Emi Maria, stylized as EMI MARIA, is a Japanese Papua New Guinean R&B singer-songwriter. She debuted in 2007 with the EP Between the Music. Emi Maria was born in 1987 in Papua New Guinea, her father is Papua New Guinean. She spent the first five years of her life before moving to Kobe in Japan, she first started listening to R&B at 6 due to her sister, listening to such artists as Janet and Michael Jackson, K-Ci & JoJo. She began writing lyrics in junior high school. By high school, she had started producing her own tracks, she participated in the MTV Star Tour, started performing lives in the Kansai area from 2006 onwards. In 2007, she started appearing on many different Japanese urban artists' albums as a guest artist, such as Seeda and MC Moggy. In 2007, Emi Maria released her first EP, Between the Music on Freest Inc. a label she had created for herself. Her debut single "I Gotta" was picked as the iTunes Japan single of the week in August 2008, she debuted as a major label artist in 2009, with the release of a digital dingle "One Way Love" under Victor Entertainment.
During this time, she had some of her highest profile collaborations. "Luv Is..." was a song Emi Maria performed with R&B singer Jay'ed, which features on his top 10 album Musication. In December, she had her first top 10 hit, as a featured artist on Seeda's single "Wisdom", which reached number 8 on the Oricon singles charts. After the release of her first physical single in 2010, "Show Me Your Love", Emi Maria released her first major label album, Contrast. Official website Emi Maria Official Victor Label Site Emi Maria Official Blog Official MySpace on Myspace
Contrast in visual perception is the difference in appearance of two or more parts of a field seen or successively. Contrast in physics is a quantity intended to correlate with the perceived brightness contrast defined by one of a number of formulae which involve e.g. the luminances of the stimuli considered, for example: ΔL/L near the luminance threshold, or LH/LL for much higher luminances. A contrast can be due to differences of chromaticity specified by colorimetric characteristics. Visual information is always contained in some kind of visual contrast, thus contrast is an essential performance feature of electronic visual displays; the contrast of electronic visual displays depends on the electrical driving, on the ambient illumination and on the direction of observation. The "luminance contrast" is the ratio between the higher luminance, LH, the lower luminance, LL, that define the feature to be detected; this ratio called contrast ratio, CR, is used for high luminances and for specification of the contrast of electronic visual display devices.
The luminance contrast, CR, is a dimensionless number indicated by adding ":1" to the value of the quotient. C R = L H L L with 1 ≤ CR ≤ ∞ A "contrast ratio" of CR = 1 means no contrast; the contrast can be specified by the contrast modulation, CM, defined as: C M = L H − L L L H + L L with 0 ≤ CM ≤ 1. CM = 0 means no contrast. Another contrast definition sometimes found in the electronic displays field, K, is: K = L H − L L L H with 0 ≤ K ≤ 1. K = 0 means no contrast, the maximum possible contrast, Kmax equals one. Two parts of a visual field can be of equal luminance; such a color contrast can be described by a distance in a suitable chromaticity system. A metric for color contrast used in the electronic displays field is the color difference ΔE*uv or ΔE*ab. During measurement of the luminance values used for evaluation of the contrast, the active area of the display screen is completely set to one of the optical states for which the contrast is to be determined, e.g. white and black and the luminance is measured one after the other.
This way of proceeding is suitable only when the display device does not exhibit loading effects, which means that the luminance of the test pattern is varying with the size of the test pattern. Such loading effects can be found in PDPs. A small test pattern displayed on these devices can have higher luminance than the corresponding full-screen pattern because the supply current may be limited by special electronic circuits. Any two test patterns that are not identical can be used to evaluate a contrast between them; when one test pattern comprises the bright state and the other one the dark state the resulting contrast is called full-swing contrast. This contrast is the highest contrast. If no test pattern is specified in a data sheet together with a contrast statement, it will most refer to the full-swing contrast; the standard procedure for contrast evaluation is as follows: 1 apply the first test pattern to the electrical interface of the display under test and wait until the optical response has settled to a stable steady state, 2 measure the luminance and/or the chromaticity of the first test pattern and record the result, 3 apply the second test pattern to the electrical interface of the display under test and wait until the optical response has settled to a stable steady state, 4 measure the luminance and/or the chromaticity of the second test pattern and record the result, 5 calculate the resulting static contrast for the two test patterns using one of the metrics listed above.
When luminance and/or chromaticity are measured before the optical response has settled to a stable steady state, some kind of transient contrast has been measured instead of the static contrast. When the image content is changing e.g. during the display of video or movie content, the optical state of the display may not reach the intended stable steady state because of slow response and thus the apparent contrast is reduced if compared to the static contrast. This is a technique for expanding the contrast of LCD-screens. LCD-screens comprise a backlight unit, permanently emitting light and an LCD-panel in front of it which modulates transmission of light with respect to intensity and chromaticity. In order to increase the contrast of such LCD-screens the backlight can be dimmed when the image to be displayed is dark while the image data is numerically corrected and adapted to the reduced backlight intensity. In suc
Contrast (video game)
Contrast is a puzzle-based platform style video game developed by Compulsion Games for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360, Xbox One, NVIDIA Shield. The game is set in a noir atmosphere aesthetically inspired by Art Nouveau; the player must solve puzzles that require movement between the physical world, represented as 3D, shadows, which are represented as 2D. The player may sometimes manipulate different light sources in the 3D world to create the shadow paths that reach into new areas; the goal of the game is discovery through problem solving. Dawn and Didi are the two characters; the player controls Dawn, an imaginary friend, able to manifest as a three-dimensional shadow. Dawn is able to jump between two shadows, no matter. All other characters appear as shadows against the visual walls, but they still interact with the world as though they are "real." The game's story is broken up into three acts. The player character is an elegant and slender female acrobat, who has the ability to leap into shadows.
Dawn's companion is a little girl named Didi. The two work together to help put back together her complicated family. Adding in is a mysterious magician who may have a relation to both Didi and Dawn as the two work together to figure out the truth through the shadows. Contrast received mixed reviews upon its release. On Metacritic, the Xbox versions of the game got a score of 65/100, the PC computer version a 62/100, the PlayStation 4 version a 59/100. On GameRankings, the game has a rating of 63%. Dan Stapleton of IGN gave the game a 7.5, praising the puzzles. He said, "Contrast is a game full of heart, at least a few excellent puzzles." Carolyn Petit of GameSpot gave the game a score of 5.0, complimenting the atmosphere of the game but criticizing the gameplay and the puzzles. VentureBeat's McKinley Noble gave Contrast a 55 out of 100 score, stating that while he liked the overall concept, it suffered from overly "glitchy" gameplay and "lifeless" environments. Official Contrast website Contrast development blog Interview with Compulsion Games
Contrast is a five-song EP and the first release from the Tennessee-based band The Features following their departure from Universal Records. The band released the EP on their own on October 25, 2006 via their website and later via traditional music outlets; this is the first release to feature new keyboardist Mark Bond following the departure of Parrish Yaw. All tracks written by The Features; the FeaturesMatt Pelham – vocals, guitar Rollum Haas – drums Roger Dabbs – bass Mark Bond – keyboardsAdditional musiciansChris Carmichael – strings on "I Will Wander" Deanna Varagona – Bari Sax on "Wooden Heart"Technical personnelJacquire King – production, mixing J. D. Andrew – recording Joshua Hood – recording assistant John Stinson – recording assistant The Features – art direction, photography Official website
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object distinguishable. In visual perception of the real world, contrast is determined by the difference in the color and brightness of the object and other objects within the same field of view; the human visual system is more sensitive to contrast than absolute luminance. The maximum contrast of an image is dynamic range. According to Campbell and Robson, the human contrast sensitivity function shows a typical band-pass filter shape peaking at around 4 cycles per degree with sensitivity dropping off either side of the peak; this finding has led many to claim that the human visual system is most sensitive in detecting contrast differences occurring at 4 cycles per degree. However, the claim of frequency sensitivity is problematic given, for example, that changes of distance don't seem to affect the relevant perceptual patterns (as noted, for example, in the figure caption to Solomon and Pelli While the latter authors are referring to letters, they make no objective distinction between these and other shapes.
The relative insensitivity of contrast effects to distance may be observed by casual inspection of a paradigmantic sweep grating, as may be observed here The high-frequency cut-off represents the optical limitations of the visual system's ability to resolve detail and is about 60 cycles per degree. The high-frequency cut-off is related to the packing density of the retinal photoreceptor cells: a finer matrix can resolve finer gratings; the low frequency drop-off is due to lateral inhibition within the retinal ganglion cells. A typical retinal ganglion cell presents a centre region with either excitation or inhibition and a surround region with the opposite sign. By using coarse gratings, the bright bands fall on the inhibitory as well as the excitatory region of the ganglion cell resulting in lateral inhibition and account for the low-frequency drop-off of the human contrast sensitivity function. One experimental phenomenon is the inhibition of blue in the periphery if blue light is displayed against white, leading to a yellow surrounding.
The yellow is derived from the inhibition of blue on the surroundings by the center. Since white minus blue is red and green, this mixes to become yellow. For example, in the case of graphical computer displays, contrast depends on the properties of the picture source or file and the properties of the computer display, including its variable settings. For some screens the angle between the screen surface and the observer's line of sight is important. There are many possible definitions of contrast; some include color. Travnikova laments, "Such a multiplicity of notions of contrast is inconvenient, it complicates the solution of many applied problems and makes it difficult to compare the results published by different authors."Various definitions of contrast are used in different situations. Here, luminance contrast is used as an example, but the formulas can be applied to other physical quantities. In many cases, the definitions of contrast represent a ratio of the type Luminance difference Average luminance.
The rationale behind this is that a small difference is negligible if the average luminance is high, while the same small difference matters if the average luminance is low. Below, some common definitions are given. Weber contrast is defined as I − I b I b, with I and I b representing the luminance of the features and the background, respectively; the measure is referred to as Weber fraction, since it is the term, constant in Weber's Law. Weber contrast is used in cases where small features are present on a large uniform background, i.e. where the average luminance is equal to the background luminance. Michelson contrast is used for patterns where both bright and dark features are equivalent and take up similar fractions of the area; the Michelson contrast is defined as I m a x − I m i n I m a x + I m i n, with I m a x and I m i n representing the highest and lowest luminance. The denominator represents twice the average of minimum luminances; this form of contrast is an effective way to quantify contrast for periodic functions f and is known as the modulation mf of a periodic signal f.
Modulation quantifies the relative amount by which the amplitude /2 of f stands out from the average