Video game industry
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide; the computer and video-game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream. They took in about US$9.5 billion in the US in 2007, 11.7 billion in 2008, 25.1 billion in 2010. Modern personal computers owe many advances and innovations to the game industry: sound cards, graphics cards and 3D graphic accelerators, faster CPUs, dedicated co-processors like PhysX are a few of the more notable improvements. Sound cards were developed for addition of digital-quality sound to games and only improved for music and audiophiles. Early on, graphics cards were developed for more colors. Graphic cards were developed for graphical user interfaces and games, they are one of the only pieces of hardware to allow multiple hookups. CD- and DVD-ROMs developed for mass distribution of media in general. Ben Sawyer of Digitalmill observes that the game industry value chain is made up of six connected and distinctive layers: Capital and publishing layer: involved in paying for development of new titles and seeking returns through licensing of the titles.
Product and talent layer: includes developers and artists, who may be working under individual contracts or as part of in-house development teams. Production and tools layer: generates content production tools, game development middleware, customizable game engines, production management tools. Distribution layer: or the "publishing" industry, involved in generating and marketing catalogs of games for retail and online distribution. Hardware layer: or the providers of the underlying platform, which may be console-based, accessed through online media, or accessed through mobile devices such as smartphones; this layer now includes network infrastructure and non-hardware platforms such as virtual machines, or software platforms such as browsers or further Facebook, etc. End-users layer: or the users/players of the games; the game industry employs those experienced in other traditional businesses, but some have experience tailored to the game industry. Some of the disciplines specific to the game industry include: game programmer, game designer, level designer, game producer, game artist and game tester.
Most of these professionals are employed by video game publishers. However, many hobbyists produce computer games and sell them commercially. Game developers and publishers sometimes employ those with extensive or long-term experience within the modding communities. Prior to the 1970s, there was no significant commercial aspect of the video game industry, but many advances in computing would set the stage for the birth of the industry. Many early publicly-available interactive computer-based game machines used or other mechanisms to mimic a display; some examples of these included the 1940 "Nimatron", an electromagentic relay-based Nim-playing device designed by Edward Condon and built by Westinghouse Electric for the New York World's Fair, Bertie the Brain, an arcade game of tic-tac-toe, built by Josef Kates for the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition, Nimrod created by engineering firm Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain,The development of cathode ray tube—the core technology behind televisions—created several of the first true video games.
In 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a patent for a "cathode ray tube amusement device". Their game, which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display, challenges players to fire a gun at target. Between the 1950s and 1960s, with mainframe computers becoming available to campus colleges and others started to develop games that could be played at terminals that accessed the mainframe. One of the first known examples is Spacewar!, developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, Wayne Wiitanen. The introduction of easy-to-program languages like BASIC for mainframes allowed for more simplistic games to be developed. In 1971, the arcade game, Computer Space was released; the following year, Inc. released the first commercially successful video game, the original arcade version of which sold over 19,000 arcade cabinets. That same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of the early video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey.
However, both the arcade and home markets would be dominated by Pong clones, which flooded the market and led to the video game crash of 1977. The crash came to an end with the success of Taito's Space Invaders, released in 1978, sparking a renaissance for the video game industry and paving the way for the golden age of video arcade games; the game's success inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores during the golden age. Space Invaders would go on to sell over 360,000 arcade cabinets worldwide, by 1982, generate a revenue of $2 billion in quarters, equivalent to $4.6 billion in 2011. Soon after, Space Invaders was licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; the success of the Atari 2600 in turn revived the home video game market dur
Wipeout is a series of futuristic anti-gravity racing video games developed by Sony Studio Liverpool. The series is known for its fast-paced gameplay, 3D visual design running on the full resolution of the game's console, its association with electronic dance music as well as its continuous collaboration with electronic artists; the series is notable for its distinctive graphic design identity, provided by The Designers Republic for the first three games. The concept of Wipeout was first discussed during a pub conversation, when a Psygnosis staff member, Jim Bowers, envisioned an idea of creating a futuristic racing game which featured anti-gravity ships; some elements of the game were inspired by Matrix Marauders, an Amiga game released by the Liverpudlian studio in 1990. A beta version of Wipeout appeared in the cult film Hackers, in which the game was being played by the protagonists in a nightclub; the game's appearance in the film led to Sony purchasing the studio in the following months after its release.
The Wipeout franchise has been well received by critics, with Wipeout 2097 in particular being listed as among the PlayStation's best games. Wipeout 2048 was the last game to be developed by Studio Liverpool prior to their closure in August 2012; the series was revived, with Wipeout Omega Collection released in 2017. The Wipeout games are a series of futuristic racers which involve players piloting anti-gravity ships through various forms of races; the series is known for its extreme speed, range of electronic dance music soundtracks, consequential difficulty. Power-ups come in the form of offensive or defensive weaponry, ranging from machine guns, missiles and rockets to energy shields and turbo boosts; these power-ups are collected by flying over coloured X-shaped pads on race tracks. Chevron-shaped speed pads feature prominently on race tracks: once flown over, the player's ship receives a momentary boost; every ship featured in a game is owned by a different racing team, although the number of teams and ships will vary throughout the games.
Each ship has different characteristics: for example, ships will vary in handling, top speed, shield strength, firepower. Every ship is equipped with a compulsory shield. If damage is sustained after the shield's depletion, the ship in question will explode and the pilot is eliminated from the race; the games' campaign modes consist of single races, time trials, tournaments. Standard single races involve the player competing against opponents to finish first and win a gold medal; as scoring is podium-based and bronze medals are awarded for second and third place, respectively. Tournaments contain four or eight single races each. Time trials and speed laps have the player obtaining the fastest time on a track in either a predetermined number of laps or an individual lap, respectively. "Zone" mode has been featured in every game since Wipeout Fusion and revolves around survival as the player automatically accelerates to extreme speeds. The mode will only end upon the destruction of the player's ship.
"Eliminator" mode was introduced in Wipeout 3 and centres around pilots gaining points for damaging competitors and finishing laps. "Combat" mode is a slight variation of Eliminator and appears only in Wipeout 2048. The difference between the two is that in Combat, energy is restored through item absorption as opposed to completing a lap. Wipeout is a futuristic racing video game published by Psygnosis, it is the first game in the series and was released for the PlayStation and PCs running MS-DOS in 1995, for the Sega Saturn the following year. It was a launch title for the PlayStation in Europe and North America. Set in the year 2052, players compete in the F3600 anti-gravity racing league, piloting one of a selection of craft in races on several different tracks around the world. Unique at the time for its futuristic setting, Wipeout featured music from well-known techno artists such as CoLD SToRAGE, The Chemical Brothers and Orbital. A prototype version of the game appeared in the teen cult film Hackers, in which both protagonists were playing the game in a nightclub.
A marketing campaign created and launched by Keith Hopwood and graphic design studio The Designers Republic included an infamous promotional poster featuring a bloodstained Radio 1 DJ Sara Cox, speculated by some of representing a drug overdose. Wipeout 2097 is a direct sequel to the original game, it was first released worldwide in 1996 for the PlayStation, for the Sega Saturn in the following year. Set in the year 2097, the game revolves around players racing in the F5000 anti-gravity racing league; the game was first unveiled to the public in the form of a pre-alpha demo at the Electronic Entertainment Expo in May 1996. Music was recorded from Psygnosis's in-house music team, CoLD SToRAGE, for versions released outside the PlayStation. Wipeout 64 is the third instalment of the series and is the only Wipeout title not to be released on a Sony console, it was released for the Nintendo 64 in November 1998 for North America, in 1999 for Europe. The game is set one year after the events of Wipeout 2097 and shares the same anti-gravity rac
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The console was released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, 15 November 1995 in Australia; the console was the first of the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles. It competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles; the PlayStation is the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2; the PlayStation 2, backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in late 2006 to early 2007 shortly after it was discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 11 years earlier.
Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over 11 years after it had been released, less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic, to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console; the new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released on the original console, was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994. The inception of what would become the released PlayStation dates back to 1986 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. Nintendo had produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Famicom. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, work began.
Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities. Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge, it was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip, in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, it was not until Nintendo cancelled the project that Sony decided to develop its own console. Sony planned to develop a Super NES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super NES cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design; this was to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.
The product, dubbed the "Play Station" was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show. However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realised that the earlier agreement handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was unacceptable and he secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips' global headquarters in the Netherlands and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.
After the collapse of the joint-Nintendo project, Sony considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. The Sega CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that’s a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware, they don't know. Why would we want to do this?". This prompted Sony into halting their research, but the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the Super Famicom; as a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed.
However, it is theorised that only 200 or so of these machines were produced. By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and softw
Wild Arms written as Wild ARMs, is a media franchise developed by Media. Vision and owned by Sony Computer Entertainment; the franchise consists of related media. Since the launch of the original Wild Arms title in 1996, the series has gone on to encompass several media, including toys, mobile phone applications, a 22-episode anime. Wild Arms is noteworthy as being one of the few role-playing video game series to adopt an American Old West motif. Characters and music within the series contain visual and audio cues to American westerns, as well as traditional fantasy and science fiction elements; the series has been overseen by producer Akifumi Kaneko and is viewed as a cult classic among other role-playing game franchises. While reception in North America and Europe remains modest, the series has an active Western fanbase; the Wild Arms games are popular in Japan. Wild Arms is part of Sony first-party "Three Major RPGs" with Arc The Lad, Wild Arms, Popolocrois in Japan. Wild Arms was the first role-playing video game project of Media.
Vision, known for their shooter game series Crime Crackers and Rapid Reload. Looking for a way to capitalize on the growing role-playing game market of the mid-nineties, Sony commissioned Media. Vision to create a game that would combine elements of a traditional RPG with limited 3D graphics to promote the hardware of their newly released PlayStation console. Supervised and designed by Akifumi Kaneko and Takashi Fukushima, 1996's Wild Arms, while still retaining traditional two-dimensional characters and backgrounds, became one of the first role-playing titles released to showcase 3D battle sequences. Utilizing a unique approach to setting and character design, Wild Arms set the standard for all future games in the series. Drawing inspiration from American westerns, as well as western-themed manga such as Yasuhiro Nightow's Trigun and Fukushima crafted a video game world that resembles the contemporary fantasy environment seen in similar titles, but with added allusions to gun-play, outlaws and wilderness tamers.
References to seminal role-playing game elements influenced by European fantasy such as castles, magic and monsters, were added to attract players to a familiar concept, as well as extend the story-telling past the western medium to allow scenario writers from other elements. Other cultural and regional influences include Norse mythology and Japanese mythology; the background music of Wild Arms follows the games' continued motif by providing a soundtrack reminiscent of Western films. The groundwork for the series' music was laid by composer Michiko Naruke, who had only written the scores to Super Nintendo Entertainment System titles. Recurring instrumentation includes acoustic guitars, drums and brass instruments, pianos, accompanied by clapping and whistling samples. While classically influenced, the music of each game diverges into other genres, including folk, electronic and choral. Naruke composed the soundtracks for the first three Wild Arms titles herself, yet she contributed to the soundtrack for Wild Arms 4 along with Nobuyuki Shimizu, Ryuta Suzuki, Masato Kouda, who emulated her now-established style.
Music for Wild Arms 5, the only video game title where Naruke did not contribute, was provided by Kouda along with series newcomer Noriyasu Agematsu. The usage of firearms factors into the Wild Arms mythos. Called "ARMs", these weapons are associated with ancient technology and represent a more violent and warlike age. Though the exact nature varies from one game to the next, they are seen as destructive devices with an array of functions in battle; the practical usage of ARMs, either to protect or destroy life, is left to the user's discretion, serves as a plot point within each game to establish a character's true motives. Environmentalism is a key factor in many Wild Arms games, which center around the restoration of the environment that has long since been tainted, either by warfare or natural phenomena; the governing forces of the planet are personified as "Guardians", spirit-like anthropomorphic creatures who act as the gods of natural aspects such as water and wind, along with human traits such as love and courage.
The primary heroes of each game ally themselves with these Guardians to defeat technology-reliant or ecologically unconscious villains who would either subjugate or destroy the world to suit their respective goals. Each Wild Arms story takes place on a planet called Filgaia, though each "Filgaia" appears to be an separate world with a different arrangement of continents, in similar tradition to the discontinuity between games of the Final Fantasy series. Filgaia is a fantasy world made to resemble the American West characterized by large deserts, red rock canyons, dry plains. Several other land types and climates exist, including forests, mountainous regions and Arctic tundras, though their predominance varies from one game to the next. Though human towns and cities are plentiful, the wilderness that encompasses most of the landscape is riddled with monsters and other beasts, as well as ruins or dungeons from earlier eras that house ancient treasures inaccessible to all but skilled adventurers.
Filgaia is home to a number of different races including the Native American-inspired Baskars, nature-dwelling Elws, vampiric Crimson Nobles. The Elw are a demi-human race; because of their close relationship with nature, the Elw live exceptionall
The Best (PlayStation)
The Best is a Sony PlayStation budget range in Japan and parts of Asia. Similar budget ranges include Greatest Hits in North America, Essentials in PAL regions and BigHit Series in Korea. For the PlayStation, The Best was followed by PS one Books when the PS one was released in 2001; these games were top selling popular titles that were made available again in a low-priced version under this new label. Games released under the PS one Books label did not come in standard jewel cases like other PlayStation games, but instead came packaged in slim jewel cases; the games' instruction booklets were placed outside of the case, with both booklet and case sealed in plastic packaging. The software contained on the discs was the original retail game, however bug fixes were applied for a few titles. PS one Books titles were still being released until late 2006; the first PlayStation 3 The Best titles were released on March 19, 2008. However Armored Core 4 had been prior released as early as January 2008 in the Best Collection.
Official PlayStation the Best & Best for Family list Official PS one Books list Official PS one Books list from 2001-2002 Official PlayStation 2 the Best list Official PSP the Best list Official PlayStation 3 the Best list Official PlayStation Vita the Best PlayStation 4 Greatest Hits list