Wisdom of the crowd
The wisdom of the crowd is the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than that of a single expert. A large group's aggregated answers to questions involving quantity estimation, general world knowledge, spatial reasoning has been found to be as good as, but superior to, the answer given by any of the individuals within the group. An explanation for this phenomenon is that there is idiosyncratic noise associated with each individual judgment, taking the average over a large number of responses will go some way toward canceling the effect of this noise; this process, while not new to the Information Age, has been pushed into the mainstream spotlight by social information sites such as Wikipedia, Yahoo! Answers, Stack Exchange and other web resources that rely on human opinion. Trial by jury can be understood as wisdom of the crowd when compared to the alternative, trial by a judge, the single expert. In politics, sometimes sortition is held as an example of. Decision-making would happen by a diverse group instead of by a homogenous political group or party.
Research within cognitive science has sought to model the relationship between wisdom of the crowd effects and individual cognition. In the context of wisdom of the crowd, the term "crowd" takes on a broad meaning. One definition characterizes a crowd as a group of people amassed by an open call for participation. While crowds are leveraged in online applications, they can be utilized in offline contexts. In some cases, members of a crowd may be offered monetary incentives for participation. Certain applications of "wisdom of the crowd", such as jury duty in the United States, mandate crowd participation. Aristotle is credited as the first person to write about the "wisdom of the crowd" in his work titled Politics. According to Aristotle, "it is possible that the many, though not individually good men, yet when they come together may be better, not individually but collectively, than those who are so, just as public dinners to which many contribute are better than those supplied at one man's cost".
The classic wisdom-of-the-crowds finding involves point estimation of a continuous quantity. At a 1906 country fair in Plymouth, 800 people participated in a contest to estimate the weight of a slaughtered and dressed ox. Statistician Francis Galton observed that the median guess, 1207 pounds, was accurate within 1% of the true weight of 1198 pounds; this has contributed to the insight in cognitive science that a crowd's individual judgments can be modeled as a probability distribution of responses with the median centered near the true value of the quantity to be estimated. In recent years, the "wisdom of the crowd" phenomenon has been leveraged in business strategy and advertising spaces. Firms such as Napkin Labs aggregate consumer feedback and brand impressions for clients. Meanwhile, companies such as Trada invoke crowds to design advertisements based on clients' requirements. Non-human examples are prevalent. For example, the Golden Shiner is a fish; the single Shiner has a difficult time finding shady regions in a body of water whereas a large group is much more efficient at finding the shade.
Wisdom-of-the-crowds research attributes the superiority of crowd averages over individual judgments to the elimination of individual noise, an explanation that assumes independence of the individual judgments from each other. Thus the crowd tends to make its best decisions if it is made up of diverse ideologies. Averaging can eliminate random errors that affect each person's answer in a different way, but not systematic errors that affect the opinions of the entire crowd in the same away. So for instance, a wisdom-of-the-crowd technique would not be expected to compensate for cognitive biases. Scott E. Page introduced the diversity prediction theorem: "The squared error of the collective prediction equals the average squared error minus the predictive diversity". Therefore, when the diversity in a group is large, the error of the crowd is small. Miller and Stevyers reduced the independence of individual responses in a wisdom-of-the-crowds experiment by allowing limited communication between participants.
Participants were asked to answer ordering questions for general knowledge questions such as the order of U. S. presidents. For half of the questions, each participant started with the ordering submitted by another participant, for the other half, they started with a random ordering, in both cases were asked to rearrange them to the correct order. Answers where participants started with another participant's ranking were on average more accurate than those from the random starting condition. Miller and Steyvers conclude that different item-level knowledge among participants is responsible for this phenomenon, that participants integrated and augmented previous participants' knowledge with their own knowledge. Crowds tend to work best when there is a correct answer to the question being posed, such as a question about geography or mathematics; when there is not a precise answer crowds can come to arbitrary conclusions. The wisdom of the crowd effect is undermined. Social influence can cause the average of the crowd answers to be wildly inaccurate, while the geometric mean and the median are far more robust.
Experiments run by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology found that when a group of people were asked to answer a question together they would attempt to come to a consensus which would cause the accuracy of the answer to decrease. I.e. what is the length of a border between two countries? One suggestion to counter this effect is to ensure that the group contains a population with diverse backgrounds. The
Public opinion on global warming
Public opinion on global warming is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning the science and politics of global warming. It is affected by media coverage of climate change. A 2007–2008 Gallup Poll surveyed individuals in 128 countries; this poll queried. Those who had a basic concept of global warming didn’t connect it to human activities, revealing that a knowledge of global warming and the knowledge that it’s human-induced are two separate things. Over a third of the world's population were unaware of global warming. Developing countries have less awareness than developed, Africa the least aware. Of those aware, residents of Latin America and developed countries in Asia led the belief that climate change is a result of human activities while Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, a few countries from the former Soviet Union led in the opposite. Opinion within the United Kingdom was divided; the first major worldwide poll, conducted by Gallup in 2008–2009 in 127 countries, found that some 62% of people worldwide said they knew about global warming.
In the industrialized countries of North America and Japan, 90% or more knew about it. Among those who knew about global warming, there was a wide variation between nations in belief that the warming was a result of human activities. Adults in Asia, with the exception of those in developed countries, are the least to perceive global warming as a threat. In the western world, individuals are the most to be aware and perceive it as a or somewhat serious threat to themselves and their families. However, the public in Africa, where individuals are the most vulnerable to global warming while producing the least carbon dioxide, is the least aware – which translates into a low perception that it is a threat; these variations pose a challenge to policymakers, as different countries travel down different paths, making an agreement over an appropriate response difficult. While Africa may be the most vulnerable and produce the least amount of greenhouse gases, they are the most ambivalent; the top five emitters, who together emit half the world's greenhouse gases, vary in both awareness and concern.
The United States and Japan are the most aware at over 85% of the population. Conversely, only two-thirds of people in China and one-third in India are aware. Japan expresses the greatest concern. People in China and the United States, while varying in awareness, have expressed a similar proportion of aware individuals concerned; those aware in India are to be concerned, but India faces challenges spreading this concern to the remaining population as its energy needs increase over the next decade. An online survey on environmental questions conducted in 20 countries by Ipsos MORI, "Global Trends 2014", shows broad agreement on climate change and if it is caused by humans, though the U. S. ranked lowest with 54% agreement. It has been suggested that the low U. S. ranking is tied to denial campaigns. A 2010 survey of 14 industrialized countries found that skepticism about the danger of global warming was highest in Australia, New Zealand and the United States, in that order, correlating positively with per capita emissions of carbon dioxide.
In 2009 Yale University conducted a study identifying global warming's "Six Americas". The report identifies six audiences with different opinions about global warning: The alarmed, the concerned, the cautious, the disengaged, the doubtful and the dismissive; the alarmed and concerned make out the largest percentage and think something should be done about global warming. The cautious and doubtful are less to take action; the dismissive are convinced. These audiences can be used to define the best approaches for environmental action; the theory of the'Six Americas' is used for marketing purposes. Opinions in the United States vary intensely enough to be considered a culture war. In a January 2013 survey, Pew found that 69% of Americans say there is solid evidence that the Earth's average temperature has gotten warmer over the past few decades, up six points since November 2011 and 12 points since 2009. A Gallup poll in 2014 concluded that 51 percent of Americans were a little or not at all worried about climate change, 24 percent a great deal and 25 percent a fair amount.
In 2015, 32 percent or Americans were worried about global warming as a great deal, 37 percent in 2016, 45 percent in 2017. A poll taken in 2016 shows that 52% of Americans believe climate change to be caused by human activity, while 34% state it is caused by natural changes. Data is showing that 62 percent of Americans believe that the effects of global warming are happening now in 2017. In 2016 GALLUP found that 64% of Americans are worried about global warming, 59% believed that global warming is happening and 65% is convinced that global warming is caused by human activities; these numbers show that awareness of global warming is increasing in the United StatesIn 2019 GALLUP found that one-third of Americans blame unusual winter temperatures on climate change. In countries varying in awareness, an educational gap translates into a gap in awareness; however an increase in awareness does not always result in an increase in perceived threat. In China, 98% of those who have completed four years
Multisensory integration known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, touch, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences. Indeed, multisensory integration is central to adaptive behavior because it allows us to perceive a world of coherent perceptual entities. Multisensory integration deals with how different sensory modalities interact with one another and alter each other's processing. Multimodal perception is a scientific term that describes how animals form coherent and robust perception by processing sensory stimuli from various modalities. Surrounded by multiple objects and receiving multiple sensory stimulations, the brain is faced with the decision of how to categorize the stimuli resulting from different objects or events in the physical world; the nervous system is thus responsible for whether to integrate or segregate certain groups of temporally coincident sensory signals based on the degree of spatial and structural congruence of those stimulations.
Multimodal perception has been studied in cognitive science, behavioral science, neuroscience. There are four attributes of stimulus: modality, intensity and duration; the neocortex in the mammalian brain has parcellations that process sensory input from one modality. For example, primary visual area, V1, or primary somatosensory area, S1; these areas deal with low-level stimulus features such as brightness, intensity, etc. These areas have extensive connections to each other as well as to higher association areas that further process the stimuli and are believed to integrate sensory input from various modalities; however multisensory effects have been shown to occur in primary sensory areas as well. The relationship between the binding problem and multisensory perception can be thought of as a question – the binding problem, potential solution – multisensory perception; the binding problem stemmed from unanswered questions about how mammals generate a unified, coherent perception of their surroundings from the cacophony of electromagnetic waves, chemical interactions, pressure fluctuations that forms the physical basis of the world around us.
It was investigated in the visual domain in the auditory domain, in the multisensory areas. It can be said therefore. However, considerations of how unified conscious representations are formed are not the full focus of multisensory Integration research, it is important for the senses to interact in order to maximize how efficiently people interact with the environment. For perceptual experience and behavior to benefit from the simultaneous stimulation of multiple sensory modalities, integration of the information from these modalities is necessary; some of the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon and its subsequent effects on cognitive and behavioural processes will be examined hereafter. Perception is defined as one's conscious experience, thereby combines inputs from all relevant senses and prior knowledge. Perception is defined and studied in terms of feature extraction, several hundred milliseconds away from conscious experience. Notwithstanding the existence of Gestalt psychology schools that advocate a holistic approach to the operation of the brain, the physiological processes underlying the formation of percepts and conscious experience have been vastly understudied.
Burgeoning neuroscience research continues to enrich our understanding of the many details of the brain, including neural structures implicated in multisensory integration such as the superior colliculus and various cortical structures such as the superior temporal gyrus and visual and auditory association areas. Although the structure and function of the SC are well known, the cortex and the relationship between its constituent parts are presently the subject of much investigation. Concurrently, the recent impetus on integration has enabled investigation into perceptual phenomena such as the ventriloquism effect, rapid localization of stimuli and the McGurk effect. Studies of sensory processing in humans and other animals has traditionally been performed one sense at a time, to the present day, numerous academic societies and journals are restricted to considering sensory modalities separately. However, there is a long and parallel history of multisensory research. An example is the Stratton's experiments on the somatosensory effects of wearing vision-distorting prism glasses.
Multisensory interactions or crossmodal effects in which the perception of a stimulus is influenced by the presence of another type of stimulus are referred since early in the past. They were reviewed by Hartmann in a fundamental book where, among several references to different types of multisensory interactions, reference is made to the work of Urbantschitsch in 1888 who reported on the improvement of visual acuity by auditive stimuli in subjects with damaged brain; this effect was found latter in normals by Krakov and Hartmann, as well as the fact that the visual acuity could be improved by other type of stimuli. It is noteworthy the amount of work in the early thirties on intersensory relations in Soviet Union, reviewed by London. A remarkable multisensory research is the extensive work of Gonzalo in the forties on the characterization of a multisensory sy
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century by social scientists. Scholars of jurisprudence known as jurists or legal theorists, hope to obtain a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, the role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law, the law of nations. General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered. Contemporary philosophy of law, which deals with general jurisprudence, addresses problems internal to law and legal systems and problems of law as a social institution that relates to the larger political and social context in which it exists; this article addresses three distinct branches of thought in general jurisprudence.
Ancient natural law is the idea that there are rational objective limits to the power of legislative rulers. The foundations of law are accessible through reason, it is from these laws of nature that human laws gain whatever force they have. Analytic jurisprudence rejects natural law's fusing of what it ought to be, it espouses the use of a neutral point of view and descriptive language when referring to aspects of legal systems. It encompasses such theories of jurisprudence as "legal positivism", which holds that there is no necessary connection between law and morality and that the force of law comes from basic social facts. Normative jurisprudence is concerned with "evaluative" theories of law, it deals with what the goal or purpose of law is, or what moral or political theories provide a foundation for the law. It not only addresses the question "What is law?", but tries to determine what the proper function of law should be, or what sorts of acts should be subject to legal sanctions, what sorts of punishment should be permitted.
The English word is derived from the Latin maxim jurisprudentia. Juris is the genitive form of jus meaning law, prudentia means prudence (also: discretion, forethought, circumspection, it refers to the exercise of good judgment, common sense, caution in the conduct of practical matters. The word first appeared in written English in 1628, at a time when the word prudence meant knowledge of, or skill in, a matter, it may have entered English via the French jurisprudence. Ancient Indian jurisprudence is mentioned in various Dharmaśāstra texts, starting with the Dharmasutra of Bhodhayana. Jurisprudence in Ancient Rome had its origins with the —experts in the jus mos maiorum, a body of oral laws and customs. Praetors established a working body of laws by judging whether or not singular cases were capable of being prosecuted either by the edicta, the annual pronunciation of prosecutable offense, or in extraordinary situations, additions made to the edicta. An iudex would prescribe a remedy according to the facts of the case.
The sentences of the iudex were supposed to be simple interpretations of the traditional customs, but—apart from considering what traditional customs applied in each case—soon developed a more equitable interpretation, coherently adapting the law to newer social exigencies. The law was adjusted with evolving institutiones, while remaining in the traditional mode. Praetors were replaced in the 3rd century BC by a laical body of prudentes. Admission to this body was conditional upon proof of experience. Under the Roman Empire, schools of law were created, practice of the law became more academic. From the early Roman Empire to the 3rd century, a relevant body of literature was produced by groups of scholars, including the Proculians and Sabinians; the scientific nature of the studies was unprecedented in ancient times. After the 3rd century, juris prudentia became a more bureaucratic activity, with few notable authors, it was during the Eastern Roman Empire that legal studies were once again undertaken in depth, it is from this cultural movement that Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis was born.
In its general sense, natural law theory may be compared to both state-of-nature law and general law understood on the basis of being analogous to the laws of physical science. Natural law is contrasted to positive law which asserts law as the product of human activity and human volition. Another approach to natural-law jurisprudence asserts that human law must be in response to compelling reasons for action. There are two readings of the natural-law jurisprudential stance; the strong natural law thesis holds that if a human law fails to be in response to compelling reasons it is not properly a "law" at all. This is captured, imperfectly, in the famous maxim: lex iniusta non est lex; the weak natural law thesis holds that if a human law fails to be in response to compelling reasons it can still be called a "law", but it must be recognised as a defective law. Notions of an objective moral order, external to human legal systems, underlie natural law. What is right or wrong can vary according to the interests one is focused on.
John Finnis, one of the most important of modern natural lawyers, has argued that the maxim "an unjust law is no law at all" is a poor guide to the classical Thomist position. Related to theories of natural law are classical theories of justice, beginning in the West with P
A legal case is a dispute between opposing parties resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process. A legal case may be either criminal law. In each legal case there is one or more defendants. A civil case, more known as a lawsuit or controversy, begins when a plaintiff files a document called a complaint with a court, informing the court of the wrong that the plaintiff has suffered because of the defendant, requesting a remedy; the remedy sought may be money, an injunction, which requires the defendant to perform or refrain from performing some action, or a declaratory judgment, which determines that the plaintiff has certain legal rights. The remedy will be prescribed by the court. A civil case can be arbitrated through arbitration, which may result in a faster settlement, with lower costs, than could be obtained by going through a trial; the plaintiff must make a genuine effort to inform the defendant of the case through service of process, by which the plaintiff delivers to the defendant the same documents that the plaintiff filed with the court.
At any point during the case, the parties can agree to a settlement, which will end the case, although in some circumstances, such as in class actions, a settlement requires court approval in order to be binding. Cases involving separation including asset division and matters related to children are handled differently in different jurisdictions; the court's procedure for dealing with family cases is similar to that of a civil case. Divorce and separation from a spouse is one of the most stressful situations, as rated by the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, so family proceedings are being "divorced" from the very formal and impersonal process of civil proceedings, given special treatment. A criminal case, in common law jurisdictions, begins when a person suspected of a crime is indicted by a grand jury or otherwise charged with the offense by a government official called a prosecutor or district attorney. A criminal case may in some jurisdictions be settled before a trial through a plea bargain.
In a plea bargain, the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge than that, brought by the grand jury or prosecutor. A defendant who goes to trial risks greater penalties than would be imposed through a plea bargain. Legal cases, whether criminal or civil, are premised on the idea that a dispute will be resolved when a legal procedure exists by which the dispute can be brought to a factfinder not otherwise involved in the case, who can evaluate evidence to determine the truth with respect to claims of guilt, liability, or lack of fault. Details of the procedure may depend on both the kind of case and the kind of system in which the case is brought - whether, for example, it is an inquisitorial system or a solo In most systems, the governing body responsible for overseeing the courts assigns a unique number/letter combination or similar designation to each case in order to track the various disputes that are or have been before it; the outcome of the case is recorded, can be reviewed by obtaining a copy of the documents associated with the designation assigned to the case.
However, it is more convenient to refer to cases – landmark and other notable cases – by a title of the form Claimant v Defendant. Where a legal proceeding does not have formally designated adverse parties, a form such as In re, Re or In the matter of is used; the "v" separating the parties is an abbreviation of the Latin versus, when spoken in Commonwealth countries, it is rendered as "and" or "against". Where it is considered necessary to protect the anonymity of a natural person, some cases may have one or both parties replaced by a standard pseudonym or by an initial. In titles such as R v Adams, the initial "R" is an abbreviation for the Latin Rex or Regina, i.e. for the Crown. Case law Early case assessment Lists of case law
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Electronic Frontier Foundation
The Electronic Frontier Foundation is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California. The foundation was formed in July 1990 by John Gilmore, John Perry Barlow and Mitch Kapor to promote Internet civil liberties. EFF provides funds for legal defense in court, presents amicus curiae briefs, defends individuals and new technologies from what it considers abusive legal threats, works to expose government malfeasance, provides guidance to the government and courts, organizes political action and mass mailings, supports some new technologies which it believes preserve personal freedoms and online civil liberties, maintains a database and web sites of related news and information and challenges potential legislation that it believes would infringe on personal liberties and fair use and solicits a list of what it considers abusive patents with intentions to defeat those that it considers without merit. EFF provides tips, how-tos and software for safer online communications.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation was formed in July 1990 by John Gilmore, John Perry Barlow and Mitch Kapor in response to a series of actions by law enforcement agencies that led them to conclude that the authorities were gravely uninformed about emerging forms of online communication, that there was a need for increased protection for Internet civil liberties. In April 1990, Barlow had been visited by a U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation agent in relation to the theft and distribution of the source code for a series of Macintosh ROMs. Barlow described the visit as "complicated by complete unfamiliarity with computer technology. I realized right away that before I could demonstrate my innocence, I would first have to explain to him what guilt might be." Barlow felt that his experience was symptomatic of a "great paroxysm of governmental confusion during which everyone's liberties would become at risk". Barlow posted an account of this experience to The WELL online community and was contacted by Mitch Kapor, who had had a similar experience.
The pair agreed. Kapor agreed to fund any legal fees associated with such a defense and the pair contacted New York lawyers Rabinowitz, Standard and Lieberman about defending several computer hackers from a Harper's magazine forum on computers and freedom, the target of Secret Service raids; this generated a large amount of publicity which led to offers of financial support from John Gilmore and Steve Wozniak. Barlow and Kapor continued to research conflicts between the government and technology and in June 1990, Barlow posted online the influential article entitled "Crime & Puzzlement" in which Barlow announced his and Kapor's plans to create an organization to "raise and disburse funds for education and litigation in the areas relating to digital speech and the extension of the Constitution into Cyberspace."This generated further reaction and support for the ideas of Barlow and Kapor. In late June, Barlow held a series of dinners in San Francisco with major figures in the computer industry to develop a coherent response to these perceived threats.
Barlow considered that: "The actions of the FBI and Secret Service were symptoms of a growing social crisis: Future Shock. America was entering the Information Age with neither laws nor metaphors for the appropriate protection and conveyance of information itself." Barlow felt. The Electronic Frontier Foundation was formally founded on July 10, 1990, by Kapor and Barlow, who soon after elected Gilmore and Stewart Brand to join them on the Board of Directors. Initial funding was provided by Kapor, an anonymous benefactor. In 1990, Mike Godwin joined the organization as its first staff counsel. In 1991, Esther Dyson and Jerry Berman joined the EFF board of directors. By 1992, Cliff Figallo became the director of the original office, in December 1992, Jerry Berman became the acting executive director of the organization as a whole, based in a new second office; the creation of the organization was motivated by the massive search and seizure on Steve Jackson Games executed by the United States Secret Service early in 1990.
Similar but unconnected law-enforcement raids were being conducted across the United States at about that time as part of a state–federal task force called Operation Sundevil. GURPS Cyberpunk, one of the game company's projects, was mistakenly labeled as a handbook for computer crime, the Secret Service raided the offices of Steve Jackson Games; the search warrant for the raid was deemed hastily issued, the games company soon after claimed unauthorized access as well as tampering of their emails. While phone calls were protected by legislation, digital emails were an early concept and had not been considered to fall under the right to personal privacy; the Steve Jackson Games case was EFF's first high-profile case, was the major rallying point around which EFF began promoting computer- and Internet-related civil liberties. EFF's second big case was Bernstein v. United States led by Cindy Cohn, in which programmer and professor Daniel J. Bernstein sued the government for permission to publish his encryption software, a paper describing it.
More the organization has been involved in defending Edward Felten, Jon Lech Johansen and Dmitry Sklyarov. The organization was located at Mitch Kapor's Kapor Enterprises offices. By the fall of 1993, the main EFF offices were consolidated into a single office, headed by Executive Director Jerry Berman. During this time, som