Fortifications of the inner German border
The fortifications of the inner German border comprised a complex system of interlocking fortifications and security zones 1,381 kilometres long and several kilometres deep, running from the Baltic Sea to Czechoslovakia. The outer fences and walls were the most familiar and visible aspect of the system for Western visitors to the border zone, but they were the final obstacle for a would-be escapee from East Germany; the complexity of the border system increased until it reached its full extent in the early 1980s. The following description and the accompanying diagram describe the border as it was around 1980. Travelling notionally from east to west, an escapee would first reach the edge of the restricted zone, a controlled strip of land 5 kilometres wide, running parallel with the border. Evading the patrols and watchful inhabitants of the Sperrzone, the escapee would have reached the first of the border fences; the signal fence, around 500 to 1,000 metres from the actual border, was lined with low-voltage electrified barbed wire which activated alarms when touched or cut.
Beyond the signal fence was the "protective strip". It was brightly lit by floodlights in many places to reduce an escapee's chances of using the cover of darkness. Guard towers and dog runs were positioned at frequent intervals to keep a round-the-clock watch over the strip. Crossing the Schutzstreifen, the escapee would next reach the floodlit control strip called the "death strip" in the West. Tripwire-activated flare launchers were situated at various points to help the border guards pinpoint the location of an escape attempt; the last and most formidable obstacle was the outer fencing. In some places there were multiple parallel rows of fences, each up to several metres high, with minefields in between; the fences were not electrified but were booby-trapped with directional anti-personnel mines at intervals of 10 metres, each one of, capable of killing at a range of up to 120 metres. The escapee had to cross whatever natural obstacles were on the western side of the border fence as well as traversing a strip of cleared ground, up to 500 meters wide.
While crossing this outer strip, the escapee would appear in clear view and shooting range of the border guards before reaching the safety of West German territory. The Sperrzone, a 5 kilometres wide area to which access was restricted, was the rear segment of the border defences; when it was established in May 1952, it included a number of villages and valuable agricultural land. Although the land continued to be farmed where possible, many of the inhabitants were expelled on the grounds of political unreliability or because they lived inconveniently close to the border line. In some instances, entire villages were razed and the inhabitants relocated far to the east; those who remained behind were required to be loyal to the regime and support the border guards, helping them by watching for strangers and unfamiliar vehicles. So, they had little freedom of movement, they could enter and leave the zone an unlimited number of times but could not travel to other villages within the zone. Curfews were imposed to prevent inhabitants from crossing the border under the cover of darkness.
The Sperrzone was marked with warning signs. The entry roads were controlled by checkpoints; the first layer of border fences, the signal fence, lay on the far side of the Sperrzone to control access to the protective strip or Schutzstreifen adjoining the border itself. The signal or "hinterland" fence was the first of the border fences, dividing the Sperrzone from the more guarded protective strip adjoining the actual border, its purpose was to provide the guards with an early warning of an escape attempt. The fence itself was not a formidable obstacle, standing only 2 metres high. At the top and bottom, rows of electrified barbed wire strands were attached to insulators. Cutting the wires or pulling them out of place resulted in an alarm being activated, alerting the guards to a possible breach of the fence. In practice, the border guards found that the fence malfunctioned; the signal fence had a 2-metre-wide control strip on its eastern side. The fence was built on open high ground wherever possible, to ensure that intruders would be silhouetted against the sky and thus be more spotted.
By mid-1989, 1,185 kilometres of signal fencing had been constructed along the border. The border defences were monitored from hundreds of watchtowers spaced along the Schutzstreifen, they were simple wooden huts mounted on legs between 4 and 12 metres high constructed from locally sourced timber. Most were replaced with concrete watchtowers from the late 1960s onwards in conjunction with the upgrading of the border defences. By 1989, there were 529 concrete towers along the length of the inner German border and a further 155 towers of steel and wood construction, as well as various little-used observation platforms in trees; the concrete towers were prefabricated from sections. Their height could be varied by reducing the number of sections, they were connected to an electricity supply and telephone line and were equipped with a powerful 1,000-watt searchlight on the roof that could be directed at targets in any position around the watchtower. The windows could be opened to enable t
The user interface, in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, process controls; the design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology. The goal of user interface design is to produce a user interface which makes it easy and enjoyable to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result; this means that the operator needs to provide minimal input to achieve the desired output, that the machine minimizes undesired outputs to the human. User interfaces are composed of one or more layers including a human-machine interface interfaces machines with physical input hardware such a keyboards, game pads and output hardware such as computer monitors and printers.
A device that implements a HMI is called a human interface device. Other terms for human-machine interfaces are man–machine interface and when the machine in question is a computer human–computer interface. Additional UI layers may interact with one or more human sense, including: tactile UI, visual UI, auditory UI, olfactory UI, equilibrial UI, gustatory UI. Composite user interfaces are UIs that interact with two or more senses; the most common CUI is a graphical user interface, composed of a tactile UI and a visual UI capable of displaying graphics. When sound is added to a GUI it becomes a multimedia user interface. There are three broad categories of CUI: standard and augmented. Standard composite user interfaces use standard human interface devices like keyboards and computer monitors; when the CUI blocks out the real world to create a virtual reality, the CUI is virtual and uses a virtual reality interface. When the CUI does not block out the real world and creates augmented reality, the CUI is augmented and uses an augmented reality interface.
When a UI interacts with all human senses, it is called a qualia interface, named after the theory of qualia. CUI may be classified by how many senses they interact with as either an X-sense virtual reality interface or X-sense augmented reality interface, where X is the number of senses interfaced with. For example, a Smell-O-Vision is a 3-sense Standard CUI with visual display and smells; the user interface or human–machine interface is the part of the machine that handles the human–machine interaction. Membrane switches, rubber keypads and touchscreens are examples of the physical part of the Human Machine Interface which we can see and touch. In complex systems, the human–machine interface is computerized; the term human–computer interface refers to this kind of system. In the context of computing, the term extends as well to the software dedicated to control the physical elements used for human-computer interaction; the engineering of the human–machine interfaces is enhanced by considering ergonomics.
The corresponding disciplines are human factors engineering and usability engineering, part of systems engineering. Tools used for incorporating human factors in the interface design are developed based on knowledge of computer science, such as computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages. Nowadays, we use the expression graphical user interface for human–machine interface on computers, as nearly all of them are now using graphics. There is a difference between a user interface and an operator interface or a human–machine interface; the term "user interface" is used in the context of computer systems and electronic devices Where a network of equipment or computers are interlinked through an MES -or Host to display information. A human-machine interface is local to one machine or piece of equipment, is the interface method between the human and the equipment/machine. An operator interface is the interface method by which multiple equipment that are linked by a host control system is accessed or controlled.
The system may expose several user interfaces to serve different kinds of users. For example, a computerized library database might provide two user interfaces, one for library patrons and the other for library personnel; the user interface of a mechanical system, a vehicle or an industrial installation is sometimes referred to as the human–machine interface. HMI is a modification of the original term MMI. In practice, the abbreviation MMI is still used although some may claim that MMI stands for something different now. Another abbreviation is HCI, but is more used for human–computer interaction. Other terms used are operator interface terminal; however it is abbreviated, the terms refer to the'layer' that separates a human, operating a machine from the machine itself. Without a clean and usable interface, humans would not be able to
The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006 by Apple Inc. It is the high-end model of the MacBook family and is available in 13- and 15-inch screen sizes. A 17-inch version was available between April 2006 and June 2012; the first generation MacBook Pro is externally similar to the PowerBook G4 it replaces, but uses Intel Core processors instead of PowerPC G4 chips. The 15-inch model was introduced first, in January 2006. Both received several updates and Core 2 Duo processors in 2006; the product's second iteration, known as the "unibody" model, has a casing made from a single piece of aluminum. It debuted in October 2008 in 13- and 15-inch screen sizes. In January 2009, the 17-inch model was updated with the same unibody design. Subsequent updates brought upgraded Intel Core i5 and i7 processors and introduced Intel's Thunderbolt technology. Apple released the third generation of MacBook Pro with a 15-inch screen during WWDC 2012 and discontinued the 17-inch variant.
The previous generation 13- and 15-inch unibody models continued to sell with updated processors. The third generation model is thinner than its predecessor and is the first to include a high-resolution Retina Display. A 13-inch variant was released in October 2012; the fourth generation MacBook Pro was announced on October 27, 2016. This generation replaced all data ports with USB-C, with the exception of the baseline model, replaced the function keys with an interactive touchscreen strip called the "Touch Bar" with a Touch ID sensor integrated into the Power button; the original 15-inch MacBook Pro was announced on January 10, 2006 by Steve Jobs at the Macworld Conference & Expo. The 17-inch model was unveiled on April 24, 2006; the first design was a carryover from the PowerBook G4, but uses Intel Core CPUs instead of PowerPC G4 chips. The 15-inch MacBook Pro weighs the same as the 15-inch aluminum PowerBook G4, but is 0.1 inches deeper, 0.4 inches wider, 0.1 inches thinner. Other changes from the PowerBook include a built-in iSight webcam and the inclusion of MagSafe, a magnetic power connector designed to detach when yanked.
These features were brought over to the MacBook. The optical drive was reduced in size in order to fit into the slimmer MacBook Pro, hence it runs slower than the optical drive in the PowerBook G4 and cannot write to dual layer DVDs. Both the original 15- and 17-inch model MacBook Pros come with ExpressCard/34 slots, which replace the PC Card slots found in the PowerBook G4. All first generation 15-inch models have two USB 2.0 ports and one FireWire 400 port, while the 17-inch models have three USB 2.0 ports as well as one FireWire 400 port. When first introduced, the MacBook Pro did not come with FireWire 800 or S-Video ports, although FireWire 800 was added in the next 15-inch model revision and is present in every version of the 17-inch design. S-Video capability can be attained through the use of a DVI to S-Video adapter. External displays with up to a 2,560 × 1,600 pixel resolution are supported through a dual-link DVI port. All models include a built-in Gigabit Ethernet port, Bluetooth 2.0, 802.11a/b/g.
Models include support for the draft 2.0 specification of 802.11n and Bluetooth 2.1. Apple refreshed the entire MacBook Pro line on October 24, 2006 to include Intel Core 2 Duo processors. Memory capacity was doubled for each model, to 1 GB on the low-end 15-inch and 2 GB for the high-end 15- and 17-inch models. FireWire 800 was added to the 15-inch models. Hard drive capacity was increased; the MacBook Pro line received a second update on June 5, 2007 with new Nvidia Geforce 8600M GT video cards and faster processor options. LED backlighting was added to the 15-inch model's screen, its weight was reduced from 5.6 pounds to 5.4 pounds. Furthermore, the speed of the front-side bus was increased from 667 MHz to 800 MHz. On November 1, 2007, Apple added the option of a 2.6 GHz Santa Rosa platform Core 2 Duo CPU as well as reconfigured hard drive options. On February 26, 2008, the MacBook Pro line was again updated. LED backlighting was added as an option for the 17-inch model. Processors were updated to "Penryn" cores, which are built on the 45 nanometer process, hard drive and memory capacities were increased.
Multi-touch capabilities, first introduced with the MacBook Air earlier that year, were brought over to the MacBook Pro's trackpad. When the 15-inch unibody MacBook Pro was introduced on October 14, 2008, the pre-unibody model with the same screen size was discontinued, while the 17-inch pre-unibody model continued to be sold; the original case design was discontinued on January 6, 2009, when the 17-inch MacBook Pro was updated with unibody construction. Some reviewers applauded the MacBook Pro for its doubling or tripling the speed of the PowerBook G4 in some areas. For example, the 3D rendering program Cinema 4D XL was 3.3 times as fast, its boot-up time was more than twice as quick. The MacBook Pro outperformed the PowerBook G4 in performance analyzer utility tests XBench and Cinebench. Reviewers lauded the screen's maximum brightness, 67 percent higher than the PowerBook G4. Although the screen offered fewer vertical pixels, one reviewer called the screen "nothing less than stellar". Reviewers praised the new MagSafe power adapter, although one reviewer said it disconnected too in some instances.
They praised the backlit keyboard, large trackpad, the vir
The Finder is the default file manager and graphical user interface shell used on all Macintosh operating systems. Described in its "About" window as "The Macintosh Desktop Experience", it is responsible for the launching of other applications, for the overall user management of files and network volumes, it was introduced with the first Macintosh computer, exists as part of GS/OS on the Apple IIGS. It was rewritten with the release of Mac OS X in 2001. In a tradition dating back to the Classic Mac OS of the 1980s and 1990s, the Finder icon is the smiling screen of a computer, known as the Happy Mac logo; the Finder uses a view of the file system, rendered using a desktop metaphor. It uses a similar interface to Apple's Safari browser, where the user can click on a folder to move to it and move between locations using "back" and "forward" arrow buttons. Like Safari, the Finder uses tabs to allow the user to view multiple folders. There is a "favorites" sidebar of used and important folders on the left of the Finder window.
The modern Finder uses macOS graphics APIs to display previews of a range of files, such as images, applications and PDF files. The Quick Look feature allows users to examine documents and images in more detail from the finder by pressing the space bar without opening them in a separate application; the user can choose how to view files, with options such as large icons showing previews of files, a list with details such as date of last creation or modification, a Gallery View, a "column view" influenced by macOS's direct ancestor NeXTSTEP. The modern Finder displays some aspects of the file system outside its windows. Mounted external volumes and disk image files can be displayed on the desktop. There is a trash can on the Dock in macOS, to which files can be dragged to mark them for deletion, to which drives can be dragged for ejection; when a volume icon is being dragged, the Trash icon in the Dock changes to an eject icon in order to indicate this functionality. Finder can record files to optical media on the sidebar.
From Yosemite onwards, the Finder contains official support for extensions, allowing synchronization and cloud storage applications such as Dropbox to display sync status labels inside the Finder display. The classic Mac OS Finder uses a spatial metaphor quite different to the more browser-like approach of the modern macOS Finder. In the classic Finder, opening a new folder opens the location in a new window: finder windows are'locked' so that they would only display the contents of one folder, it allows extensive customization, with the user being able to give folders custom icons matching their content. This approach emphasizes the different locations of files within the operating system, but navigating to a folder nested inside multiple other folders fills the desktop with a large number of windows that the user may not wish to have open; these must be closed individually. Holding down the option key when opening a folder would close its parent, but this trick was not discoverable and remained under the purview of power users.
Stewart Alsop II in 1988 said "It is testimony to either the luck or vision of the original designers" of Finder that "the interface has been able to survive tremendous evolution without much essential damage" from 1984. He praised its spatial file manager as "probably a more complete definition of a PC-based universe than any" competitor, with users able to seamlessly use floppies and remote hard disks, large and small file servers. Alsop said that if Apple had stolen Xerox's technology for Finder, it was now different. While criticizing the lack of a right mouse button and Multifinder's clumsiness, he concluded that "Apple remains the king of user interfaces. Finder is the only interface with 1.5 million people sitting in front of it daily. Apple is spending tremendous amounts of money on both development and basic research to remain the leader". Introducing Mac OS X in 2000, Steve Jobs criticized the original Finder, saying that it "generates a ton of windows, you get to be the janitor."Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa has been a long-standing defender of the spatial interface of the classic Mac OS Finder, a critic of the new design.
Daring Fireball blog author John Gruber has voiced similar criticisms. In a 2005 interview he said that the Finder in version 10.3 of Mac OS X had become "worse than in 10.0" and that "the fundamental problem with the OS X Finder is that it's trying to support two opposing paradigms at once – the browser metaphor... and the spatial metaphor from the original Mac Finder... and it ends up doing neither one well." Reviewing the same version of Mac OS X, Siracusa comments that the Finder "provides the same self-destructive combination of spatial and browser-style features as all of its Mac OS X predecessors". Third-party macOS software developers offer Finder replacements that run as stand-alone applications, such as ForkLift, Path Finder and XtraFinder; these replacements are shareware or freeware and aim to include and supersede the functionality of the Finder. After Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger the UNIX command line file management tools understand resource forks and can be used for management of Mac files.
There are minor differences between Finder versions and Classic OS to System 7. From System 6 onward, the version numbers are unified. Since the introduction of Mac OS X, the largest rewrite of the Finder was with the 2009 release of Mac OS X 10.6, into the Cocoa API, though little change was visible to the user. Spatial file manager Miller columns List of file managers
PowerBook 500 series
The PowerBook 500 series is a range of Apple Macintosh PowerBook portable computers first introduced by Apple Computer with the 540c model on May 16, 1994. It was the first to have stereo speakers, a trackpad, Ethernet networking built-in, it was the first PowerBook series to use a Motorola 68LC040 CPU and be upgradeable to the PowerPC architecture via a swap-out CPU daughter card, use 9.5-inch Dual Scan passive color/B&W displays, 16-bit stereo sound with stereo speakers, have an expansion bay, PC Card capability, two battery bays, full-size keyboard with F1–F12 function keys, be able to sleep while connected to an external monitor and have a battery contact cover included on the actual batteries. It included a single serial port which could be to connect to a serial printer or a network via Apple's LocalTalk. In another first, it included an AAUI port for connecting to Ethernet networks; the 500 series was discontinued with the introduction of the ill-fated PowerBook 5300. The PowerBook 190 was the de facto successor to the 500 and continued the only 68LC040 processor offering as the low end of the PowerPC-based PowerBook family.
In a survey taken in November 2000, Insanely Great Macintosh ranked the 540c No. 2 on its list of the all-time best PowerBook models made. The PowerBook 500 series was introduced on May 16, 1994, with the high-end active matrix LCD PowerBook 540c and 540, with the passive matrix 520c and 520 soon after. One of its marketing highlights was the promise of a PowerPC upgrade to its CPU and PC Card expansion; the introduction of this model came at the time of Apple's changeover to the new PowerPC chip from the 68k line of CPUs, Apple's advertising and promise of the PowerPC was the cause of headaches to the company. The strong demand for its ground-breaking design and Apple's incorrect market prediction that customers would wait for the PowerPC PowerBooks resulted in shortages early on. In due course the 540 was dropped from the line, 8 MB of additional memory and the modem was offered installed from the factory, hard drive capacity was increased, the installed system upped from System 7.1.1 to 7.5.
The PC Card Cage was released, allowing Macintosh users to add PCMCIA capability to their laptops for the first time. In 1995 Apple gave permission for Apple Japan to introduce an updated version, called the 550c, with a bigger display, CPU with FPU, bigger hard drive, Japanese keyboard with black case, it was only sold in Japan, never received FCC certification. With delays in the new PowerPC PowerBook 5300, demand for the PPC upgrade mounted, Newer Technology began to market the upgrade before Apple did, although they had produced the upgrade modules for Apple first. What's more, they offered 117 MHz versions over Apple's 100 MHz offering. Soon thereafter, Newer Technology introduced a 167 MHz model that outperformed the fastest PowerBook 5300, the $6,800 5300ce, at a time when problems with that line became a real issue to Apple. About the time Apple introduced the PowerBook 1400, Newer Technology introduced a 183 MHz upgrade with 128 KB of L2 cache that kept it ahead of the power curve in performance.
Newer Technology stated they could not produce more of the 183 MHz upgrades because the supply of connectors was exhausted. This laptop was the first in the industry to include: 16-bit stereo sound @ 44.1 kHz. And among Apple's PowerBook line the first to have: 68LC040, or 68040 CPU standard. Although the 500 "Blackbird" prototypes were black, only one of the five production models was black; the 550c differed from the four two-tone grey models in a few other key respects as well, including a larger active-matrix color screen, a combined Roman/Kanji keyboard, a full 68040 processor. The other models were all charcoal grey with darker grey trim, came with a variety of displays, used the 68LC040 processor; the full-sized keyboard with 12 function keys, 640×480 resolution display was consistent across the family. The modem was developed with Global Village, is a unique two-part design; the transceiver with the modem connector is installed in the back, the modem itself is located next to the CPU daughter card.
It was a V.32 Terbo, had a top rate of 19.2 kbit/s, but only with other V.32 Terbo modems as there was no official standard. Otherwise it would drop down to 14.4 kbit/s. Due to a bug with the new combined printer/modem port, the driver had to be upgraded to 2.5.5, the Chooser was replaced in the GV install. The 50
HyperCard is a software application and development kit for Apple Macintosh and Apple IIGS computers. It is among the first successful hypermedia systems predating the World Wide Web. HyperCard combines a flat-file database with a graphical, user-modifiable interface. HyperCard includes a built-in programming language called HyperTalk for manipulating data and the user interface; this combination of features – a database with simple form layout, flexible support for graphics, ease of programming – suits HyperCard for many different projects such as rapid application development of applications and databases, interactive applications with no database requirements and control systems, many examples in the demoscene. HyperCard was released in 1987 for $49.95 and was included for free with all new Macs sold then. It was withdrawn from sale in March 2004, having received its final update in 1998 upon the return of Steve Jobs to Apple. HyperCard runs in the Classic Environment, but was not ported to Mac OS X. HyperCard is based on the concept of a "stack" of virtual "cards".
Cards hold data. Each card contains a set of interactive objects, including text fields, check boxes and similar common graphical user interface elements. Users browse the stack by navigating from card to card, using built-in navigation features, a powerful search mechanism, or through user-created scripts. Users modify stacks by adding new cards, they place GUI objects on the cards using an interactive layout engine based on a simple drag-and-drop interface. HyperCard includes prototype or template cards called backgrounds; this way, a stack of cards with a common layout and functionality can be created. The layout engine is similar in concept to a form as used in most rapid application development environments such as Borland Delphi, Microsoft Visual Basic and Visual Studio; the database features of the HyperCard system are based on the storage of the state of all of the objects on the cards in the physical file representing the stack. The database does not exist as a separate system within the HyperCard stack.
Instead, the state of any object in the system is considered to be editable at any time. From the HyperCard runtime's perspective, there is no difference between moving a text field on the card and typing into it, both operations change the state of the target object within the stack; such changes are saved when complete, so typing into a field causes that text to be stored to the stack's physical file. The system operates in a stateless fashion, with no need to save during operation; this is in common with many database-oriented systems, although somewhat different from document-based applications. The final key element in HyperCard is the script, a single code-carrying element of every object within the stack; the script is a text field. Like any other property, the script of any object can be edited at any time and changes are saved as soon as they were complete; when the user invokes actions in the GUI, like clicking on a button or typing into a field, these actions are translated into events by the HyperCard runtime.
The runtime examines the script of the object, the target of the event, like a button, to see if its script object contains the event's code, called a handler. If it does, the HyperTalk engine runs the handler; these concepts make up the majority of the HyperCard system. Unlike the majority of RAD or database systems of the era, HyperCard combines all of these features, both user-facing and developer-facing, in a single application; this allows rapid turnaround and immediate prototyping without any coding, allowing users to author custom solutions to problems with their own personalized interface. "Empowerment" became a catchword as this possibility was embraced by the Macintosh community, as was the phrase "programming for the rest of us", that is, not just professional programmers. It is this combination of features that makes HyperCard a powerful hypermedia system. Users can build backgrounds to suit the needs of some system, say a rolodex, use simple HyperTalk commands to provide buttons to move from place to place within the stack, or provide the same navigation system within the data elements of the UI, like text fields.
Using these features, it is easy to build linked systems similar to hypertext links on the Web. Unlike the Web, programming and browsing were all the same tool. Similar systems have been created for HTML but traditional Web services are more heavyweight. HyperCard contains an object oriented scripting language called HyperTalk. HyperTalk object classes are predetermined by the HyperCard environment, although others can be added by the use of externals; the weakly typed HyperTalk supports most standard programming structures such as "if-then" and "repeat". HyperTalk is verbose, hence its ease of readability. HyperTalk code segments are referred to as "scripts", a term, considered less daunting to beginning programmers. HyperCard can be extended through the use of external command and external function modules; these are code libraries packaged in a resource fork that in
Scrapbook (Mac OS)
Scrapbook under the Classic Mac OS was a small desk accessory which enabled users to store images and sound clippings. It was included in the original Macintosh system software in 1984 with the Macintosh 128K, was included throughout every Mac OS revision until Mac OS 9. Since early versions of Mac OS were not capable of multitasking—they could only run one application at a time—a specially-written DA such as Scrapbook was the only means of keeping content accessible to be pasted into documents. Starting in Scrapbook version 7.5.2, Scrapbook could store QuickDraw 3D-based 3D models. It came with two 3D models in this version.