transferred to nearby Fort Eustis. Several re-use plans for Fort Monroe are under development in the Hampton community, on November 1,2011, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation to designate portions of Fort Monroe as a National Monument. This was the first time that President Obama exercised his authority under the Antiquities Act and it has a 332-slip marina and shallow water inlet access to Mill Creek, suitable for small watercraft. The land area where Fort Monroe is became part of Elizabeth Cittie in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, on their initial exploration, they recognized the strategic importance of the site at Old Point Comfort for purposes of coastal defense. They initially built Fort Algernourne at the location of the present Fort Monroe and it is assumed to have been a triangular stockade, based on the fort at Jamestown.
Other small forts known as Fort Henry and Fort Charles were built nearby in 1610, in the latter part of August 1619, a Dutch ship, the White Lion, appeared off the coast of Old Point Comfort. Its cargo included more than 30 Africans captured from the slave ship Sao Joao Bautista, traded for work and supplies from the English, they were the first Africans to come ashore on British-occupied land in what would become the United States. Although the Bantu Africans from Angola were considered indentured servants, their arrival is considered to mark the beginning of slavery in America, another fort, known only as the fort at Old Point Comfort was constructed in 1632. In 1728, Fort George was built on the site and its masonry walls were destroyed by a hurricane in 1749, but the wood buildings in the fort were used by a reduced force until at least 1775. In 1781, during the Siege of Yorktown, the French West Indian fleet established a battery on the ruins of Fort George, throughout the Colonial period, fortifications were manned at the location from time to time.
Following the War of 1812, the United States realized the need to protect Hampton Roads, in March 1819, President James Monroe came up with a plan of building a network of coastal defenses