An alarm device or system of alarm devices gives an audible, visual or other form of alarm signal about a problem or condition. Alarm devices are outfitted with a siren. Alarm devices include: burglar alarms, designed to warn of burglaries. Alarm clocks can beep, buzz or ring off as an alarm at a set time to wake a person up or for other reminders distributed control systems, found in nuclear power plants and chemical facilities generate alarms to direct the operator's attention to an important event that he or she needs to address. Alarms in an operation and maintenance monitoring system, which informs the bad working state of the system under monitoring. First-out alarm safety alarms. Common public safety alarms include: civil defense siren known as tornado sirens or air raid sirens fire alarm systems fire alarm notification appliance "Multiple-alarm fire", a locally-specific measure of the severity of a fire and the fire-department reaction required. Smoke detector car alarms autodialer alarm known as community alarm personal alarm tocsins – a historical method of raising an alarmAlarms have the capability of causing a fight-or-flight response in humans.
A person in such a state can be characterised as "alarmed". With any kind of alarm, the need exists to balance between on the one hand the danger of false alarms — the signal going off in the absence of a problem — and on the other hand failing to signal an actual problem. False alarms can waste resources expensively and can be dangerous. For example, false alarms of a fire can waste firefighter manpower, making them unavailable for a real fire, risk injury to firefighters and others as the fire engines race to the alleged fire's location. In addition, false alarms may acclimatise people to ignore alarm signals, thus to ignore an actual emergency: Aesop's fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf exemplifies this problem; the word came from the Old French A l'arme meaning "To the arms", "To the weapons", telling armed men to pick up their weapons and get ready for action, because an enemy may have appeared. Alarm management Warning system False alarm Physical security Security alarm
A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion – unauthorized entry – into a building or other area. Security alarms are used in residential, commercial and military properties for protection against burglary or property damage, as well as personal protection against intruders. Security alarms in residential areas show a correlation with decreased theft. Car alarms help protect vehicles and their contents. Prisons use security systems for control of inmates; some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection. Intrusion alarm systems may be combined with closed-circuit television surveillance systems to automatically record the activities of intruders, may interface to access control systems for electrically locked doors. Systems range from small, self-contained noisemakers, to complicated, multirally systems with computer monitoring and control, it may include two-way voice which allows communication between the panel and Monitoring station. The most basic alarm consists of one or more sensors to detect intruders, an alerting device to indicate the intrusion.
However, a typical premises security alarm employs the following components: Premises control unit, Alarm Control Panel, or panel: The "brain" of the system, it reads sensor inputs, tracks arm/disarm status, signals intrusions. In modern systems, this is one or more computer circuit boards inside a metal enclosure, along with a power supply. Sensors: Devices which detect intrusions. Sensors may be placed at the perimeter of the protected area, within it, or both. Sensors can detect intruders by a variety of methods, such as monitoring doors and windows for opening, or by monitoring unoccupied interiors for motions, vibration, or other disturbances. Alerting devices: These indicate an alarm condition. Most these are bells, and/or flashing lights. Alerting devices serve the dual purposes of warning occupants of intrusion, scaring off burglars; these devices may be used to warn occupants of a fire or smoke condition. Keypads: Small devices wall-mounted, which function as the human-machine interface to the system.
In addition to buttons, keypads feature indicator lights, a small multi-character display, or both.ect Interconnections between components. This may consist of wireless links with local power supplies. In addition to the system itself, security alarms are coupled with a monitoring service. In the event of an alarm, the premises control unit contacts a central monitoring station. Operators at the station see the signal and take appropriate action, such as contacting property owners, notifying police, or dispatching private security forces; such signals may be transmitted via telephone lines, or the internet. The hermetically sealed reed switch is a common type of two piece sensor that operates with an electrically conductive reed switch, either open or closed when under the influence of a magnetic field as in the case of proximity to the second piece which contains a magnet; when the magnet is moved away from the reed switch, the reed switch either closes or opens, again based on whether or not the design is open or closed.
This action coupled with an electric current allows an alarm control panel to detect a fault on that zone or circuit. These type of sensors are common and are found either wired directly to an alarm control panel, or they can be found in wireless door or window contacts as sub-components; the passive infrared motion detector is one of the most common sensors found in household and small business environments. It offers reliable functionality; the term passive refers to the fact that the detector does not radiate its own energy. Speaking, PIR sensors do not detect motion; as an intruder walks in front of the sensor, the temperature at that point will rise from room temperature to body temperature, back again. This quick change triggers the detection. PIR sensors may be designed to be wall- or ceiling-mounted, come in various fields of view, from narrow-point detectors to 360-degree fields. PIRs require a power supply in addition to the detection signalling circuit; the infrasound detector works by detecting sound waves at frequencies below 20 hertz.
Sounds at those frequencies are inaudible to the human ear. Due to its inherent properties, infrasound can travel distances of many hundreds of kilometers. Infrasound signals can result from volcanic eruptions, gravity waves and closing of doors, forcing windows to name a few; the entire infrasound detection system consists of the following components: a speaker as a microphone input, an order-frequency filter, an analog to digital converter, an MCU, used to analyse the recorded signal. Each time a potential intruder tries enter into a house, she or he tests whether it is closed and locked, uses tools on openings, or/and applies pressure, therefore he or she creates low-frequency sound vibrations; such actions are detected by the infrasound detector before the intruder breaks in. The primary purpose of such system is to stop burglars before they enter the house, to avoid not only theft, but vandalism; the sensitivity can be modulated depending on the size of a presence of animals. Using frequencies between 15 kHz and 75 kHz, these active detectors transmit ultras
A patent is a form of intellectual property. A patent gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using and importing an invention for a limited period of time twenty years; the patent rights are granted in exchange for an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, the extent of the exclusive rights vary between countries according to national laws and international agreements. However, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims; these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step, are capable of industrial application.
There are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country among WTO member states. TRIPS provides that the term of protection available should be a minimum of twenty years; the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means "to lay open". It is a shortened version of the term letters patent, an open document or instrument issued by a monarch or government granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent refers to the right granted to anyone who invents something new and non-obvious; some other types of intellectual property rights are called patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in the US, plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents, utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents.
The additional qualification utility patent is sometimes used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents. Although there is some evidence that some form of patent rights was recognized in Ancient Greece in the Greek city of Sybaris, the first statutory patent system is regarded to be the Venetian Patent Statute of 1474. Patents were systematically granted in Venice as of 1474, where they issued a decree by which new and inventive devices had to be communicated to the Republic in order to obtain legal protection against potential infringers; the period of protection was 10 years.. As Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes; this led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries. The English patent system evolved from its early medieval origins into the first modern patent system that recognised intellectual property in order to stimulate invention.
By the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies and declare that they were only to be used for "projects of new invention"; this was incorporated into the Statute of Monopolies in which Parliament restricted the Crown's power explicitly so that the King could only issue letters patent to the inventors or introducers of original inventions for a fixed number of years. The Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere. Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a slow process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Legal battles around the 1796 patent taken out by James Watt for his steam engine, established the principles that patents could be issued for improvements of an existing machine and that ideas or principles without specific practical application could legally be patented.
Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of intellectual property right, rather than the obtaining of economic privilege. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand and Australia. In the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colony's legislature. In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt; the modern French patent system was created during the Revolution in 1791. Patents were granted without examination. Patent costs were high. Importation patents protected new devices coming from foreign countries; the patent law was revised in 1844 - patent cost was lowered and importation patents were abolished. The first Patent Act of the U. S. Congress was passed on April 10, 1790, titled "An Act to promote the progress of
Fire alarm system
A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, carbon monoxide or other emergencies are present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors, heat detectors or may be activated via manual fire alarm activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can wall mountable sounders or horns, they can be ) which sound an alarm, followed by a voice evacuation message which warns people inside the building not to use the elevators. Fire alarm sounders can be set to certain frequencies and different tones including low and high, depending on the country and manufacturer of the device. Most fire alarm systems in Europe sound like a siren with alternating frequencies. Fire alarm electronic devices are known as horns in the United States and Canada, can be either continuous or set to different codes. Fire alarm warning devices can be set to different volume levels. After the fire protection goals are established – by referencing the minimum levels of protection mandated by the appropriate model building code, insurance agencies, other authorities – the fire alarm designer undertakes to detail specific components and interfaces necessary to accomplish these goals.
Equipment manufactured for these purposes is selected and standardized installation methods are anticipated during the design. ISO 7240-14 is the international standard for Design, installation and service of fire detection and fire alarm system in and around building; this standard was published in August 2013. NFPA 72, The National Fire Alarm Code is an established and used installation standard from United States. In Canada, the ULC is the standard for the fire system. Last version 2019; this code is part of family standard NFPA TS 54 -14 is a Technical Specification for Fire detection and fire alarm system - Part 14: Guidelines for planning, installation, commissioning and maintenance. This document has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC72, This document is part of the EN 54 series of standards; this standard was published in October 2018. There are national codes in each European country for planning, installation, commissioning and maintenance of fire detection system with additional requiments that are mentioned on TS 54 -14 Germany, Vds 2095 Italy, UNI 9795 France NF S61-936 Spain UNE 23007-14 United Kingdom BS 5839 Part 1 Fire alarm control panel AKA fire alarm control unit.
Primary power supply: Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240-volt alternating current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. "Dedicated branch circuits" should not be confused with "Individual branch circuits" which supply energy to a single appliance. Secondary power supplies: This component consisting of sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure; the batteries can be either inside the bottom of the panel or inside a separate battery box installed near the panel. Initiating devices: These components act as inputs to the fire alarm control unit and are either manually or automatically activated. Examples would be devices such as pull stations, heat detectors, smoke detectors. Heat and smoke detectors have different categories of both kinds; some categories are beam, ionization and duct.
Fire alarm notification appliance: This component uses energy supplied from the fire alarm system or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of the need to take action to evacuate. This is done by means of a pulsing incandescent light, flashing strobe light, electromechanical horn, electronic horn, bell, speaker, or a combination of these devices. Strobes are either made of a xenon tube or LEDs. Building safety interfaces: This interface allows the fire alarm system to control aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire, to control the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, process control, human transport and exit. Manually actuated devices. Devices for manual fire alarm activation are installed to be located and operated, they are actuated by means of physical interaction, such as pulling a lever or breaking glass. Automatically actuated devices can take many forms intended to respond to any number of detectable physical changes associated with fire: convected thermal energy.
The newest innovations can use cameras and computer algorithms to analyze the visible effects of fire and movement in applications inappropriate for or hostile to other detection methods Notification Appliances utilize audible, tactile, textual or olfactory stimuli to alert the occupants of the need to evacuate or take action in the event of a fire or other emergency. Evacuation signals may consist of simple appliances that transmit