A sackbut is a type of trombone from the Renaissance and Baroque eras, characterised by a telescopic slide, used to vary the length of the tube to change pitch. Unlike the earlier slide trumpet from which it evolved, the sackbut possesses a U-shaped slide, with two parallel sliding tubes, which allows for playing scales in a lower range. Records of the term "trombone" predates the term "sackbut" by two decades, evidence for the German term "Posaune" is older. "Sackbut" a French term, was used in England until the instrument fell into disuse in the eighteenth century. In modern English, an older trombone or its replica is called a sackbut. An older instrument differs from modern trombones by its smaller, more cylindrically-proportioned bore, its less-flared bell; the bell section was more resonant. These traits produce a "covered, blended sound, a timbre effective for working with voices... zincks and crumhorns", as in an alta capella. The revived instrument had changed in specific ways. In the mid-18th century, the bell flare increased, crooks fell out of use, flat, removable stays were replaced by tubular braces.
The new shape produced a stronger sound, suitable to open-air performance in the marching bands where trombones became popular again in the 19th century. Before the early 19th century, most trombones adjusted tuning with a crook on the joint between the bell and slide or, more between the mouthpiece and the slide, rather than the modern tuning slide on the bell curve, whose cylindrical sections prevent the instrument from flaring smoothly through this section. Older trombones generally don't have water keys, stockings, a leadpipe, or a slide lock, but as these parts are not critical to sound, replicas may include them. Bore size remained variable; the first reference to a slide instrument was trompette des ménestrels, first found in Burgundy in the 1420s and in other regions of Europe. The name distinguished the instrument from the trompettes de guerre; the next word to appear in the 15th century that implied a slide was the sackbut group of words. There are two theories for the sources: it is either derived from the Middle French sacquer and bouter or from the Spanish sacar and bucha.
The term survives in numerous English spelling variations including sacbut, sagbut, sacabushe and shakbusshe. Related to sackbut was the name used in France: sacqueboute and in Spain, where it was sacabuche; these terms were used in France until the 18th century. In Scotland in 1538 the slide instrument is referred to as draucht trumpet as opposed to a weir trumpet, which had a fixed length. In Germany, the original word was Posaune, is still used today; this derives from busine, Latinate and meant straight trumpet. In Italy it was trombone, which derived from trumpet in the Latin tromba or drompten, used in the Low Countries; the first records of it being used are around 1440, but it is not clear whether this was just a nickname for a trumpet player. In 1487 a writer links the words trompone and sacqueboute and mentions the instrument as playing the contratenor part in a danceband; the trombone developed from the trumpet. Up until 1375 trumpets were a long straight tube with a bell flare. There are various uses of sackbut-like words in the Bible, which has led to a faulty translation from the Latin bible that suggested the trombones date back as far as 600 BC, but there is no evidence of slides at this time.
From 1375 the iconography sees trumpets being made with bends, some in'S' shapes. Around 1400 we see the "loop"-shaped trumpet appear in paintings and at some point in the 15th century, a single slide was added; this slide trumpet was known as a "trompette des ménestrels" in the alta capella bands. The earliest clear evidence of a double slide instrument is in a fresco painting by Filippino Lippi in Rome, The Assumption of the Virgin, dating from 1488–93. From the 15th to the 19th centuries, the instrument designs changed little overall, apart from a slight widening of the bell in classical era. Since the 19th century, trombone bore bells have increased significantly, it was one of the most important instruments in Baroque polychoral works, along with the cornett and organ. Sackbuts come in several sizes. According to Michael Praetorius, these were: The pitch of the trombones has moved up a semi-tone since the 17th century, this is explained in the section on pitch; because the tenor instrument is described as "Gemeine", this is the most used trombone.
The basses, due to their longer slides, have a hinged handle on the slide stay, used to reach the long positions. The giant Octav-Posaun / double bass trombone / contra-bass trombone in the style of those made in 16th/17th centuries is represented by only a few existing instruments. There is an original instrument made by Georg Nicolaus Öller built in Stockholm in 1639 and housed in the Scenkonstmuseet. In addition, Ewald Meinl has made a modern copy of this instrument, it is owned and played by Wim Becu; the bore size of renaissance/baroque trombones is 10 mm and the bell more than 10.5 cm in diameter. This compares with modern tenor trombones, which have bores 12.7 mm to 13.9 mm and bells 17.8 cm to 21.6 cm. Modern reproductions of sackbut
The octobass is an large and rare bowed string instrument, first built around 1850 in Paris by the French luthier Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume. It has three strings and is a larger version of the double bass; because of the extreme fingerboard length and string thickness, the musician plays it using a system of levers and pedals. It has never been used much by composers. In addition to the Paris instrument, octobasses exist in the collections of the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix and the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. In October 2016, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra was donated an octobass by the Quebec company Canimex and is now the only orchestra in the world to own one; this instrument was made by the luthier Jean-Jacques Pagès of Mirecourt, France in 2010. According to Berlioz, the three open strings were tuned C1, G1, C2; this tuning gave it a low range one octave below the cello and equal to the modern double bass with low C extension. However, at the time when the octobass was invented, the double bass lacked this extension and could descend only to E1 or G1.
The mechanism enabled each string to chromatically cover the range of a perfect fifth and gave the instrument a high range to G2. The instrument at the Musée de la Musique in Paris, which uses period-accurate gut strings, is tuned thus; the instrument at the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix, which uses modern wound metal strings, is tuned C0, G0, D1. This tuning gives it a low range two octaves below the cello and one octave below the modern double bass with low C extension. Berlioz noted this tuning in his orchestration treatise, but considered it erroneous; as on the Paris instrument, the mechanism allows each string to cover a perfect fifth, giving it a high range to A1. The fundamental frequencies of the lowest notes in this tuning lie below 20 Hz — the commonly-stated lower bound of human hearing range — but these notes are audible due to the overtones they produce; the Montreal Symphony Orchestra octobass uses gut strings, is tuned A0, E1, B1 and has a high range to F♯2. Triple contrabass viol – A similar, but more recent, instrument that has appeared on a recording by the American composer Roscoe Mitchell
The viol, viola da gamba, or gamba, is any one of a family of bowed and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets on the viol are made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone that better matches the open strings. Viols first appeared in Spain in the mid to late 15th century and were most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Early ancestors include the Arabic rebab and the medieval European vielle, but more direct possible ancestors include the Venetian viole and the 15th- and 16th-century Spanish vihuela, a 6-course plucked instrument tuned like a lute that looked like but was quite distinct from the 4-course guitar. Although bass viols superficially resemble cellos, viols are different in numerous respects from instruments of the violin family: the viol family has flat rather than curved backs, sloped rather than rounded shoulders, c holes rather than f holes, five to seven rather than four strings.
All members of the viol family are played upright. All viol instruments are held between the legs like a modern cello, hence the Italian name viola da gamba was sometimes applied to the instruments of this family; this distinguishes the viol from the viola da braccio. A player of the viol is known as a gambist, violist, or violist da gamba. "Violist" shares the spelling, but not the pronunciation, of the word used since the mid-20th century to refer to a player of the viola. It can therefore cause confusion if used in print where context does not indicate that a viol player is meant, though it is unproblematic, common, in speech. Vihuelists began playing their flat-edged instruments with a bow in the second half of the 15th century. Within two or three decades, this led to the evolution of an new and dedicated bowed string instrument that retained many of the features of the original plucked vihuela: a flat back, sharp waist-cuts, thin ribs, an identical tuning—hence its original name, vihuela de arco.
An influence in the playing posture has been credited to the example of Moorish rabab players. The viol is unrelated to the much older Hebrew stringed instrument called a nevel; this ancient harp-like instrument was similar to nabla. Stefano Pio argues that a re-examination of documents in the light of newly collected data indicates an origin different from the vihuela de arco from Aragon. According to Pio, the viol evolved independently in Venice. Pio asserts that it is implausible that the vihuela de arco underwent such a rapid evolution by Italian instrument makers – not Venetian, nor Mantuan or Ferrarese – so that a ten-year span brought the birth and diffusion in Italy of a new family of instruments; these comprised instruments of different size, some as large as the famous violoni as ‘big as a man’ mentioned by Prospero Bernardino in 1493. Pio notes that both in the manuscript of the early 15th-century music theorist Antonius de Leno and in the treatises of the Venetian Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego and Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, the fifth string of the viola da gamba is uniquely called a bordone, although it is not a drone and is played the same as the other strings.
Pio argues that this inconsistency is justifiable only assuming the invention, during the last part of the fifteenth century, of a larger instrument derived from the medieval violetta, to which were added other strings to allow a greater extension to the low register that resulted from its increased size. The fifth string present in some specimens of these violette as a drone, was incorporated into the neck when they were expanded in size; this was surpassed by a sixth string, named basso, which fixed the lower sound produced by the instrument. In Pio's view, the origin of the viola da gamba is tied to the evolution of the smaller the medieval violetta or vielle, fitted with a fifth string drone, where the name remained unchanged though it ceased to perform this function. Ian Woodfield, in his The Early History of the Viol, points to evidence that the viol does in fact start with the vihuela but that Italian makers of the instrument began to apply their own developed instrument-making traditions to the early version of the instrument when it was introduced into Italy.
The family of viole shared common characteristics but differed in the way they were played. The increase in the dimensions of the "viola" determined the birth of the viol and the definitive change in the manner the instrument was held, as musicians found it easier to play it vertically; the first consort of viols formed by four players was documented at the end of the fifteenth ce
The contrabass saxophone is the second-lowest-pitched extant member of the saxophone family proper. It is large and heavy, is pitched in the key of E♭, one octave below the baritone saxophone; the contrabass saxophone was part of the original saxophone family as conceived by Adolphe Sax, is included in his saxophone patent of 1846, as well as in Kastner's concurrently published Methode for saxophone. By 1849, Sax was displaying contrabass through sopranino saxophones at exhibitions. Patrick Gilmore's famous American band roster included a contrabass saxophone in 1892, at least a dozen of these instruments were built by the Evette-Schaeffer company for the US military bands in the early 20th century. Saxophone ensembles were popular at this time, the contrabass saxophone was an eye-catching novelty for the groups that were able to obtain one. By the onset of the Great Depression, the saxophone craze had ended, the contrabass rare disappeared from public view. In recent years, the contrabass saxophone has experienced a resurgence in interest.
Although still quite rare partly due to its great expense, three manufacturers now produce contrabass saxophones: Benedikt Eppelsheim of Munich, Germany Romeo Orsi Wind Instruments of Milan, J’Elle Stainer of São Paulo, Brazil. Due to its large body and wide bore, the sound of the contrabass saxophone has great acoustical presence and a rich tone, it can be smooth and mellow, or harsh and buzzy depending on the player, on the mouthpiece and reed combination used. Its middle and upper registers are warm and expressive; because its deepest tones vibrate so it can be difficult for listeners to perceive individual pitches at the bottom of its range. However, when these tones are reinforced by another instrument playing at the octave or fifteenth, they sound defined and have tremendous resonance and presence. In some contemporary jazz/classical ensembles the contrabass saxophone doubles the baritone saxophone either at the same pitch or an octave below, depending on the register of the music. While there are few orchestral works that call for the contrabass saxophone, the growing number of contrabass saxophonists has led to the creation of an increasing body of solo and chamber music literature.
It is effective as a foundation for large ensembles of saxophones. As an example, the eminent saxophonist Sigurd Raschèr played the instrument in his Raschèr Saxophone Ensemble, it is featured on most of the albums by the Nuclear Whales Saxophone Orchestra; the Scottish composer Alistair Hinton has included parts for soprano, alto and contrabass saxophones in his Concerto for 22 Instruments completed in 2005. In recent years, the rock group Violent Femmes have incorporated the contrabass saxophone into the band's live performances as well as their newest albums. Blaise Garza's contrabass saxophone doubles the bass guitar, is featured on their ninth studio album We Can Do Anything; the contrabass saxophone has most been used as a solo instrument by woodwind players in the genres of jazz and improvised music who are searching for an extreme or otherworldly tone. The difficulty of holding and controlling the instrument makes performing on the instrument a somewhat theatrical experience in and of itself.
On older instruments, playing is difficult too. Thanks to refinements in their acoustical designs and keywork, modern contrabass saxophones are no more difficult to play than most other saxophones. An increasing number of performers and recording artists are making use of the instrument, including Anthony Braxton, Paul Cohen, David Brutti, Jay C. Easton, Randy Emerick, Blaise Garza, Marcel W. Helland, Robert J. Verdi, Joseph Donald Baker, Thomas K. J. Mejer, Douglas Pipher, Scott Robinson, Klaas Hekman, Daniel Gordon, Daniel Kientzy, Todd A. White, it is used by saxophone ensembles including the Raschèr Saxophone Orchestra Lörrach, Saxophone Sinfonia, National Saxophone Choir of Great Britain, Northstar Saxophone Quartet, Koelner Saxophone Mafia, Toronto-based Allsax4tet and the Nuclear Whales Saxophone Orchestra. J’Elle Stainer Contrabass saxophone page from www.contrabass.com website Contrabass saxophone page from Jay C. Easton's web site https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwTorKNmED4 "Bahamut" by Hazmat Modine MP3 excerpt of "Polpis Dreaming" by Carson P. Cooman, op. 410 for contrabass saxophone and piano, performed by Jay C.
Easton Video of Marcel W. Helland playing a Contrabass Saxophone
Western concert flute
The Western concert flute is a transverse woodwind instrument made of metal or wood. It is the most common variant of the flute. A musician who plays the flute is called a flautist, flute player, or fluter; this type of flute is used in many ensembles, including concert bands, military bands, marching bands, flute ensembles, jazz bands and big bands. Other flutes in this family include the piccolo, alto flute, the bass flute. A large repertory of works has been composed for flute; the flute is one of the oldest and most used wind instruments. The precursors of the modern concert flute were keyless wooden transverse flutes similar to modern fifes; these were modified to include between one and eight keys for chromatic notes. "Six-finger" D is the most common pitch for keyless wooden transverse flutes, which continue to be used today in Irish traditional music and informed performances of early music, including Baroque. During the Baroque era the traditional transverse flute was redesigned and developed as the modern traverso.
Throughout the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries, transverse flutes were uncommon in Europe, with the recorder being more prominent. The transverse flute arrived in Europe from Asia via the Byzantine Empire, where it migrated to Germany and France; these flutes became known as "German flutes" to distinguish them from others, such as the recorder. The flute became used in court music, along with the viol, was used in secular music, although only in France and Germany, it would not spread to the rest of Europe for nearly a century. The first literary appearance of the transverse flute was made in 1285 by Adenet le Roi in a list of instruments he played. After this, a period of 70 years ensues. Beginning in the 1470s, a military revival in Europe led to a revival in the flute; the Swiss army used flutes for signalling, this helped the flute spread to all of Europe. In the late 16th century, flutes began to appear in court and theatre music, the first flute solos. Following the 16th-century court music, flutes began appearing in chamber ensembles.
These flutes were used as the tenor voice. However, flutes varied in size and range; this made transposition necessary, which led flautists to use Guidonian hexachords to transpose music more easily. During the 16th and early 17th centuries in Europe, the transverse flute was available in several sizes, in effect forming a consort in much the same way recorders and other instruments were used in consorts. At this stage, the transverse flute was made in one section and had a cylindrical bore; as a result, this flute had a rather soft sound and limited range and was used in compositions for the "soft consort". During the Baroque period, the transverse flute was redesigned. Now called the traverso, it was made in three or four sections or joints with a conical bore from the head joint down; the conical bore design gave the flute a wider range and more penetrating sound without sacrificing the softer, expressive qualities. In addition to chamber music, the traverso began to be used in orchestral music.
In the Baroque era, flutes become used in the scores of opera and chamber music. With this, composers wrote music for the flute; these included Praetorius, Schütz, Rebillé and Descoteaux, Bach, Blavet, Vivaldi and Frederick The Great. In 1707, Jacques Martin Hotteterre wrote the first method book on playing the flute: Principes de la flûte traversière; the 1730s brought an increase in chamber music feature of flutes. The end of this era found the publication of Essay of a Method of Playing the Transverse Flute by Quantz; the orchestras formed in the last half of the 18th century included flutes which were featured in symphonies and concertos. Throughout the rest of the century, the interest in flutes increased and peaked in the early half of the 19th century. Around this time Friedrich Dülon was one of the best-known flutists; the early 19th century saw a great variety of flute designs. Conical bores giving a penetrating sound were used in Vienna, English flutes had a range to low C and played best in flat keys, French flutes gave a softer tone, German flutes blended best with orchestras.
With the romantic era, flutes began to lose favor: Symphony orchestras rather featured brass and strings. In the nineteenth century Theobald Boehm began to make flutes. Keys were added to the flute, the taper was changed to strengthen its lower register. With the ability to record sound, flutes began to regain a popularity not seen since the classical era. Recordings of flute music became common, with professional flautists spending a great deal of time recording music; the 20th century brought the first recordings of Baroque music on modern flutes. The dimensions and key system of the modern western concert flute and its close relatives are completely the work of the great flautist, composer and silversmith Theobald Boehm, who patented his system in 1847. Minor additions to and variations on his key system are common, but the acoustical structure of the tube remains exactly as he designed it. Major innovations were the change to metal instead of wood, large straight tube bore, "parabolic" tapered headjoint bore large tone holes covered by keys, the linked key system, which simplified fingering somewhat.
The most substantial departures from Boehm's original description are the universal elimination of the "crutch" for the left hand and universal a
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument; the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications; the date and origin of the first device considered. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years; some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them.
Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, Europeans played instruments from North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, many systems of classification have been used over the years. Instruments can be classified by their material composition, their size, etc.. However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound; the academic study of musical instruments is called organology. A musical instrument makes sounds.
Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment; the concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such a shells and plant parts; as instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way—for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument. Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world.
Some finds are 67,000 years old, however their status as musical instruments is in dispute. Consensus solidifies about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Only artifacts made from durable materials or using durable methods tend to survive; as such, the specimens found. In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia; the carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with the Neanderthal culture. However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps; the flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, are more accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.
Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres, two harps, a silver double flute and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the predecessor of modern bagpipes; the cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes. These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, have been used to reconstruct them; the graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, representing some of the "earliest complete, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" found.
Scholars agree that there are no reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit drums involved f
The serpent is a bass wind instrument, descended from the cornett, a distant ancestor of the tuba, with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind. It is a long cone bent into a snakelike shape, hence the name; the serpent is related to the cornett, although it is not part of the cornett family, due to the absence of a thumb hole. It is made out of wood, with walnut being a popular choice; the outside is covered with black leather. Despite wooden construction and the fact that it has fingerholes rather than valves, it is classed as a brass; the serpent's range varies according to the instrument and the player, but covers one from two octaves below middle C to at least half an octave above middle C. The serpent has six holes, which are ordered in two groups of three. On early models, the fingerholes were keyless, like those of a recorder; however models added keys as on a clarinet, although they were for additional holes, while the original holes remained unkeyed, are covered or uncovered directly by the player's fingers.
While it does not have a rigidly defined fingering system such as other wind instruments employ, the serpent requires an extraordinary amount of effort from the player, who must select the desired pitch with the lips in falset overriding the tone the instrument prefers to sound with any particular fingering. The serpent player has a unique right-hand finger position, in that the index finger may be further down the tube towards the bell than the other fingers of that hand. In this respect the fingering of the right hand is reversed to that found in all other keyed wind instruments, where the keys and holes controlled by the index fingers are further up towards the mouthpiece than the other fingers; this is because the serpent was held vertically, with both of the player's hands oriented palm-down. Players began to hold the instrument horizontally; the instrument is claimed to have been invented by Canon Edmé Guillaume in 1590 in Auxerre and was first used to strengthen the sound of choirs in plainchant.
This date for the invention of the serpent did not appear until 1743, in Jean Lebœuf's "Mémoires Concernant l’Histoire Ecclésiastique et Civile d’Auxerre." Herbert Heyde asserts the serpent evolved from a type of bass cornetto and was invented in Italy in the 16th century. Around the middle of the 18th century, it began to appear in military bands and orchestras, Mozart used two serpentini in his 1771 opera Ascanio in Alba. Richard Wagner used the serpent in place of the double bassoon in his opera Rienzi; the instrument appears in operatic scores by Spontini and Bellini, but it was replaced in the 19th century by a keyed brass instrument, the ophicleide, on by valved bass brass instruments such as the euphonium and tuba. After that the serpent dropped off in popularity for a period of time. Bernard Herrmann used a serpent in the scores of White Witch Doctor and Journey to the Center of the Earth, as did Jerry Goldsmith in his score for Alien. In the 1970s, instrument-maker Christopher Monk began playing, making Serpents, in 1976 he founded the London Serpent Trio.
Since the instrument has undergone a revival of sorts. In 1987, Simon Proctor wrote the first concerto for the instrument; the Serpent Concerto was first performed on 21 October 1989 at the First International Serpent Festival, celebrating the 399th anniversary of the serpent, with serpent soloist Alan Lumsden. Since the Serpent Concerto has been performed in public on many occasions, most notably by Douglas Yeo of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and Boston Pops Orchestra, who played the solo part with the Boston Pops under the direction of John Williams; the concerto appears on a commercial CD recording, Le Monde du Serpent, on the Berlioz Historic Brass label, BHB 101, with the Berlioz Historical Brass, Gloria Dei Cantores choir, members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra et al. In 2008, Douglas Yeo premiered another serpent concerto, "Old Dances in New Shoes" Gordon Bowie, with the Boston Classical Orchestra, conducted by Steven Lipsitt. On 14July 2012 in the Monopoli Conservatory of Music was performed the world premiere of a Serpent Concerto with the title "Diversita': NO LIMIT" by Italian composer Luigi Morleo.
The soundtrack by Austin Wintory of the PlayStation 3 videogame Journey uses a serpent as one of the five soloists. There are two main types of serpent: straight/upright. Within the curved style, there are two variations; the Church serpent is the original type, popularized in France, is distinguished by gentle, sweeping curves and little metal reinforcements. The Military serpent was made in England, its characteristics include having tighter bends and a more compact overall size as a result, with lots of metal bands and stays between the tubing. Furthermore, there are several different sizes besides the common "church" Serpent, including Contrabass and Soprano. Only the original bass size, the tenor, were made during the serpent's heyday; the soprano is a fanciful modern variant, the contrabass is based on a single known original made after the serpent was fading in populari